John M. Carroll

Ph.D.

Personal Homepage
http://jcarroll.ist.psu.edu/
Employer
The Pennsylvania State University (http://www.psu.edu/)
Email
jcarroll@ist.psu.edu


John M. Carroll is Edward Frymoyer Chair Professor of Information Sciences and Technology at the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include methods and theory in human-computer interaction, particularly as applied to networking tools for collaborative learning and problem solving, and the design of interactive information systems. His books include Making Use (MIT Press, 2000), HCI in the New Millennium (Addison-Wesley, 2001), Usability Engineering (Morgan-Kaufmann, 2002, with M.B. Rosson) and HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks (Morgan-Kaufmann, 2003), Rationale-based software engineering (Springer, 2008, with J. Burge, R. McCall and I. Mistrik), and Learning in Communities (Springer, 2009). He serves on several editorial boards for journals, handbooks, and series and is Editor-in-Chief of the ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interactions. He received the Rigo Award and the CHI Lifetime Achievement Award from ACM, the Silver Core Award from IFIP, the Alfred N. Goldsmith Award from IEEE. He is a fellow of the ACM, IEEE, and the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1979
Publication period end
2014
Number of co-authors
183

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Borge, Marcela, Ganoe, Craig H., Shih, Shin-I, Carroll, John M. (2012): Patterns of team processes and breakdowns in information analysis tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2012, . pp. 1105-1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2145204.2145369

Wang, Jing, Carroll, John M. (2011): Beyond fixing bugs: case studies of creative collaboration in open source software bug fix. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2011, . pp. 397-398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2069618.2069714

Diaz, Paloma, Aedo, Ignacio, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): A visual tool for using design patterns as pattern languages. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2010, . pp. 67-74. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1842993.1843005

Du, Honglu, Jiang, Hao, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): Increasing Students In-Class Engagement through Public Commenting: An Exploratory Study. In: ICALT 2010 - 10th IEEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 5-7 July, 2010, Sousse, Tuneisa. pp. 373-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2010.106

Jiang, Hao, Carroll, John M., Borge, Marcela, Ganoe, Craig H. (2010): Supporting Partially Distributed, Case-Based Learning in an Advanced Undergraduate Course . In: ICALT 2010 - 10th IEEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 5-7 July, 2010, Sousse, Tuneisa. pp. 594-596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2010.168

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): Bringing back channels up front: towards an active learning environment. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2010, . pp. 333-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1880071.1880137

Carroll, John M. (2010): Conceptualizing a possible discipline of human-computer interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (1) pp. 3-12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V0D-4XT3HKD-4/2/4aa81f63799d0e19738ea0c4b5956d07

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig (2009): I felt like a contributing member of the class: increasing class participation with ClassC. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2009, . pp. 233-242. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1531674.1531709

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig (2009): \"I felt more of a member of this class\": increasing students\' sense of community with v. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4405-4410. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520674

Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M., Giles, C. Lee (2009): Designing for e-science: Requirements gathering for collaboration in CiteSeer. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (4) pp. 297-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2007.10.005

Haynes, Steven R., Carroll, John M., Kannampallil, Thomas G., Xiao, Lu, Bach, Paula M. (2009): Design research as explanation: perceptions in the field. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 1121-1130. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1518873

Bach, Paula M., DeLine, Robert, Carroll, John M. (2009): Designers wanted: participation and the user experience in open source software developmen. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 985-994. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1518852

Zhang, Shaoke, Farooq, Umer, Carroll, John M. (2009): Enhancing information scent: identifying and recommending quality tags. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2009, . pp. 1-10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1531674.1531676

Wu, Anna, Zhang, Xiaolong, Convertino, Gregorio, Carroll, John M. (2009): CIVIL: support geo-collaboration with information visualization. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2009, . pp. 273-276. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1531674.1531714

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Slavkovic, Aleksandra, Carroll, John M. (2009): Supporting content and process common ground in computer-supported teamwork. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 2339-2348. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1519059

Mentis, Helena M., Bach, Paula M., Hoffman, Blaine, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2009): Development of decision rationale in complex group decision making. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 1341-1350. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1518904

Diaz, Paloma, Rosson, Mary Beth, Aedo, Ignacio, Carroll, John M. (2009): Web Design Patterns: Investigating User Goals and Browsing Strategies. In: Pipek, Volkmar, Rosson, Mary Beth, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de, Wulf, Volker (eds.) End-User Development - 2nd International Symposium - IS-EUD 2009 March 2-4, 2009, Siegen, Germany. pp. 186-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00427-8_11

Kase, Sue E., Zhang, Yang, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Sustainable informal it learning in community-based nonprofits. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 3435-3440. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1358628.1358870

Bach, Paula M., Hao, Jiang, Carroll, John M. (2008): Sharing usability information in interactive system development. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering , 2008, . pp. 9-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1370114.1370117

