The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.

Free textbooks written by 100+ leading designers, bestselling authors and Ivy League professors. The textbooks are assembled in a gigantic 4000+ page encyclopedia covering the design of interactive products and services like websites, household objects, smartphones, computer software, aircraft cockpits, you name it.

“I highly recommmend the Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction [...] the breadth and the depth of the invited contributions are quite impressive [...] all with highly qualified authorities as authors.”

Don Norman
Table of Contents


Jonas Lowgren

Jonas Lowgren is an interaction designer, researcher and teacher. Currently employed as professor of interaction design at Malmo University, Sweden. Main areas of expertise include cross-media products, interactive visualization and the design theory of digital materials                                                                                                                                                                                                 

John M. Carroll

John M. Carroll is Edward Frymoyer Chair Professor of Information Sciences and Technology at the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include methods and theory in human-computer interaction, particularly as applied to networking tools for collaborative learning and problem solving, and the design of interactive information systems. His books include Making Use (MIT Press, 2000), HCI in the New Millennium (Addison-Wesley, 2001), Usability Engineering (Morgan-Kaufmann, 2002, with M.B. Rosson) and HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks (Morgan-Kaufmann, 2003), Rationale-based software engineering (Springer, 2008, with J. Burge, R. McCall and I. Mistrik), and Learning in Communities (Springer, 2009). He serves on several editorial boards for journals, handbooks, and series and is Editor-in-Chief of the ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions. He received the Rigo Award and the CHI Lifetime Achievement Award from ACM, the Silver Core Award from IFIP, the Alfred N. Goldsmith Award from IEEE. He is a fellow of the ACM, IEEE, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Marc Hassenzahl

Marc Hassenzahl is Professor at the Folkwang University in Essen and research manager at MediaCity, Šbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland. He is interested in the positive affective and motivational aspects of interactive technologies - in short: User Experience

Thomas Erickson

I'm an interaction designer and researcher in the Social Computing Group at IBM's Watson Labs in New York to which I telecommute from my home in Minneapolis. My research focuses on designing systems that enable groups of people to interact coherently and productively: originally focused on online systems, the scope of my work has expanded to include real world environments ranging from rooms to cities. More generally, I am interested in topics such as genre theory, pattern languages, urban design, real and virtual communities, and the sociology of human-human interaction, all of which inform my approach to systems design. I've been at IBM since June '97; before that I spent 9 years at Apple, and before that 5 years in a now-defunct startup that competed with another startup called Lotus.

Alan Blackwell

I only have one big research question, but I attack it from a lot of different angles. The question is representation. How do people make, see and use things that carry meaning? The angles from which I attack my question include various ways in which representations are applied (including design processes, interacting with technology, computer programming, visualisation), various methods by which I collect research data (including controlled experiments, prototype construction, ethnographic observation), and the theoretical perspectives of various academic disciplines (including computer science, cognitive psychology, engineering, architecture, music, anthropology). If you are based in Cambridge, you may like to attend the following talks on human-computer interaction. This page lists a few large research themes and major projects illustrating them. Smaller projects, including contributions to research communities and research-related teaching, are described on my publications page, and other activities page. Crucible: Research in Interdisciplinary Design Crucible is the Cambridge network for research in interdisciplinary design, which I founded with David Good. The network encompasses very many projects, funding sources and collaborators. Crucible projects include practical design work (as commercial consultants or in academic contexts) that draws on multiple disciplinary perspectives. We also carry out a significant amount of design research - investigating the processes of design work, developing facilitation processes for design activity, informing public policy related to the design of public value from academic research, and creating new and experimental software tools for designers to use. Many of these projects draw on my core expertise in visual representation. Software and Creativity Many contemporary arts practitioners develop software, incorporate it into their work, or use software tools to extend their professional practice. This research theme involves collaboration with a wide range of artists, including many with international profiles, exploring the ways in which they use representations. We have created a wide range of new software tools and programming languages for composers, performers, choreographers, sculptors and others. Many of these projects are linked via the Crucible page. Social Media and Activism Internet technology research is crucially dependent on understanding the social dynamics of the ways in which it is used, and collaboration with social scientists is essential to provide intellectual rigor and new insights. These projects have investigated the design and deployment of new social media, both in the world at large (various professional and political contexts), and within the University itself. In all cases, the representation of social relations around and within technical systems has been critical to understanding and the development of new understanding among all stakeholders. Many of these projects are linked via the Crucible page. Energy Monitoring and Usage Electricity is invisible, so our awareness of environmental impacts arising from energy use is solely dependent on the quality of the visual representations provided of energy use. Ever since contributing to the design of the first generation of semi-smart domestic gas meters in 1991, I have taken an interest in the user interface of home energy controls and monitoring. Several of our projects are concerned with helping people understand and control the patterns of energy usage in their homes. Many of these projects are linked via the Crucible page. PhD Students' Research Michal Kosinski - psychological instruments for the assessment of business value in social networking technologies. Mo Syed - design techniques for incorporating social factors in technology development. Luke Church - social, cognitive, philosophical, artistic and technical perspectives on the manipulation of information. Chris Nash - Supporting Virtuosity and Flow in Computer Music. Cecily Morrison - Bodies-in-Space: investigating technology usage in co-present group interaction (thesis). Now a Research Associate in the Cambridge Engineering Design Centre. Lorisa Dubuc - Design research to assist conversation in dementia. Darren Edge - Tangible user interfaces for peripheral interaction (thesis). Now at Microsoft Research Asia, Beijing. Nick Collins - Autonomous Agents for Live Computer Music (co-supervised with Ian Cross) (thesis). Now a lecturer in Computer Music at the University of Sussex. Martyn Dade-Robertson - the application of architectural design principles to the design of software navigation (co-supervised with Francois Penz and Maureen Thomas). Now a lecturer in Architecture and Communication at Newcastle University Older projects (some sites no longer maintained) AutoHAN: Control Interfaces for Home Automation In Autohan we were trying to solve the basic problems of home control, where a multitude of devices must interact with each other and the residents in a sensible manner. One output was the tangible programming language "Media Cubes". EUSES: End-Users Shaping Effective Software The EUSES Consortium is an NSF-funded collaboration with researchers at Oregon State University, Carnegie Mellon University, Drexel University, Penn State University, and the University of Nebraska whose goal is to develop and investigate technologies for enabling End Users to Shape Effective Software. Vital Signs: New Paradigms for Visual Interaction EPSRC funded project, now complete, investigating notations, abstraction, representation and interaction in a metaphor-free theoretical framework. Cognitive Dimensions of Notations Long-term dissemination and archival of material related to the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations usability framework, including publishing and professional education projects. Dasher Collaboration with the Cavendish Laboratory Inference Group - Dasher is a data entry interface incorporating language modelling and driven by continuous two-dimensional gestures. More general implications are in how we can interact with adaptive "intelligent" interfaces. Webkit: Intuitive Physical Interface to the Web European-funded research project, now complete (and various partners disappeared) designing tangible user interfaces that can be used in classrooms to access the web, control query engines, and stucture discussion. EUDNET: Network of Excellence in End-User Development

