Profile image for Robert S.

Robert Spence

Professor Emeritus at Interaction Design Foundation INC



Publication period start: 2012
Number of co-authors: 26


Number of publications with favourite co-authors
Mark Witkowski
Oscar de Bruijn
Mark Apperley

Productive Colleagues

Most productive colleagues in number of publications
Mark Apperley
Daniel A. Keim
Ernest Edmonds


Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2008): A New Framework for Theory-Based Interaction Design Applied to Serendipitous Information R. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (1) pp. 5.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert, Chong, Min Yih (2002): RSVP Browser: Web Browsing on Small Screen Devices. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (4) pp. 245-252.

Spence, Robert (1999): A Framework for Navigation. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51 (5) pp. 919-945.

Spence, Robert, Tweedie, Lisa (1998): The Attribute Explorer: Information Synthesis via Exploration. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (2) pp. 137-146.

Tweedie, Lisa, Spence, Robert, Dawkes, Huw, Su, Hua (1996): Externalising Abstract Mathematical Models. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D., Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 406-412.

Colgan, Lynn, Spence, Robert, Rankin, Paul (1995): The Cockpit Metaphor. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 14 (4) pp. 251-263.

Leung, Ying K., Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1995): Applying Bifocal Displays to Topological Maps. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 79-98.

Colgan, Lynn, Spence, Robert, Rankin, Paul (1993): The Human Guidance of Automated Design. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 515.

Edmondson, William H., Spence, Robert (1992): Systematic Menu Design. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan, Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 209-226.

Spence, Robert, Parr, Maureen (1991): Cognitive Assessment of Alternatives. In Interacting with Computers, 3 (3) pp. 270-282.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Brouwer-Janse, Maddy D., Edmonds, Ernest, Kasik, David J., Rankin, Paul (1990): Practical Interfaces to Complex Worlds. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 257-260.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1982): Data Base Navigation: An Office Environment for the Professional. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (1) pp. 43-54.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): Database Navigation in the Office of the Future. In IEE Colloquium on Technological Developments for the Office of the Future, Digest No. 1981/55B, 0 (0) pp. .

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2001): Serendipity within a Ubiquitous Computing Environment: A Case for Opportunistic Browsing. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry, Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 362-370.

Spence, Robert (2001): Time as a Component of Interaction Design. In: IV 2001 , 2001, . pp. 765-766.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert, Wittenburg, Kent (2001): Selecting One from Many: The Development of a Scalable Visualization Tool. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 366-372.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2000): Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: A space-timed trade-off in information presentation. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 , 2000, . pp. 189-192.

Cooper, Katy, Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert, Witkowski, Mark (2006): A comparison of static and moving presentation modes for image collections. In: Celentano, Augusto (eds.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 381-388.

Dawkes, Huw, Tweedie, Lisa, Spence, Robert (1996): VICKI: the VIsualisation Construction KIt. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano, Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 257-259.

Merino, Carmen Sanz, Sips, Mike, Keim, Daniel A., Panse, Christian, Spence, Robert (2006): Task-at-hand interface for change detection in stock market data. In: Celentano, Augusto (eds.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 420-427.

Spence, Robert, Witkowski, Mark, Fawcett, Catherine, Craft, Brock, Bruijn, Oscar de (2004): Image presentation in space and time: errors, preferences and eye-gaze activity. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 141-149.

Adams, Nicholas, Witkowski, Mark, Spence, Robert (2008): The inspection of very large images by eye-gaze control. In: Levialdi, Stefano (eds.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 111-118.

Spence, Robert, Tweedie, Lisa, Dawkes, Huw, Su, Hua (1995): Visualization for functional design. In: Gershon, Nahum D., Eick, Stephen G. (eds.) InfoVis 1995 - IEEE Symposium On Information Visualization 30-31 October, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 4-10.

Spence, Robert (2008): A Science of Interaction - A Multidimensional Canvas. In: Bobbitt, Russell, Connell, Jonathan H., Flickner, Myron, Haas, Norman, Hampapur, Arun, Harris, Dick, Kurtz, Charles, Lloyd, Bill, Otto, Charles, Pankanti, Sharath, Park, Unsang, Payne, Jason (eds.) Retail Vision-Based Self-checkout - Exploring Real Time Real Purpose General Vision System , 2008, . pp. 415-418.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (2014): Bifocal Display. In: Lowgren, Jonas, Carroll, John M., Hassenzahl, Marc, Erickson, Thomas, Blackwell, Alan, Overbeeke, Kees, Hummels, Caroline, Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Holtzblatt, Karen, Beyer, Hugh R., Kjeldskov, Jesper, Burnett, Margaret M., Scaffidi, Christopher, Svanaes, Dag, Hook, Kristina, Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Schmidt, Albrecht, Cockton, Gilbert, Kaptelinin, Victor, Christensen, Clayton M., Hippel, Eric von, Tractinsky, Noam, Challis, Ben, Shusterman, Richard, Hudson, William, Mann, Steve, Whitworth, Brian, Ahmad, Adnan, de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius, Fishwick, Paul A., Grudin, Jonathan, Poltrock, Steven, Gallagher, Shaun, Dix, Alan J., Nielsen, Lene, Randall, Dave, Rouncefield, Mark, Bowman, Doug A., Kock, Ned, Cairns, Paul, Few, Stephen, Dautenhahn, Kerstin, Paterno, Fabio, Cyr, Dianne, Mortier, Richard, Haddadi, Hamed, Henderson, Tristan, McAuley, Derek, Crowcroft, Jon, Crabtree, Andy, Stephanidis, Constantine, Giaccardi, Elisa, Stappers, Pieter, Blandford, Ann, Zimmerman, John, Forlizzi, Jodi (eds). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed." The Interaction Design Foundation .

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): A Professional's Interface Using the Bifocal Display. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Office Automation Conference , 1981, . pp. 313-315.

Apperley, Mark, Tzavaras, I., Spence, Robert (1982): A Bifocal Display Technique for Data Presentation. In: Eurographics 82 Proceedings , 1982, Amsterdam. pp. 27-43.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981). Focus on Information: the Office of the Professional (videotape), Imperial College Televis. Retrieved 2010-11-09 00:00:00 from Imperial College Television Studio:

Mardell, James, Witkowski, Mark, Spence, Robert (2012): An interface for visual inspection based on image segmentation. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2012, . pp. 697-700.