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Slavkovic, Aleksandra, Ganoe, Craig H. (2008): Articulating common ground in cooperative work: content and process. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 1637-1646. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357310

Carroll, John M. (2008): Community IT workshops as a strategy for community learning. In First Monday, 13 (4) pp. . http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2052

Xiao, Lu, Carroll, John M., Clemson, Pat, Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Support of Case-Based Authentic Learning Activities: A Collaborative Case Commenting Tool . In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 6. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2008.417

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Theorizing mobility in community networks. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (12) pp. 944-962. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WGR-4SWWT8T-3/2/a85e06eedc9a13fb1ab39e7508da9357

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Ting, Alex Y. W., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): How does common ground increase?. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2007, . pp. 225-228. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1316624.1316657

Farooq, Umer, Kannampallil, Thomas G., Song, Yang, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M., Giles, Lee (2007): Evaluating tagging behavior in social bookmarking systems: metrics and design heuristics. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2007, . pp. 351-360. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1316624.1316677

Farooq, Umer, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig H. (2007): Supporting creativity with awareness in distributed collaboration. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2007, . pp. 31-40. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1316624.1316630

Merkel, Cecelia, Farooq, Umer, Xiao, Lu, Ganoe, Craig H., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Managing technology use and learning in nonprofit community organizations: methodological . In: Kandogan, Eser, Jones, Patricia M. (eds.) CHIMIT 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st ACM Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for Management of Information Technology March 30-31, 2007, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1234772.1234783

Convertino, G., Farooq, U., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Meyer, B. J. F. (2007): Supporting intergenerational groups in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (4) pp. 275-285. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290601173473

Xiao, Lu, Carroll, John M. (2007): Fostering an informal learning community of computer technologies at school. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (1) pp. 23-36. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290600811511

Massimi, Michael, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M. (2007): Scavenger Hunt: An Empirical Method for Mobile Collaborative Problem-Solving. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 6 (1) pp. 81-87. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MPRV.2007.20

Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Xiao, Lu, Merkel, Cecelia B., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Supporting community-based learning: case study of a geographical community organization d. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (1) pp. 5-21. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290600811503

Farooq, Umer, Song, Yang, Carroll, John M., Giles, Clyde Lee (2007): Social Bookmarking for Scholarly Digital Libraries. In IEEE Internet Computing, 11 (6) pp. 29-35. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MIC.2007.135

Xiao, Lu, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): Support Case-Based Authentic Learning Activities: A Collaborative Case Commenting Tool and. In: Jacko, Julie A. (eds.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part IV , 2007, . pp. 371-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73111-5_42

Convertino, Gregorio, Zhao, Dejin, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): A Role-Based Multiple View Approach to Distributed Geo-Collaboration. In: Jacko, Julie A. (eds.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part IV , 2007, . pp. 561-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73111-5_64

Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Daniel R., Isenhour, Philip L., Carroll, John M. (2007): Teacher Bridge: Creating a Community of Teacher Developers. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 5. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.512

Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M., Giles, Clyde Lee (2007): Supporting distributed scientific collaboration: Implications for designing the CiteSeer c. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 26. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.506

Merkel, Cecelia, Farooq, Umer, Xiao, Lu, Ganoe, Craig, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Managing technology use and learning in nonprofit community organizations: methodological . In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology , 2007, . pp. 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1234772.1234783

Haynes, Steven R., Schafer, Wendy A., Carroll, John M. (2007): Leveraging and Limiting Practical Drift in Emergency Response Planning. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 200. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.322

Carroll, John M. (2006): Introduction to This Special Issue on Foundations of Design in HCI. In Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (1) pp. 1-3. http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327051hci2101_1

Kavanaugh, Andrea L., Zin, Than Than, Carroll, John M., Schmitz, Joseph, Perez-Quinones, Manuel A., Isenhour, Philip L. (2006): When opinion leaders blog: new forms of citizen interaction. In: Fortes, José A. B., MacIntosh, Ann (eds.) DG.O 2006 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research May 21-24, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 79-88. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1146598.1146628

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Convertino, Gregorio, Ganoe, Craig H. (2006): Awareness and teamwork in computer-supported collaborations. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (1) pp. 21-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2005.05.005

Farooq, Umer, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig H. (2005): Supporting creativity in distributed scientific communities. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 217-226. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1099203.1099242

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan, Isenhour, Philip L. (2005): Frameworks for Sharing Teaching Practices. In Educational Technology & Society, 8 (3) pp. 162-175. http://www.ifets.info/journals/8_3/15.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Zhou, Jingying (2005): Collective efficacy as a measure of community. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1-10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1054972.1054974

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): A case library for teaching usability engineering: Design rationale, development, and clas. In ACM Journal of Educational Resources in Computing, 5 (1) pp. 1-22. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1101670.1101673

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): Cases as Minimalist Information. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.135

Convertino, Gregorio, Farooq, Umer, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2005): Old is Gold: Integrating Older Workers in CSCW. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.461