Kees Overbeeke

Prof. Dr. Kees Overbeeke (1952-2011) was full professor at Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) for Intelligent Products and System Design in the Department of Industrial Design in May, 2006. Kees Overbeeke studied psychology at the Katholieke Universititeit Leuven (1974). After working there he moved to the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology where he earned his Ph.D (1988) in spatial perception on flat screens. He headed the Form Theory group as an Associate Professor until his move to the Department of Industrial Design of TU/e in 2002. During the academic year 2005-2006 he was invited as the Nierenberg Chair of Design at Carnegie Mellon's School of Design in Pittsburgh. At TU/e he headed the Designing Quality in Interaction group until September 2011. It is with great sadness that we announce the loss of Kees Overbeeke, on October 8th, 2011 at the age of 59.

Caroline Hummels

Prof. dr. ir. Caroline Hummels is full professor of Design Theory at the department of Industrial Design, TU/e, as well as head of the Designing Quality in Interaction group. She studied Industrial Design Engineering at the Delft University of Technology (cum laude) and also obtained her PhD (cum laude) there. Her current activities concentrate on designing for personal, social and societal transformation, with a special focus on health and well-being. She designs for transformation based on the aesthetics of interaction with open, disruptive innovative systems within a societal context. Moreover, she is a designer-researcher with extensive experience in (interaction) design, education and research-trough design. She has developed various (research) prototypes and installations next to design methods, techniques and processes. She is a member of the steering committee of the Tangible Embedded, and Embodied Interaction Conference (TEI) as well as editorial board member of the International Journal of Design. Moreover, she has been a member of a variety of international program committees and national Think Tanks since 2001, and has given a large number of keynote speeches, invited lectures and workshops at conferences, international universities and for industry world wide.

Robert Spence

Bob Spence is Professor Emeritus of Information Engineering at Imperial College London. Bob Spence's research has ranged from engineering design to human-computer interaction,and often with the manner in which the latter can enhance the former. Notable contributions, usually in collaboration with colleagues, include the powerful generalized form of Tellegen's Theorem; algorithms for improving the manufacturing yield of mass-produced circuits; and, in the field of Human-computer Interaction, the invention of the first focus+context technique, the Bifocal Display (aka Fisheye lens). The novel Attribute and Influence Explorers provide examples of novel information visualization tools that have wide application, including engineering design. Interactive computer graphics allows the electronic circuit designer to sketch the familiar circuit diagram on a computer display. This potential was pioneered by Bob and his colleagues in the late 1960s and eventually, in 1985, led to the commercially available MINNIE system developed and marketed by a company of which Bob was chairman and a founding director. More recently, Bob's research has focused on the topic of Rapid Serial Visual Presentation in which a collection of images is presented sequentially and rapidly to a user who may be searching for a particular image. This activity is similar to the riffling of a book's pages.

Mark Apperley

Mark Apperley has been working in the field of HCI for more than 30 years. In the 1970's he worked on the MINNIE interactive CACD system with Bob Spence, pioneering a range of interaction and information visualisation techniques, including dynamic exploration and percent done indicators. Also with Bob Spence he devised the bifocal display (1980) and the Lean Cuisine notation for menu description (1988). He has also carried out research on systems supporting collaborative work, and on techniques for large screen interaction. More recently his attention has focussed on energy management, including visualisation, human interaction, and system modelling. Mark is Professor of Computer Science at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Karen Holtzblatt

Recognized as a leader in the design community, Karen has pioneered transformative ideas and design approaches throughout her career. Karen is the inventor of Contextual Inquiry-the industry standard for gathering field data to understand how technology impacts the way people work. Contextual Inquiry and the design processes based on it provide a revolutionary approach for designing new products and systems based on a deep understanding of the context of use. Contextual Inquiry forms the base of Contextual Design, InContext's full customer-centered design process. Karen co-founded InContext Enterprises in 1992 to use Contextual Design techniques to coach product teams and deliver customer-centered designs to businesses across multiple industries. The books, Contextual Design: Defining Customer Centered Systems, and Rapid Contextual Design, are used by companies and universities all over the world. Karen is a member of the CHI Academy (awarded to significant contributors in the Computer Human Interaction Association) and received the first Life Time Award for Practice at CHI2010 for her contributions to the field. Karen's extensive experience with teams and all types of work and life practice underlies the innovation and reliable quality consistently delivered by InContext's teams. Karen also has more than 20 years of teaching experience, professionally and in university settings. She holds a doctorate in applied psychology from the University of Toronto.

