Mark Apperley


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University of Waikato (

Mark Apperley has been working in the field of HCI for more than 30 years. In the 1970's he worked on the MINNIE interactive CACD system with Bob Spence, pioneering a range of interaction and information visualisation techniques, including dynamic exploration and percent done indicators. Also with Bob Spence he devised the bifocal display (1980) and the Lean Cuisine notation for menu description (1988). He has also carried out research on systems supporting collaborative work, and on techniques for large screen interaction. More recently his attention has focussed on energy management, including visualisation, human interaction, and system modelling. Mark is Professor of Computer Science at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

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Monigatti, Paul, Apperley, Mark, Rogers, Bill (2010): Power and energy visualization for the micro-management of household electricity consumpti. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2010, . pp. 325-328.

Plimmer, Beryl, Apperley, Mark (2007): Making paperless work. In: Proceedings of CHINZ07, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 1-4 July 2007, 2007, Hamilton, New Zealand. pp. 1-8.

Apperley, Mark, McLeod, Laurie, Masoodian, Masood (2003): Use of Video Shadow for Small Group Interaction Awareness on a Large Interactive Display S. In: Biddle, Robert, Thomas, Bruce H. (eds.) AUIC2003 - User Interfaces 2003 - Fourth Australasian User Interface Conference February, 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. pp. 81-90.

Apperley, Mark, Carter, P., Churcher, C., Cockburn, A., Jones, M., Lobb, B., Novins, K., Phillips, C., Wong, W. (2003): State of the Art: HCI in New Zealand. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 1079.

Plimmer, Beryl, Apperley, Mark (2003): Software to Sketch Interface Designs. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 73.

Apperley, Mark, Plimmer, Beryl (2002): Computer-Aided Sketching to Capture Preliminary Design. In: Grundy, John C., Calder, Paul R. (eds.) AUIC2002 - User Interfaces 2002 - Third Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2002, Melbourne, Victoria. pp. 9-12.

Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale, Rogers, Bill (2002): The stretchable selection tool: an alternative to copy and paste. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (3) pp. 195-209.

Apperley, Mark, Cunningham, Sally Jo, Keegan, Te Taka, Witten, Ian H. (2001): NIUPEPA: a historical newspaper collection. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (5) pp. 86-87.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert, Wittenburg, Kent (2001): Selecting One from Many: The Development of a Scalable Visualization Tool. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 366-372.

Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale, Rogers, Bill, Thomson, Kirsten (2000): Interactive Visualisation of a Travel Itinerary. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 , 2000, . pp. 221-226.

Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale, Rogers, William J. (2000): Breaking the Copy/Paste Cycle: The Stretchable Selection Tool. In: AUIC 2000 - 1st Australasian User Interface Conference 31 January - 3 February, 2000, Canberra, Australia. pp. 3-10.

Witten, Ian H., McNab, Rodger J., Jones, Steve, Apperley, Mark, Bainbridge, David, Cunningham, Sally Jo (1999): Managing Complexity in a Distributed Digital Library. In IEEE Computer, 32 (2) pp. 74-79.

Grundy, John C., Apperley, Mark, Hosking, John G., Mugridge, Warwick B. (1998): A Decentralized Architecture for Software Process Modeling and Enactment. In IEEE Internet Computing, 2 (5) pp. 53-62.

Masoodian, Masood, Apperley, Mark, Frederickson, Lesley (1995): Video Support for Shared Work-Space Interaction: An Empirical Study. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (3) pp. 237-253.

Grundy, John, Mugridge, Warwicj, Hosking, John, Apperley, Mark (1995): Coordinating, Capturing and Presenting Work Contexts in CSCW Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1995, . pp. 146-151.

Leung, Ying K., Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1995): Applying Bifocal Displays to Topological Maps. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 79-98.

Masoodian, Masood, Apperley, Mark, Frederikson, Lesley (1994): The Impact of Human-to-Human Communication Modes in CSCW Environments. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1994, . pp. 193-199.

Lyons, P. J., Apperley, Mark, Bishop, A. G., Moretii, G. S. (1994): Active Templates: Manipulating Pointers with Pictures. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1994, . pp. 93-98.

Duncan, Stephen, Apperley, Mark (1994): A Graphical Methodology for the Design and Implementation of Hypertext Based Information S. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1994, . pp. 161-166.

Leung, Y. W., Apperley, Mark (1994): A Review and Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 126-160.

Apperley, Mark, Leung, Y. K. (1993). A Unified Theory of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques. Massey University

Leung, Ying K., Apperley, Mark (1993): E{cubed}: Towards the Metrication of Graphical Presentation Techniques for Large Data Sets. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 , 1993, . pp. 9-26.

Leung, Ying K., Apperley, Mark (1993): A Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Techniques for Graphical Data Presentation. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1993, . pp. 104-109.

Leung, Ying K., Apperley, Mark (1993): Extending the Perspective Wall. In: Proceedings of OZCHI93, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1993, . pp. 110-120.

Apperley, Mark, Phillips, Chris (1993): Human-Computer Interaction Research at Massey University, New Zealand. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 244-245.

Phillips, C. H. E., Apperley, Mark (1991): Direct Manipulation Interaction Tasks: A Macintosh-Based Analysis. In Interacting with Computers, 3 (1) pp. 9-26.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Brouwer-Janse, Maddy D., Edmonds, Ernest, Kasik, David J., Rankin, Paul (1990): Practical Interfaces to Complex Worlds. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 257-260.

Anderson, P. S., Apperley, Mark (1990): An Interface Prototyping System Based on Lean Cuisine. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (2) pp. 217-226.

Field, G. E., Apperley, Mark (1990): Context and Selective Retreat in Hierarchical Menu Structures. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 9 (2) pp. 133-146.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, R. (1989): Lean Cuisine: A Low-Fat Notation for Menus. In Interacting with Computers, 1 (1) pp. 43-68.

Colgan, L., Spence, R., Rankin, P., Apperley, Mark (1989): Designing the \"Cockpit\": The Application of a Human-Centered Design Philosophy to Made O. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (1) pp. 92-95.

Apperley, Mark, Field, G. E. (1984): A Comparative Evaluation of Menu-Based Interactive Human-Computer Dialogue Techniques. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 323-328.

Apperley, Mark, Tzavaras, I., Spence, Robert (1982): A Bifocal Display Technique for Data Presentation. In: Eurographics 82 Proceedings , 1982, Amsterdam. pp. 27-43.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1982): Data Base Navigation: An Office Environment for the Professional. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (1) pp. 43-54.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): Database Navigation in the Office of the Future. In IEE Colloquium on Technological Developments for the Office of the Future, Digest No. 1981/55B, 0 (0) pp. .

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): A Professional's Interface Using the Bifocal Display. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Office Automation Conference , 1981, . pp. 313-315.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981). Focus on Information: the Office of the Professional (videotape), Imperial College Televis. Retrieved 2010-11-09 00:00:00 from

Apperley, Mark, Leung, Y. K. (1993): A taxonomy of distortion-oriented techniques for data presentation. In: "Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics Vol 19B, Human-Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces" Elsevier Science Publishers .

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (2014): Bifocal Display. In: Soegaard, Mads, Dam, Rikke Friis (eds). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed." The Interaction Design Foundation .