Farooq, Umer, Merkel, Cecelia, Nash, Heather, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Xiao, Lu (2005): Participatory Design as Apprenticeship: Sustainable Watershed Management as a Community Co. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.485

Xiao, Lu, Merkel, Cecelia, Nash, Heather, Ganoe, Craig H., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Shon, Eva, Lee, Roderick, Farooq, Umer (2005): Students as Teachers and Teachers as Facilitators. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.567

Carroll, John M. (2005): The Blacksburg Electronic Village: A Study in Community Computing. In: Besselaar, Peter Van den, Koizumi, Satoshi (eds.) Digital Cities III - Third International Digital Cities Workshop September 18-19, 2005, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 43-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11407546_3

Kavanaugh, Andrea, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Reese, Debbie D., Zin, Than T. (2005): Participating in civil society: the case of networked communities. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (1) pp. 9-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2004.10.006

Ganoe, Craig H., Convertino, Gregorio, Carroll, John M. (2004): The BRIDGE awareness workspace: tools supporting activity awareness for collaborative proj. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 453-454. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1028014.1028093

Merkel, Cecelia, Xiao, Lu, Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Lee, Roderick, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): Participatory design in community computing contexts: tales from the field. In: Clement, Andrew, Besselaar, Peter Van den (eds.) PDC 2004 - Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Participatory Design July 27-31, 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 1-10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1011870.1011872

Neale, Dennis C., Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): Evaluating computer-supported cooperative work: models and frameworks. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2004, . pp. 112-121. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1031607.1031626

Ackerman, Mark S., Huysman, Marlene, Carroll, John M., Wellman, Barry, DeMichelis, Giorgio, Wulf, Volker (2004): Communities and technologies: an approach to foster social capital?. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2004, . pp. 406-408. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1031607.1031675

Convertino, Gregorio, Neale, Dennis C., Hobby, Laurian, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): A laboratory method for studying activity awareness. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 313-322. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1028014.1028063

Go, Kentaro, Carroll, John M. (2004): The blind men and the elephant: views of scenario-based system design. In Interactions, 11 (6) pp. 44-53. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1029036.1029037

Carroll, John M. (2004): Beyond fun. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 38-40. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1015530.1015547

Carroll, John M., Bowman, Doug A., McCrickard, Scott, North, Chris, Perez-Quinones, Manuel A., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Center for Human-Computer Interaction at Virginia Tech. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 1061.

Carroll, John M., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Rosson, Mary Beth, McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Notification and awareness: synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 605-632.

Ganoe, Craig, Somervell, Jacob P., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Classroom BRIDGE: using collaborative public and desktop timelines to support activity awa. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 21-30. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/964696.964699

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): A Trajectory for Community Networks. In The Information Society, 19 (5) pp. . http://www.indiana.edu/~tisj/19/5/ab-carroll.htm

Go, K., Takamoto, Y., Carroll, John M., Imamiya, A., Masuda, H. (2003): Envisioning Systems Using a Photo-Essay Technique and a Scenario-Based Inquiry. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 375-379.

Carroll, John M., Reese, Debbie Denise (2003): Community Collective Efficacy: Structure and Consequences of Perceived Capacities in the B. In: HICSS 2003 , 2003, . pp. 222. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2003/1874/07/187470222aabs.htm

Kaptelinin, Victor, Nardi, Bonnie A., Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Hollan, James D., Hutchins, Edwin, Winograd, Terry (2003): Post-cognitivist HCI: second-wave theories. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Extended abstracts of the 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003 April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 692-693. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/765891.765933

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan, Isenhour, Philip L. (2003): rameworks for Sharing Knowledge Toward a Professional Language for Teaching Practices. In: HICSS 2003 , 2003, . pp. 120. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2003/1874/04/187440120babs.htm

Howard, Steve, Carroll, John M., Murphy, J., Peck, J., Vetere, Frank (2002): Provoking Innovation: Acting-out in Contextual Scenarios. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet, Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 175-192.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2002): Scenario-based usability engineering. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2002, . pp. 413. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/778712.778776

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Seals, Cheryl D., Lewis, Tracy L. (2002): Community design of community simulations. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2002, . pp. 75-83. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/778712.778726

Vass, Marc, Carroll, John M., Shaffer, Clifford A. (2002): Supporting creativity in problem solving environments. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2002, . pp. 31-37. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/581710.581717

Carroll, John M. (2002): Scenarios and Design Cognition. In: 10th Anniversary IEEE Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2002 9-13 September, 2002, Essen, Germany. pp. 3-5. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/re/2002/1465/00/14650003abs.htm

Carroll, John M. (2002): Making use is more than a matter of task analysis. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (5) pp. 619-627.