Hugh R. Beyer

Hugh Founder and CTO of InContext. He has more than 20 years of experience building and designing applications, systems, and tools. Before co-founding InContext, Hugh acted as lead developer and architect in a range of systems at Digital Equipment Corp. His domains of experience include object-oriented repositories, databases, and integrated software development environments. Since starting InContext, Hugh has overseen the design of applications from desktop to web to mobile, and from enterprise to small business to consumers in the wide variety of industries supported by InContext. He holds a B.S. degree in Applied Mathematics from Harvard.

Jesper Kjeldskov
Associate Professor, PhD

Jesper Kjeldskov is Associate Professor in Human-Computer Interaction at Aalborg University's Department of Computer Science. Jesper's research interests are Interaction Design and User Experience with particular focus on mobile and ubiquitous technologies in non-work settings. Jesper has a cross-disciplinary background spanning the humanities, social sciences and computer science. He has published more than 120 peer-reviewed papers within the area of Human-Computer Interaction including more than 20 articles in international journals. In 2008-09 Jesper was the research leader of a User Experience Research group in Sydney, Australia leading a multi-million dollar research project on Blended Interaction Spaces. Since 2009 he has revisited his interests in mobile HCI but also extended his work on domestic computing with new projects within sustainability, digital media, mediated relationships and interior architecture.

Margaret M. Burnett

Margaret Burnett is a Professor of Computer Science at the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Oregon State University. Her current research focuses on end-user programming, end-user software engineering, information foraging theory as applied to programming, and gender issues in those contexts. She has a long history of research in these issues and others relating to human issues of programming. She is also the principal architect of the Forms/3 and the FAR visual programming languages and, together with Gregg Rothermel, of the WYSIWYT testing methodology for end-user programmers. She was the founding project director of the EUSES Consortium, a multi-institution collaboration among Oregon State University and Carnegie Mellon, Drexel University, Pennsylvania State, University of Nebraska, University of Washington, University of Cambridge (U.K.), and IBM to help End Users Shape Effective Software.

Christopher Scaffidi

Christopher Scaffidi is currently an Assistant Professor of Computer Science in the School of EECS at Oregon State University. His research interests are where human-computer interaction and software engineering intersect. Most of his current projects aim to help software users to create code for themselves, and to effectively share that code with one another. He is presently serving as Director of the EUSES Consortium, an international association of seven universities and one company. He was Co-chair for the Poster/Work-in-progress track at the 2009 International Symposium on End-User Development and is on the program committee for the 2010 ACM SIGCHI Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems. He is a member of the ACM and IEEE.

Dag Svanaes

Dag Svanaes is a professor at the Department of Computer and Information Science at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Svanaes is also adjunct professor at the IT-University of Copenhagen, Denmark He has been teaching and doing research in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) since the late 1980s. His main areas of interest are mobile and ubiquitous computing, usability evaluation methodology, user-centered design, and the philosophy of interaction. He is currently involved in a national research initiative on medical informatics (NSEP), and have built up a usability lab for health ICT at NSEP.

Kristina Hook

Kristina Hook is a professor in Interaction Design at Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden. She started and now works in the Mobile Life centre. She also upholds a part-time position at SICS (Swedish Institute of Computer Science).

Alistair G. Sutcliffe

Alistair Sutcliffe (MA Cantab-Natural Sciences, PhD Wales) is Professor of Systems Engineering, and Director of the Centre for HCI Design, in the School of Informatics, University of Manchester, UK. Originally at ethologist, he has worked in the IT and finance industry, the civil service and City and Manchester Universities. His research spans software engineering, human computer interaction, cognitive and social science, with recent interests in scenario based design, methods for requirements engineering, analysis and modelling complex socio technical systems, visualisation and creative design . He is a leading authority on human factors in safety critical systems, requirements engineering and multimedia user interface design, has authored 6 books and 200+ publications on human computer interaction, requirements engineering, software and domain knowledge reuse. His recent books include: Multimedia and virtual reality: Designing multisensory user interfaces. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2003) User-Centred Requirements Engineering. Springer, (2002) and The Domain Theory: Patterns for knowledge and software reuse, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2002). He currently manages EPSRC projects ADVISES (E-science requirements analysis and visualisation) and ESRC/EPSRC Foresight project Developing Theory for Evolving Socio Technical Systems and was recently PI of EPSRC projects SIMP- Systems Integration for Major Projects, ISRE Immersive scenario based Requirements Engineering and CORK Corporate Knowledge Repository. He serves on the editorial boards of several journals in the software engineering and human computer interaction. He founded IFIP TC-13 Working Group 13.2 Methodology for User Centred Design, is editor of the ISO standard 14915, on Multimedia user interface design, co-chaired the ACM conference Designing Interactive Systems 2002 and is co-chair of IEEE Requirements Engineering conference in 2007. He was awarded the IFIP silver core in 1999, is a reviewer for EPSRC college, INRIA cognitive engineering projects 2002 & 2006, NSF Science of Design program and made recent plenary keynote presentations at IHM03, HCI05, and CAiSE06 conferences

