Robert Spence

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Bob Spence is Professor Emeritus of Information Engineering
at Imperial College London.

Bob Spence's research has ranged from engineering design to human-computer
interaction,and often with the manner in which the latter can enhance
the former. Notable contributions, usually in collaboration with colleagues,
include the powerful generalized form of Tellegen's Theorem; algorithms for
improving the manufacturing yield of mass-produced circuits; and, in
the field of Human-computer Interaction, the invention of the first
focus+context technique, the Bifocal Display (aka Fisheye lens). The novel
Attribute and Influence Explorers provide examples of novel information
visualization tools that have wide application, including engineering design.

Interactive computer graphics allows the electronic circuit designer to sketch
the familiar circuit diagram on a computer display. This potential was
pioneered by Bob and his colleagues in the late 1960s and eventually,
in 1985, led to the commercially available MINNIE system developed and
marketed by a company of which Bob was chairman and a founding director.

More recently, Bob's research has focused on the topic of Rapid Serial Visual
Presentation in which a collection of images is presented sequentially and
rapidly to a user who may be searching for a particular image. This activity
is similar to the riffling of a book's pages.

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Mardell, James, Witkowski, Mark, Spence, Robert (2012): An interface for visual inspection based on image segmentation. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2012, . pp. 697-700.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2008): A New Framework for Theory-Based Interaction Design Applied to Serendipitous Information R. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (1) pp. 5.

Adams, Nicholas, Witkowski, Mark, Spence, Robert (2008): The inspection of very large images by eye-gaze control. In: Levialdi, Stefano (eds.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 111-118.

Spence, Robert (2008): A Science of Interaction - A Multidimensional Canvas. In: Bobbitt, Russell, Connell, Jonathan H., Flickner, Myron, Haas, Norman, Hampapur, Arun, Harris, Dick, Kurtz, Charles, Lloyd, Bill, Otto, Charles, Pankanti, Sharath, Park, Unsang, Payne, Jason (eds.) Retail Vision-Based Self-checkout - Exploring Real Time Real Purpose General Vision System , 2008, . pp. 415-418.

Cooper, Katy, Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert, Witkowski, Mark (2006): A comparison of static and moving presentation modes for image collections. In: Celentano, Augusto (eds.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 381-388.

Merino, Carmen Sanz, Sips, Mike, Keim, Daniel A., Panse, Christian, Spence, Robert (2006): Task-at-hand interface for change detection in stock market data. In: Celentano, Augusto (eds.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 420-427.

Spence, Robert, Witkowski, Mark, Fawcett, Catherine, Craft, Brock, Bruijn, Oscar de (2004): Image presentation in space and time: errors, preferences and eye-gaze activity. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 141-149.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert, Chong, Min Yih (2002): RSVP Browser: Web Browsing on Small Screen Devices. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (4) pp. 245-252.

Spence, Robert (2001): Time as a Component of Interaction Design. In: IV 2001 , 2001, . pp. 765-766.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert, Wittenburg, Kent (2001): Selecting One from Many: The Development of a Scalable Visualization Tool. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 366-372.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2001): Serendipity within a Ubiquitous Computing Environment: A Case for Opportunistic Browsing. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry, Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 362-370.

Bruijn, Oscar de, Spence, Robert (2000): Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: A space-timed trade-off in information presentation. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 , 2000, . pp. 189-192.

Spence, Robert (1999): A Framework for Navigation. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51 (5) pp. 919-945.

Spence, Robert, Tweedie, Lisa (1998): The Attribute Explorer: Information Synthesis via Exploration. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (2) pp. 137-146.

Dawkes, Huw, Tweedie, Lisa, Spence, Robert (1996): VICKI: the VIsualisation Construction KIt. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano, Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 257-259.

Tweedie, Lisa, Spence, Robert, Dawkes, Huw, Su, Hua (1996): Externalising Abstract Mathematical Models. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D., Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 406-412.

Colgan, Lynn, Spence, Robert, Rankin, Paul (1995): The Cockpit Metaphor. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 14 (4) pp. 251-263.

Spence, Robert, Tweedie, Lisa, Dawkes, Huw, Su, Hua (1995): Visualization for functional design. In: Gershon, Nahum D., Eick, Stephen G. (eds.) InfoVis 1995 - IEEE Symposium On Information Visualization 30-31 October, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 4-10.

Leung, Ying K., Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1995): Applying Bifocal Displays to Topological Maps. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 79-98.

Colgan, Lynn, Spence, Robert, Rankin, Paul (1993): The Human Guidance of Automated Design. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 515.

Edmondson, William H., Spence, Robert (1992): Systematic Menu Design. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan, Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 209-226.

Spence, Robert, Parr, Maureen (1991): Cognitive Assessment of Alternatives. In Interacting with Computers, 3 (3) pp. 270-282.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Brouwer-Janse, Maddy D., Edmonds, Ernest, Kasik, David J., Rankin, Paul (1990): Practical Interfaces to Complex Worlds. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 257-260.

Apperley, Mark, Tzavaras, I., Spence, Robert (1982): A Bifocal Display Technique for Data Presentation. In: Eurographics 82 Proceedings , 1982, Amsterdam. pp. 27-43.

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (1982): Data Base Navigation: An Office Environment for the Professional. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (1) pp. 43-54.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): A Professional's Interface Using the Bifocal Display. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Office Automation Conference , 1981, . pp. 313-315.

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981): Database Navigation in the Office of the Future. In IEE Colloquium on Technological Developments for the Office of the Future, Digest No. 1981/55B, 0 (0) pp. .

Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert (1981). Focus on Information: the Office of the Professional (videotape), Imperial College Televis. Retrieved 2010-11-09 00:00:00 from

Spence, Robert (2001): Information Visualization, Addison Wesley,

Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark (2014): Bifocal Display. In: Soegaard, Mads, Dam, Rikke Friis (eds). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed." The Interaction Design Foundation .

Spence, Robert (2007): Information Visualization: Design for Interaction (2nd Edition), Prentice Hall,