Kim, Kibum, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2002): An Empirical Study of Web Personalization Assistants: Supporting End-Users in Web Informat. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 60-62. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440060abs.htm

Lewis, Tracy, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Seals, Cheryl D. (2002): A Community Learns Design: Towards a Pattern Language for Novice Visual Programmers. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 168-176. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440168abs.htm

Seals, Cheryl D., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Lewis, Tracy, Colson, Lenese (2002): Fun Learning Stagecast Creator: An Exercise in Minimalism and Collaboration. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 177-. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440177abs.htm

Carroll, John M. (2001): Community computing as human-computer interaction. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 20 (5) pp. 307-314.

Isenhour, Philip, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2001): Supporting Interactive Collaboration on the Web with CORK. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (6) pp. 655-676.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2001): Better Home Shopping or New Democracy?: Evaluating Community Network Outcomes. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 372-379. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p372-carroll/p372-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Isenhour, Philip, Ganoe, Craig, Dunlap, Dan, Fogarty, James, Schafer, Wendy, Metre, Christina Van (2001): Designing Our Town: MOOsburg. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54 (5) pp. 725-751.

Chin Jr., George, Carroll, John M. (2000): Articulating Collaboration in a Learning Community. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (4) pp. 233-246.

Dunlap, Daniel R., Neale, Dennis C., Carroll, John M. (2000): Teacher Collaboration in a Networked Community. In Educational Technology & Society, 3 (3) pp. . http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_3_2000/f02.html

Isenhour, Philip L., Carroll, John M., Neale, Dennis C., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan (2000): The Virtual School: An integrated collaborative environment for the classroom. In Educational Technology & Society, 3 (3) pp. . http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_3_2000/a03.html

Carroll, John M., Chin, George, Rosson, Mary Beth, Neale, Dennis C. (2000): The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual School. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2000, . pp. 239-251. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/347642/p239-carroll/p239-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M. (2000): Making Use: Scenarios and Scenario-Based Design. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2000, . pp. 4. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/347642/p4-carroll/p4-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M. (2000): Editorial: Introduction to this Special Issue on "Scenario-Based System Development. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (1) pp. 41-42.

Carroll, John M. (2000): Five Reasons for Scenario-Based Design. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (1) pp. 43-60.

Carroll, John M. (1999): Five Reasons for Scenario-based Design. In: HICSS 1999 , 1999, . http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/03/00013051abs.htm

Kaindl, Hermann, Carroll, John M. (1999): Symbolic Modeling in Practice - Introduction. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (1) pp. 28-30. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/291469.293164

Carroll, John M., Mack, Robert L. (1999): Metaphor, Computing Systems, and Active Learning. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51 (2) pp. 385-403.

Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Carroll, John M. (1999): Designing Claims for Reuse in Interactive Systems Design. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 50 (3) pp. 213-241.

Jarke, Matthias, Bui, Tung X., Carroll, John M. (1998): Scenario Management: An Interdisciplinary Approach. In Requir. Eng., 3 (3) pp. 155-173. http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=1432-010X&volume=3&issue=3&spage=155

Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Carroll, John M. (1998): Generalizing Claims and Reuse of HCI Knowledge. In: Johnson, Hilary, Nigay, Laurence, Roast, C. R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XIII August 1-4, 1998, Sheffield, UK. pp. 159-176.

Carroll, John M. (1998): On an Experimental Evaluation of Claim Analysis. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 17 (4) pp. 242-243.

Carroll, John M. (1998): New Community Networks: Wired for Change by Douglas Schuler. In The Information Society, 14 (3) pp. .

Chin Jr, George, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1997): Participatory Analysis: Shared Development of Requirements from Scenarios. In: Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 162-169. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/258549/p162-chin/p162-chin.pdf

Carroll, John M. (1997): Human-Computer Interaction: Psychology as a Science of Design. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 46 (4) pp. 501-522.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Chin, George, Koenemann, Jurgen (1997): Requirements Development: Stages of Opportunity for Collaborative Needs Discovery. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1997, . pp. 55-64. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/263552/p55-carroll/p55-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M. (1997): Reconstructing Minimalism. In: ACM 15th International Conference on Systems Documentation , 1997, . pp. 27-34. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/doc/263367/p27-carroll/p27-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M. (1996): Becoming Social: Expanding Scenario-Based Approaches in HCI. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 15 (4) pp. 266-275.

Carroll, John M. (1996): Encountering Others: Reciprocal Openings in Participatory Design and User-Centered Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (3) pp. 285-290.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Messner, David (1996): A Web StoryBase. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J., Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 369-382.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1996): The Reuse of Uses in Smalltalk Programming. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (3) pp. 219-253. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p219-rosson/p219-rosson.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1996): Scaffolded Examples for Learning Object-Oriented Design. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (4) pp. 46-47.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1996): Developing the Blacksburg Electronic Village. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (12) pp. 69-74.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1995): Integrating Task and Software Development for Object-Oriented Applications. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 377-384. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/proceedings/papers/mbr1body.htm

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1995): Managing Evaluation Goals for Training. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (7) pp. 40-48.

Alpert, Sherman R., Singley, Mark K., Carroll, John M. (1995): Multiple Multimodal Mentors: Delivering Computer-Based Instruction via Specialized Anthrop. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 14 (2) pp. 69-79.