Albrecht Schmidt

I am a professor at the University of Stuttgart. My central research interests are novel user interfaces and innovative applications enabled by ubiquitous computing. Before moving to Stuttgart I was a professor at the Univeristy of Duisburg-Essen, had a joined position between the Fraunhofer Institute for Intelligent Analysis and Information Systems (IAIS) and the University of Bonn. I studied computer science in Ulm and Manchester and afterwards worked as a researcher at the University of Karlsruhe and at Lancaster University. There I completed in 2003 my PhD thesis on the topic of "Ubiquitous Computing - Computing in Context". Before I became professor at the B-IT-Center I headed the DFG-funded "Embedded Interaction Research Group" at the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich. My teaching and research interests are in media informatics and in particular in the areas of user interface engineering, pervasive computing and mobile interactive systems.

Gilbert Cockton

I'm Professor of Design Theory in the School of Design at Northumbria University, which has roots back to 1844 as one of the original British Government Schools of Design. I'm an Interaction Designer who occasionally dabbles in product and service design. I have a multi-disciplinary background in humanities (History), applied human sciences (Education), and engineering design (Computer Science, old school HCI). In 2005 I was awarded a UK NESTA fellowship to work on value-centred approaches to design. As a first result, I moved beyond value (to worth) and beyond centredness (to multiple design foci). As a second result, my research has developed a more general design focus, and I moved from Computing (Sunderland) to Design (Northumbria) in September 2009. I now work alongside very talented design educators and researchers with a broad range of craft skills and design philosophies. I increasingly find the user-centred positions of 1980s HCI naive and uninformed. When I'm not supporting an amazing group of colleagues in my role as Associate Dean for Research and Innovation, my research focuses on balanced, integrated and generous (BIG!) fusions of the main design paradigms (Applied Arts, Engineering, User-Centred). Examples of such fusions include leveraging crafted forms within user research, focusing evaluation practices on achieved worth, combining engineering specification with humane design purposes, and blending tacit creative and explicit systematic design work. I have developed the Working to Choose (W2C) framework to provide an overarching structure for co-ordinating research on re-usable resources in design practice.

Victor Kaptelinin

Victor Kaptelinin is a Professor at the Department of Information Science and Media Studies, University of Bergen, Norway, and the Department of Informatics, Umeaa University, Sweden. He has held teaching and/or research positions at the Psychological Institute of Russian Academy of Education, Moscow Lomonosov University, and University of California in San Diego, USA. His main research interests are in interaction design, activity theory, and educational use of information technologies.

Clayton M. Christensen

Clayton M. Christensen is professor at Harvard Business School and a New York Times bestseller. He is the architect of, and the world's foremost authority on, disruptive innovation. Consistently acknowledged in rankings and surveys as one of the world's leading thinkers on innovation, his research has been applied to national economies, start-up and Fortune 50 companies, as well as to early and late stage investing. His seminal book The Innovator's Dilemma (1997), which first outlined his disruptive innovation frameworks, received the Global Business Book Award for the Best Business Book of the Year in 1997, was a New York Times bestseller, has been translated into over 10 languages, and is sold in over 25 countries. He is also a four-time recipient of the McKinsey Award for the Harvard Business Reviews's best article and received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Tribeca Film Festival in 2010. Christensen has recently focused his innovation lens on two of our most vexing social issues, education and health care. Disrupting Class which looks at the root causes of why schools struggle and offers solutions was named one of the "10 Best Innovation and Design Books in 2008” by BusinessWeek and the best Human Capital book of the year in the Strategy + Business Best Books of 2008. The Innovator's Prescription (2009) examines how to fix the problems facing healthcare. So as to further examine and apply his frameworks to the social sector, Christensen founded Innosight Institute, a non-profit think tank, in 2008. An advisor to numerous countries and companies, including the government of Singapore, he is currently a board member at India's Tata Consultancy Services (NYSE: TCS), Franklin Covey (NYSE: FC), W.R. Hambrecht, and Vanu. Christensen also applies his frameworks via management consultancy Innosight which he co-founded in 2000, and Rose Park Advisors, an investment firm he founded in 2007. Christensen was born in Salt Lake City, Utah in 1952. He graduated with highest honors in economics from Brigham Young University in 1975. Later, he received an M.Phil. in applied econometrics and the economics of less-developed countries from Oxford University in 1977, where he studied as a Rhodes Scholar. He received an MBA with High Distinction from the Harvard Business School in 1979, graduating as a George F. Baker Scholar. In 1982-1983 he was a White House fellow, serving as an assistant to U.S. Transportation Secretaries Drew Lewis and Elizabeth Dole. In 1992, he was awarded a DBA from the Harvard Business School, receiving the Best Dissertation Award from the Institute of Management Sciences for his doctoral thesis on technology development in the disk drive industry. He is currently the Robert and Jane Cizik Professor of Business Administration at the Harvard Business School. Professor Christensen is committed to both community and church. In addition to his stint as a White House Fellow, he was an elected member of the Belmont Town Council for 8 years, and has served the Boy Scouts of America for 25 years as a scoutmaster, cub master, den leader and troop and pack committee chairman. He also worked as a missionary for the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Republic of Korea from 1971 to 1973, speaks fluent Korean, and is currently a leader in his church. He and his wife Christine live in Belmont, MA. They are the parents of five children, and have three grandchildren.

Eric von Hippel

I am a Professor of Technological Innovation in the MIT Sloan School of Management, and am also a Professor in MIT's Engineering Systems Division. I specialize in research related to the nature and economics of distributed and open innovation. I also develop and teach about practical methods that individuals, open user communities, and firms can apply to improve their product and service development processes.

Noam Tractinsky

I am an Associate Professor at the Department of Information Systems Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel. My main research interests revolve around the use of information technology. I have been involved in studies on IT project managers, online consumer behavior, the potential distraction of mobile technology, and aiding Alzheimer's patients. Currently I study various aspects of the interactive experience with an emphasis on aesthetics.

Ben Challis

Ben Challis is a composer, performer and technologist. With research interests that embrace the notion of design-for-all within music-performance, he has worked on various projects that explore alternative modes of interaction with sound and music for people with specific individual needs. As a performer, he works with these same technologies, exploring their creative and expressive potential within free-improvisation. As composer he has composed scores for film and theatre productions. He is a Senior Lecturer and Joint Award Leader in Popular Music at the University of Glamorgan, ATRiuM.

Richard Shusterman

Richard Shusterman is an American pragmatist philosopher, currently the Dorothy F. Schmidt Eminent Scholar in the Humanities and Professor of Philosophy at Florida Atlantic University, where he directs the Center for Body, Mind, and Culture. He is internationally known for his contributions to philosophical aesthetics and pragmatism.

William Hudson
CEO, Syntagm LTD

William Hudson is a User Experience Strategist who consults, writes and teaches in the fields of user-centred design, user experience and usability. He has over 40 years experience in the development of interactive systems, initially with a background in software engineering. William was the product and user interface designer for the Emmy-award-winning "boujou"; now an indispensible tool in many film studios. He has specialized in interaction design and human-computer interaction since the late 1980's. William has written and taught courses which have been presented to hundreds of software and web developers, designers and managers in the UK, North America and Europe. He has developed and presented courses for the Nielsen Norman Group. William is the founder and principal consultant of Syntagm, a consultancy specializing in the design of interactive systems established in 1985.

Steve Mann

Steven Mann is a tenured professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Toronto. Mann holds degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (PhD in Media Arts and Sciences '97) and McMaster University, where he was also inducted into the McMaster University Alumni Hall of Fame, Alumni Gallery, 2004, in recognition of his career as an inventor and teacher. While at MIT he was one of the founding members of the Wearable Computers group in the Media Lab. In 2004 he was named the recipient of the 2004 Leonardo Award for Excellence for his article "Existential Technology," published in Leonardo 36:1.

Brian Whitworth

Born in England and brought up in New Zealand, Brian Whitworth currently works at Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand. After doing a mathematics degree, and a Master's thesis on split-brain neuropsychology, Brian joined the New Zealand Army, where he was the first specialist to complete regular army officer cadet training. He worked as an army psychologist, and then in computer operational simulations (wargames), while simultaneously raising four wonderful children, until he retired in 1989 as a Major. Brian then completed his doctorate on online groups, and students at his university used the social voting system he built until the World Wide Web arrived. In 1999, he worked in the USA as a professor, and published in journals like Small Group Research, Group Decision and Negotiation, Communications of the AIS, IEEE Computer, Behavior and Information Technology, and Communications of the ACM. More recently, he was the senior editor of the Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems, written by over a hundred leading experts worldwide. His interests include computing, psychology, quantum theory and motor-cycle riding.

Adnan Ahmad

Adnan Ahmad was born in Lahore, Pakistan. He received his Bachelor of Science (Hons.) from Govt. College University (GCU, 2005), with a major in software engineering, and a Masters of Science from Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS, 2009), with a major in distributed systems. He worked for five years in industry, getting hands on experience with cutting edge software and hardware technologies. His PhD in Information Technology at Massey University, New Zealand, was on a formal model of distributed rights allocation in online social interaction. He has published in well-known conferences like Worldcomp, IFIP SEC, IAS, IAIT and Trustcom. His current research applies socio-technical design principles to computer security, and his other interests include crowd sourcing, distributed systems, spam and image processing.

Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza

Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza is Full Professor of Computer Science at the Departamento de Informática, PUC-Rio, where she has also served as the director of Graduate Studies Program for two terms (2003-2005 and 2007-2009). In 2010, Clarisse was a co-winner of the prestigious ACM SIGDOC Rigo Award (see pictures and more in SERG Website). In 1996 she founded SERG (the Semiotic Engineering Research Group). Among the 15 M.Sc. and 19 Ph.D. students that she has (co-)supervised, more than a half are faculty in various Brazilian universities, and nearly one third work in the industry. In 2005 she published her first book, The Semiotic Engineering of Human-Computer Interaction (The MIT Press). Her second book, Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientific Research in HCI, co-authored by Carla Leitão, was published in 2009, in Morgan & Claypool's Synthesis Lectures Series.