Carroll, John M. (1995): History as Tool and Application: The Journey from HCI'91. In: Kirby, M. A. R., Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers X August, 1995, Huddersfield, UK. pp. 3-14.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Cohill, Andrew M., Schorger, John R. (1995): Building a History of the Blacksburg Electronic Village. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1995, . pp. 1-6.

Guzdial, Mark, Kafai, Yasmin B., Carroll, John M., Fischer, Gerhard, Schank, Roger, Soloway, Elliot, Shneiderman, Ben (1995): Learner-Centered System Design: HCI Perspective for the Future. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1995, . pp. 143-147.

Carroll, John M. (1995): Design History as a Tool. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1995, . pp. 2.

Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1994): Comparative Usability Evaluation: Critical Incidents and Critical Threads. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 245-251. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p245-koenemann-belliveau/p245-koenemann-belliveau.pdf

Carroll, John M., Mack, Robert L., Robertson, Scott P., Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Binding Objects to Scenarios of Use. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 41 (1) pp. 243-276.

Carroll, John M. (1994): Making Use a Design Representation. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (12) pp. 28-35.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Putting metaphors to work. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 112-119.

Carroll, John M., Alpert, Sherman R., Karat, John, Deusen, Mary S. Van, Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Raison d'Etre: capturing design history and rationale in mutimedia narratives. In: Plaisant, Catherine (eds.) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 1994, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 24-28, 1994, Conference Companion , 1994, . pp. 213. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/259963.260349

Carroll, John M., Veer, Gerrit van der, Hammond, Judith H., Schneider-Hufschmidt, Matthias, Risak, Veith A., Cockton, Gilbert (1994): World-wide CHI: Let One Hundred Flowers Bloom in the Global Zoo. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 4-9.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1993): The Collaboration Thread: A Formative Evaluation of Object-Oriented Education. In: Cook, Curtis, Scholtz, Jean, Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Fifth Workshop December 3-15, 1993, 1993, Palo Alto, California. pp. 26-41.

Carroll, John M., Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1993): Critical Incidents and Critical Themes in Empirical Usability Evaluation. In: Alty, James L., Diaper, Dan, Guest, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VIII August 7-10, 1993, Loughborough University, UK. pp. 279-292.

Carroll, John M. (1993): Creating a Design Science of Human-Computer Interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 5 (1) pp. 3-12.

Carroll, John M., Singley, Mark K., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Integrating Theory Development with Design Evaluation. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 , 1992, . pp. 446-452.

Bellamy, Rachel K. E., Carroll, John M. (1992): Re-Structuring the Programmer's Task. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 37 (4) pp. 503-527.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Getting Around the Task-Artifact Cycle: How to Make Claims and Design by Scenario. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (2) pp. 181-212. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1992-10-2/p181-carroll/p181-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M., Singley, Mark K., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Integrating Theory Development with Design Evaluation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 11 (5) pp. 247-255.

Carroll, John M., Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Introduction to this Special Issue on Design Rationale. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 197-200.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Sweeney, Christine (1991): A View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 277-283. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p277-rosson/p277-rosson.pdf

Singley, Mark K., Carroll, John M., Alpert, Sherman R. (1991): Psychological Design Rationale for an Intelligent Tutoring System for Smalltalk. In: Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Moher, Thomas G., Robertson, Scott P. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers , 1991, Norwood, New Jersey, USA. pp. 196-209.

Zak, Bruce, Carroll, John M., Swigger, Kathleen M. (1991): An Experiment in Modeling Human Visual Learning. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 (4) pp. 513-526.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1991): Deliberated Evolution: Stalking the View Matcher in Design Space. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 281-318.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Sweeney, Christine (1991): Demonstrating a View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 431-432. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p431-rosson/p431-rosson.pdf

Carroll, John M. (1991): History and Hysteresis in Theories and Frameworks for HCI. In: Diaper, Dan, Hammond, Nick (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VI August 20-23, 1991, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 47-55.

Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Carroll, John M., Young, Richard M., Long, John (1991): HCI Theory on Trial. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 399-401. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p399-sutcliffe/p399-sutcliffe.pdf

Monk, Andrew, Carroll, John M., Harrison, Michael, Long, John, Young, Richard (1990): New Approaches to Theory in HCI: How Should We Judge Their Acceptability?. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1055-1058.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Bellamy, Rachel K. E. (1990): Smalltalk Scaffolding: A Case Study of Minimalist Instruction. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 423-429.

Carroll, John M., Singer, Janice, Bellamy, Rachel K. E., Alpert, Sherman R. (1990): A View Matcher for Learning Smalltalk. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 431-437.

Anderson, Richard I., Carroll, John M., McGrew, John F., Grudin, Jonathan, Scapin, Dominique L. (1990): Task Analysis: The Oft Missing Step in the Development of Computer-Human Interfaces; Its D. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1051-1054.