Paul A. Fishwick

Paul Fishwick is Distinguished University Chair of Arts and Technology (ATEC), and Professor of Computer Science. He has six years of industry experience as a systems analyst working at Newport News Shipbuilding and at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia. He was on the faculty at the University of Florida from 1986 to 2012, and was Director of the Digital Arts and Sciences Programs. His PhD was in Computer and Information Science from the University of Pennsylvania. Fishwick is active in modeling and simulation, as well as in the bridge areas spanning art, science, and engineering. He pioneered the area of aesthetic computing, resulting in an MIT Press edited volume in 2006. He is a Fellow of the Society for Computer Simulation, served as General Chair of the Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), was a WSC Titan Speaker in 2009, and has delivered over 16 keynote addresses at international conferences. He is Chair of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group in Simulation (SIGSIM). Fishwick has over 230 technical papers and has served on all major archival journal editorial boards related to simulation, including ACM Transactions on Modeling and Simulation (TOMACS) where he was a founding area editor of modeling methodology in 1990. He is on the editorial board of ACM Computing Surveys.

Jonathan Grudin

I work in the Adaptive Systems and Interaction Group at Microsoft Research, part of the Microsoft Corporation. My research is in human-computer interaction and computer supported cooperative work, with a particular focus on the design, adoption and use of group support technologies. Some of the work below was done in the Collaborative and Multimedia Systems Group. Prior to joining Microsoft Research, I was Professor of Information and Computer Science at University of California, Irvine. I have taught at Aarhus University, Keio University, and the University of Oslo, and worked at the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Wang Laboratories, and MCC since earning my Ph.D. at UC San Diego.

Steven Poltrock

I retired from The Boeing Company in 2009 where I was a Technical Fellow in the Research & Technology division. My research was in computer support for cooperative work, focusing on industrial applications of collaboration technology, including support for teamwork, workflow management, and knowledge management. My educational background includes degrees in engineering, mathematics, and psychology, and my career has combined my interests in all three areas. After completing a Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Washington I was a professor of psychology at the University of Denver and worked at Bell Laboratories and MCC before joining Boeing Research & Technology.

Shaun Gallagher

Shaun Gallagher is the Lillian and Morrie Moss Professor of Excellence in Philosophy at the University of Memphis. He has a secondary appointment at the University of Hertfordshire (UK) and is Honorary Professor of Philosophy at the University of Copenhagen (Denmark). He's held visiting positions at the Cognition and Brain Science MRC Unit at the University of Cambridge, the Ecole Normale Supériure in Lyon, and the Centre de Recherche en Epistémologie Appliquée (CREA), Paris, and he is currently Visiting Fellow at the Kolleg-Forschergruppe Bildakt und Verkorperung at Humboldt University, Berlin. He holds the Humboldt Foundation Anneliese Maier Research Fellowship (2012-17) and is PI on grants to conduct research on intersubjectivity and institutions (Marie Curie Foundation) and the aesthetic and spiritual experiences of astronauts during space travel (Templeton Foundation). His publications include How the Body Shapes the Mind (Oxford, 2005); The Phenomenological Mind (with Dan Zahavi, Routledge, 2008), and as editor, the Oxford Handbook of the Self (Oxford, 2011). He's editor-in-chief of the journal Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences.

Alan J. Dix

I am a computing professor at Lancaster University and researcher at Talis Ltd. and work on most things that connect people and computers. However, I started off (years ago) as mathematician and this is still my academic first love!

Lene Nielsen

Lene Nielsen is Denmark's leading specialist in personas. She has a personas and scenarios and has more than 5 years experience on practical use of personas working with both industry and governmental bodies.

Dave Randall

Dave Randall was Principal Lecturer at Manchester Metropolitan University, UK. until his retirement in 2011. He sorely misses his administrative load. He continues to work, collaborating with people like his co-author on this piece; with Richard Harper at Microsoft Research where they are currently involved in writing a book on Choice, and with Volker Wulf at the University of Siegen in Germany. His work sits primarily in the interdisciplinary research area called Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)and in HCI. He is particularly interested in the application of the ethnomethodological ‘studies of work' programme to problems of new technology and organizational change, and in the conduct of ethnographic enquiry in relation to these issues. He has conducted a number of studies of ‘work in organizations' in his career. These include a well-known and extensively-cited study of Air Traffic Control as well as studies of retail financial services, museum work, classroom interaction with new technology, ontology-based design, mobile phone use, and ‘smart home' technology. He has undertaken consultancy and other work with organizations such as the Riso national laboratory, Denmark; Xerox plc; the Children's Society; Orange plc; Vodaphone plc; Microsoft plc and the national Centre for E-Social Science (NCess) and has collaborated with partners in a number of other institutions in the UK and Europe over a period of time. These include Lancaster University; Manchester University; the Blekinge Institue of technology and Lulea Technical University in Sweden, and the I.T. University of Denmark. He has co-authored three books, one an examination of organizational change and new technology in the retail financial services sector and another (with Mark Rouncefield and Richard Harper) on the conduct of ethnography for design-related purposes. A third is also, oddly enough, co-authored with Mark Rouncefield (and others): ‘Technologies of Leadership in F.E.'. He also has one edited book with two more on the way.Currently (2013), he is working on a report for the Economic and Social Research Council on virtual learning environments and with Hitachi Ltd in japan on the applicability of 'patterns' to engineering maintenance work.

Mark Rouncefield

Mark Rouncefield is a Senior Research Fellow in the Computing Department, Lancaster University, concerned with carrying out a number of ethnomethodologically informed ethnographic studies of Computer Supported Co-operative Work.

Doug A. Bowman

Doug A. Bowman is a Professor of Computer Science and Director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction at Virginia Tech. He is the principal investigator of the 3D Interaction Group, focusing on the topics of three-dimensional user interface design and the benefits of immersion in virtual environments. Dr. Bowman was the lead author of 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, and served as the general chair of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference in 2007-2008. He received a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation for his work on 3D Interaction, and has been named an ACM Distinguished Scientist. His undergraduate degree in mathematics and computer science is from Emory University, and he received his M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Ned Kock

Ned Kock is Professor of Information Systems and Director of the Collaborative for International Technology Studies at Texas A&M International University. He holds degrees in electronics engineering (B.E.E.), computer science (M.S.), and management information systems (Ph.D.). Ned has authored and edited several books, including the bestselling Sage Publications book titled Systems Analysis and Design Fundamentals: A Business Process Redesign Approach. He has published his research in a number of high-impact journals including Communications of the ACM, Decision Support Systems, European Journal of Information Systems, European Journal of Operational Research, IEEE Transactions (various), Information & Management, Information Systems Journal, Journal of the Association for Information Systems, MIS Quarterly, and Organization Science. He is the Founding Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of e-Collaboration, Associate Editor for Information Systems of the journal IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, and Associate Editor of the Journal of Systems and Information Technology. His main research interests are biological and cultural influences on human-technology interaction, non-linear structural equation modeling, electronic communication and collaboration, action research, ethical and legal issues in technology research and management, and business process improvement.

Stephen Few

Stephen Few has over 20 years of experience as an innovator, consultant, and educator in the fields of business intelligence (a.k.a. data warehousing and decision support) and information design. Through his company, Perceptual Edge, he focuses on the effective analysis and presentation quantitative business information. Stephen is recognized as a world leader in the field of data visualization. He teaches regularly at conferences such as those presented by The Data Warehousing Institute (TDWI) and DCI, and also in the MBA program at the Haas School of Business at U. C. Berkeley. He is also the author of the book "Show Me the Numbers: Designing Tables and Graphs to Enlighten" (Analytics Press).

Kerstin Dautenhahn

I am Professor of Artificial Intelligence in the School of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences at University of Hertfordshire, where I am a coordinator of the Adaptive Systems Research Group. Main areas of my research are Human-Robot Interaction, Social Robotics, Socially Intelligent Agents and Artificial Life, you can find out more about it on this homepage. I am former member of the Department of Biological Cybernetics at University of Bielefeld, Germany, 1990-1993, and AI-Lab at GMD, Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1993-1996, and VUB Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Brussels, Belgium, until end of 1996. From January 1997 to April 2000 Lecturer, Department of Cybernetics at University of Reading, United Kingdom. In April 2000 I joined the Department of Computer Science (now School of Computer Science) at University of Hertfordshire as Principal Lecturer. Later I got promoted to Reader and then Research Professor. I am Editor in Chief (jointly with Prof. Angelo Cangelosi - University of Plymouth) of the Journal Interaction Studies- Social Behaviour and Communication in Biological and Artificial Systems published by John Benjamins Publishing Company, Associate Editor of Adaptive Behavior, Sage Publications, Associate Editor of the International Journal of Social Robotics, published by Springer and Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development. I am an Editor of the book series Advances in Interaction Studies, published by John Benjamins Publishing Company. I am a Fellow of the Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA), as well as a member of IEEE, ACM, SSAISB, and the German organisations GI and GK.

Fabio Paterno

Fabio Paternò is Research Director at C.N.R.-ISTI in Pisa where he founded and leads the Laboratory on Human Interfaces in Information Systems. He developed the ConcurTaskTrees notation for specifying task models and has also designed an associated environment (CTTE) to support the development and analysis of task models specified through  this notation, which has been used in various industries and universities. The tool has been applied in several application domains (including ERP, interactive safety-critical systems). He has also been working on the design of tools to support designers of multi-device, multi-modal interactive applications starting with user interface logical descriptions, such as MultiModal TERESA and MARIAE Such tools are associated with XML-based languages for user interface logical descriptions. He has also been working on methods and automatic support for usability evaluation. This work has produced a number of tools that perform their intelligent analyses of client-side logs of user sessions, detected in both stationary and mobile devices. He also turned his attention to how to integrate usability and accessibility issues, a research area for which he supervised a blind Ph.D. student, now permanent researcher in his laboratory. In this area, research work has also been dedicated to the design of innovative tools for checking accessibility and usability guidelines. A considerable amount of work has also been dedicated to mobile guides. Various solutions for such guides have been designed, some in collaboration with local museums, which exploit various technologies for location awareness and multimodal interaction. One of the main recent area is design and tools for multi-device user interfaces, investigating novel solutions for service front-ends adaptation, distributed user interfaces and their migration to support mobile users. In recent years, his research interests have broadened to include User Interface Software and Tools for Ubiquitous Environments, Methods and Tools for Supporting User Experience Evaluation, Accessibility, Adaptation in Service Front-Ends, Model-Based Design of Interactive Systems, End-User Development, and Design of User Interfaces for Safety Critical Interactive Systems. He has published more than two hundred thirty papers in refereed international conferences or journals. He has been the scientific coordinator of five EU projects ( MEFISTO, GUITARE, EUD-Net, CAMELEON, OPEN) and one of the main investigators in several others (such as ADVISES, MAUSE, SIMILAR, SERVFACE, SERENOA, SMARCOS). He was member of the Steering Committee of the SIMILAR EU Network of Excellence on Multimodal Interfaces. His research work has also been funded by various companies. He is co-chair of the W3C Working Group on Model-based User Interfaces He was the chair of the first International Workshop on Design, Specification, Verification of Interactive Systems. He has been a member of the Programme Committee of the main international HCI conferences, including Papers Co-Chair of the ACM CHI 2000 conference , IFIP INTERACT 2003 and IFIP INTERACT 2005. He chaired the fourth Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices (September 2002), and various other events including the ACM EICS 2011 conference, Ambient Intelligence 2012, and ACM EICS 2014 Conference He represents Italy in the IFIP Technical Committee 13 on Human Computer Interaction, and is the chair of IFIP WG 2.7/13.4 on User Interface Engineering and a member WG 13.2, and chaired the ACM SIGCHI Italy (from 2000 to 2004). He was appointed ACM Distinguished Scientist in 2009. He has taught in various universities in Italy and abroad, given tutorials in many international conferences and talks in various research centers, currently teaches user interface design and usability evaluation at University of Pisa. He supervised the work of many young researchers (graduates and post-docs) from various countries, more than 10 of them have since become full-time professors and researchers in various universities and research centers throughout Europe. He has also been member of the PhD juries for universities in a dozen or so different nations. He has been reviewer for about twenty research funding agencies spread all over the world.