Carroll, John M. (1990): Infinite Detail and Emulation in an Ontologically Minimized HCI. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 321-327.

Bellamy, Rachel K. E., Carroll, John M. (1990): Redesign by Design. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 199-205.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1990): Climbing the Smalltalk Mountain. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (3) pp. 76-79.

Singley, Mark K., Carroll, John M. (1990): Minimalist Planning Tools in an Instructional System for Smalltalk Programming. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 937-944.

Carroll, John M. (1989): Feeding the Interface Eaters. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 35-48.

Carroll, John M., Campbell, Robert L. (1989): Artifacts as Psychological Theories: The Case of Human-Computer Interaction. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 8 (4) pp. 247-256.

Black, John B., Bechtold, J. Scott, Mitrani, Marco, Carroll, John M. (1989): On-Line Tutorials: What Kind of Inference Leads to the Most Effective Learning?. In: Bice, Ken, Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 81-83.

Wolf, Catherine G., Carroll, John M., Landauer, Thomas K., John, Bonnie E., Whiteside, John (1989): The Role of Laboratory Experiments in HCI: Help, Hindrance, or Ho-Hum?. In: Bice, Ken, Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 265-268.

Carroll, John M., Kellogg, Wendy A. (1989): Artifact as Theory-Nexus: Hermeneutics Meet Theory-Based Design. In: Bice, Ken, Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 7-14.

Carroll, John M., Kay, Dana S. (1988): Prompting, Feedback and Error Correction in the Design of a Scenario Machine. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 28 (1) pp. 11-27.

Carroll, John M., Aaronson, Amy P. (1988): Learning by Doing with Simulated Intelligent Help. In Communications of the ACM, 31 (9) pp. 1064-1079.

Carroll, John M., Thomas, John C. (1988): Fun. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (3) pp. 21-24.

Shneiderman, Ben, Carroll, John M. (1988): Ecological Studies of Professional Programmers (Introduction to the Special Section). In Communications of the ACM, 31 (11) pp. 1256-1258.

Grudin, Jonathan, Carroll, John M., Ehrlich, Sheryl M., Grisham, Mike, Hersh, Harry, Seybold, Patricia (1988): Integrating Human Factors and Software Development. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas, Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 157-159.

Catrambone, Richard, Carroll, John M. (1987): Learning a word processing system with training whells and guided exploration. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 169-174.

Carroll, John M., McKendree, Jean (1987): Interface Design Issues for Advice-Giving Expert Systems. In Communications of the ACM, 30 (1) pp. 14-31.

Aaronson, Amy, Carroll, John M. (1987): The Answer is in the Question: A Protocol Study of Intelligent Help. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 6 (4) pp. 393-402.

Carroll, John M., Smith-Kerker, Penny L., Ford, James R., Mazur-Rimetz, Sandra A. (1987): The Minimal Manual. In Human-Computer Interaction, 3 (2) pp. 123-153.

McKendree, Jean, Carroll, John M. (1987): Impact of Feedback Content in Initial Learning of an Office System. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 855-859.

Carroll, John M. (1987): Using the User\'s Intelligence to Design Intelligent Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting , 1987, . pp. 281-284.

Smith, Philip J., Soloway, Elliot, Carroll, John M. (1987): Intelligent Tutoring and Help Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting , 1987, . pp. 280.

Black, John B., Carroll, John M., McGuigan, Stuart M. (1987): What kind of minimal instruction manual is the most effective. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 159-162.

Aaronson, Amy, Carroll, John M. (1987): Intelligent help in a one--shot dialog: A protocol study. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 163-168.

Carroll, John M., Herder, Richard E., Sawtelle, Don (1987): TaskMapper. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 973-978.

Carroll, John M., Campbell, Robert L. (1986): Softening Up Hard Science: Reply to Newell and Card. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (3) pp. 227-249.

Carroll, John M., Mazur, Sandra A. (1986): LisaLearning. In Computer, 19 (11) pp. 35-49.

Carroll, John M. (1986): Psychology and the user interface: Science is soft at the frontier. In: Graphics Interface 86 May 26-30, 1986, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 186-187.

Carroll, John M., Kay, Dana S. (1985): Prompting, Feedback and Error Correction in the Design of a Scenario Machine. In: Borman, Lorraine, Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 149-153.

Carroll, John M., Mack, Robert L. (1985): Metaphor, Computing Systems, and Active Learning. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 22 (1) pp. 39-57.

Carroll, John M., Mack, Robert L., Lewis, Clayton H., Grischkowsky, Nancy L., Anderson, Scott R. (1985): Exploring Exploring a Word Processor. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (3) pp. 283-307.

Carroll, John M., Carrithers, C. (1984): Training Wheels in a User Interface. In Communications of the ACM, 27 (8) pp. 800-806.

Carroll, John M., Carrithers, C. (1984): Blocking learner error states in a training-wheels system. In Human Factors, 26 (4) pp. 377-389.