Dianne Cyr

Dr. Dianne Cyr is a Professor in the Beedie School of Business at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver. She is the author of 4 books and over 100 research articles, book chapters or proceedings. Dr. Cyr has received numerous awards including Best paper for 2009 in the top ranked MISQ journal. My background is varied and interdisciplinary. Both my Bachelor and Masters degrees are in Psychology, and I worked in clinical psychology for the better part of a decade before returning to university to embark on doctoral studies. The earlier training held me in good stead for my Ph.D. research which was focused on the linkage of strategy and human resource management in international joint ventures. I am currently at Simon Fraser University as a Full Professor with tenure in Management Information Systems. Since 1994 my primary role has been as a university professor, coupled with activities in the business world. I joined Simon Fraser University (SFU) in 1994 as an Adjunct Professor, and carried a very full teaching load (of up to 8 courses in some years), while at the same time conducting research, publishing, and organizing a consulting practice. An opportunity arose for full-time academic employment at the start-up Technical University of British Columbia (TechBC) in 1998. As one of the founding faculty, I was involved in numerous activities to shape the mission, curriculum and structures for TechBC. More specifically, I developed the Management and Technology program until the closure of the university in 2002. At this time, TechBC was merged into SFU, and another academic chapter began. As the President of Global Alliance Management (1993-2004), I provided consulting and training services in the area of joint ventures and strategic alliances to small and mid-sized companies. During this time I made numerous public presentations on the topic of joint ventures or alliances, and developed a program in alliances for the British Columbia Trade Development Corporation. As a Director of Canada Sri Lanka Capital Corporation (1994-2003), I was involved in the development of an agro-industrial joint venture in Sri Lanka.

Constantine Stephanidis

Constantine Stephanidis, Professor at the Department of Computer Science of the University of Crete, is the Director of the Institute of Computer Science, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, Head of the Human - Computer Interaction Laboratory, and of the Centre for Universal Access and Assistive Technologies, and Head of the Ambient Intelligence Programme of ICS-FORTH. Over the past 25 years, Prof. Stephanidis has been engaged as the Scientific Responsible in more than 40 National and European Commission funded projects in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction, Universal Access and Assistive Technologies. In the beginning of the '90s he introduced the concept and principles of Design for All in Human-Machine Interaction and for Universal Access in the evolving Information Society. He has published more than 550 technical papers in scientific archival journals, proceedings of international conferences and workshops related to his fields of expertise. He is the Editor-in-Chief of the Springer international journal "Universal Access in the Information Society". He is the Editor and (co-)author of 14 out of the 30 chapters of the book " User Interfaces for All - concepts, methods and tools" published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2001). He is also Editor and (co-)author of many chapters of “The Universal Access Handbook” that was published in June 2009 by CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group. During the period 1995 - 2006, he was the Founding Chair of the ERCIM Working Group "User Interfaces for All" and General Chair of its 9 international Workshops. During the period 1997 - 2000, he was the Founding Chair of the International Scientific Forum "Towards an Information Society for All", in the context of which he edited White Papers concerning the roadmap and R&D agenda towards an Information Society for All. Since 2001 he is the Founding Chair of the International Conference "Universal Access in Human - Computer Interaction". Since 2007 he is the General Chair of the HCI International Conference, that takes place every two years with around 2,000 participants.

Ann Blandford

Ann Blandford is Professor of Human-Computer Interaction in the Department of Computer Science at University College London, and served as Director of UCL Interaction Centre (UCLIC) (2004-2011). Her teaching includes User-Centred Evaluation Methods on the MSc in HCI with Ergonomics at UCL. She started her career in industry, as a software engineer, but soon moved into academia, where she developed a focus on the use and usability of computer systems. Ann leads research projects on human error and on interacting with information, with a focus on modelling situated interactions. In particular, she leads an EPSRC Platform Grant on Interactive Systems in Healthcare, and an EPSRC Programme Grant, CHI+MED, on Human-Computer Interaction for Medical Devices. She has been technical programme chair for several conferences, the most recent being NordiCHI 2010. See for more detail.

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