Carroll, John M. (1984): Minimalist Design for Active Users. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 39-44.

Carroll, John M. (1983): Presentation and form in user interface architecture. In Byte, 8 (12) pp. 113-122.

Mack, Robert L., Lewis, Clayton H., Carroll, John M. (1983): Learning to Use Word Processors: Problems and Prospects. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 1 (3) pp. 254-271.

Carroll, John M. (1982): Creative Names for Personal Files in an Interactive Computing Environment. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 16 (4) pp. 405-438.

Carroll, John M., Thomas, John C. (1982): Metaphor and the cognitive representation of computing systems. In IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 12 (2) pp. 107-116.

Carroll, John M. (1982): Learning, Using and Designing Filenames and Command Paradigms. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (4) pp. 327-346.

Malhotra, Ashok, Thomas, John C., Carroll, John M., Miller, Lance A. (1980): Cognitive Processes in Design. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 12 (2) pp. 119-140.

Carroll, John M., Thomas, John C., Malhotra, A. (1979): A clinical-experimental analysis of design problem solving. In Design Studies, 1 (2) pp. 84-92.

Thomas, John C., Carroll, John M. (1979): The psychological study of design. In Design Studies, 1 (1) pp. 5-11.

Carroll, John M.

16.8 Commentary by John M. Carroll

16.8.1 Activity Awareness

Activity-centric computing is exploring the idea of activity as an appropriate organizing rubric for user interfaces, in contrast to more traditional user interface designs organized around applications and data type hierarchies. This is an important direction for user interface design, and a specific design implication drawing upon Activity Theory. In my work, I am exploring the idea that collaborators need to share awareness of joint activities – in contrast, for example, to conceiving of awareness only with respect to joint actions, mutual presence, and/or shared synchronous situations.

Collaborators must attain and maintain reciprocal awareness in order to coordinate effectively (Dourish & Bellotti, 1992). Groups engaged in collaborative activities of significant scope and duration must achieve and maintain awareness of diverse aspects of their shared activity in order to coordinate effectively. For example, they must verify mutual presence and attention, which is fairly straightforward in face-to-face interaction, but often subtle, difficult, and a continuing challenge in computer-mediated collaboration. Members need to know what tools and resources they have access to, but also what tools and resources their counterparts can access. The availability of tools and resources may change throughout the course of an activity. The group must have an understanding of who among them might know potentially relevant information, or know how to do something that might be critical to the collective endeavor. Members need to know something of their partners’ attitudes and goals, and of what their partners expect from them and of the activity. They need to know what criteria their partners will use to evaluate joint outcomes, the moment-to-moment focus of their attention and action during the collaborative work, and how the view of the shared plan and the work actually accomplished evolves over time. All of these intentional variables change constantly as the task context itself changes.

Awareness in collaborative situations is sometimes regarded as a relatively discrete achievement – awareness of a task context (situation awareness), of group consensus, or of a shared mental model. These simplifications can be useful for scripted collaborative tasks, such as managing single-threaded processes or team training exercises. However, they do not address routine sources of complexity. In realistically complex tasks of significant scope and duration, the current situation is defined to a considerable extent by its history, which in turn is constantly reconstructed by the group and by its individual members. For instance knowing how other group members respond to criticisms can have a profound effect on group discussion and argumentation. The current situation is defined also by continuous exogenous dynamics that present a constantly changing situation to the group. Indeed, if awareness were to be supported by discrete updates, it would require an unceasing torrent of information, which ipso facto could never be useful or even usable.

Shared mental models are a popular way to think about the knowledge and skills that teams use to manage collective activity. But the notion of identical copies of knowledge used and maintained by team members to enable coordination is both exotic and cumbersome as a foundation for joint endeavor. Team members who believe that they should hold exactly the same understanding of a current task might spend considerable time and effort verifying agreed-upon preconditions for action, making them less useful to their partners in action than members who have different perspectives, and who could play complementary roles and take complementary team responsibilities. Moreover, too much literal shared understanding could entrain redundant capabilities, and teams no better than their best member. Teams with homogeneous understandings are maximally vulnerable to groupthink and stagnant thinking. Analogous to arguments regarding natural selection, the more variation that exists in a team, in individual backgrounds, mind sets and strategic approaches, the better the chances of that team to adapt to new and novel situations. For realistic and complex one-of-kind situations, such as emergency response, information analysis, and software design, creativity, learning and adaptation are critical to team performance. We are trying to articulate a sense of shared understanding among team members that is robust with respect to exogenous dynamics, and that can, in principle, leverage collaboration to produce performance better than any team member.

My colleagues and I are developing the concept of activity awareness as a programmatic analysis for the mutual awareness of partners sharing an activity of significant scope and duration (Carroll et al. 2003, 2006, 2009, 2011). Activity awareness builds upon, but transcends, synchronous awareness of where a partner's cursor is pointing, where the partner is looking, and other immediate features of a task situation. More importantly, it transcends the sharing of identical states of situation awareness or mental models. Indeed, we would argue that lower-level and simpler aspects of awareness are appropriately conceptualized as mediated by shared mental models: All stakeholders in a joint activity must have the same understanding of primitive and objective situation properties such as the document being edited, the key that was pressed, the reference of a deictic. But shared mental models are neither useful nor possible for intentional situation properties such as role-based interpretations and strategies, personal insights and perspectives, opportunistic problem solving derived from interactions with tools and other resources, value-based assessments drawing on personal histories, expectations and attributions about one’s teammates, etc.

In framing activity awareness, we appropriated the concept of activity from Activity Theory, to emphasize that collaborators need be aware of a whole, shared activity as complex, socially and culturally embedded endeavor, organized in dynamic hierarchies, and not merely aware of the synchronous and easily noticeable aspects of the activity. In this view, awareness is teleologically inseparable from collective regulation of a joint endeavor. Members need to be engaged with one another’s interests, values, and possibly relevant knowledge and skills, initial and current goals and motivations, criteria for evaluating outcomes, and assessments of the status and trajectory of ongoing work. This engagement is continually negotiated and developed. We articulated this continual process of activity awareness into arenas of conceptual negotiation among members of a team, a collection of ongoing interaction protocols rather than static sources of knowledge. Ours is a developmental framework in the traditional sense of Piaget and Vygotsky: higher-level facets are enabled by and resolve conflicts in lower-level facets.

When people plan, negotiate and coordinate with others in open-ended endeavors over significant spans of time, when they solve problems that are ill defined and consequential, when they stretch their own capabilities, they develop; that is, they come to experience and interact with the world in new ways. In Activity Theory, human development is a normal outcome of significant activity, but it is also profound in the sense that it qualitatively changes one's awareness of activity. As an individual develops, he or she becomes more able to understand, to reconcile, and to integrate different levels of performance and different approaches to problems by synthesizing zones of proximal development. The successive elaboration of personal perspectives further enhances each member's awareness of his or her own activity, and creates myriad new ways to construct common ground, codify practices, and build social capital. A shorthand for activity awareness is a group's awareness and regulation of its own activity.

Activity awareness is fundamentally a dynamic process, not a state of knowledge. It involves monitoring and integrating many different kinds of information at different levels of analysis, such as events, tasks, goals, social interactions and their meanings, group values and norms, and more. It involves monitoring and integrating more-or-less continuingly to learn about developing circumstances and the initiatives, reactions, and sense making of other people with respect to on-going and anticipated courses of action. Activity awareness is not merely a matter of coordinating state information. It must be continually negotiated and constructed throughout the course of a collaborative interaction. It is a process that is constitutive of collaboration.

16.8.2 Additional References

  • Carroll, J.M., Neale, D.C., Isenhour, P.L., Rosson, M.B. & McCrickard, D.S. 2003. Notification and awareness: Synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity.  International Journal of Human-Computer Systems 58, 605-632.
  • Carroll, J.M., Rosson, M.B., Convertino, G & Ganoe, C. 2006. Awareness and teamwork in computer-supported collaborations. Interacting with Computers, 18, 21-46.
  • Carroll, J.M., Borge, M., Ganoe, C.H. & Rosson, M.B. 2011. Articulating collaborative contributions to activity awareness. In E. Salas, S. Fiore, & M. Letsky (Eds.), Theories of Team Cognition: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives, New York: Routledge, pages 209-242.
  • Carroll, J.M., Rosson, M.B., Farooq, U., & Xiao, L. 2009. Beyond being aware. Information and Organizations, 19, 3, 162-185.
  • Dourish, P. and Bellotti, V. 1992. Awareness and Coordination in Shared Workspaces. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work CSCW'92 (Toronto, Ontario), 107-114. New York: ACM.

Carroll, John M. (1987): Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction (Bradford Books), The MIT Press,

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): The paradox of the active user. In: "Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction (Bradford Books)" The MIT Press .

Moran, Thomas P., Carroll, John M. (1996): Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use (Computers, Cognition, and Work Series), CRC Press,

Norman, Donald A., Bannon, Liam, Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Kellogg, Wendy A., Rosson, Mary Beth, diSessa, Andrea A. (1991): Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Cambridge University Press,

Carroll, John M. (1980): Toward a Structural Psychology of Cinema, Mouton De Gruyter,

Kyng, Morten, Kuuti, Kari, Erickson, Thomas (1995): Scenario-Based Design: Envisioning Work and Technology in System Development, Carroll, John M. (eds.), John Wiley and Sons,

Carroll, John M., Kellogg, Wendy A., Rosson, Mary Beth (1991): The Task-Artifact Cycle. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface" Cambridge University Press .

Carroll, John M. (2000): Making Use: Scenario-Based Design of Human-Computer Interactions, MIT Press,

Dix, Alan J., Ware, Colin, MacKenzie, I. Scott, Blackwell, Alan, Green, T. R. G., Payne, Stephen J., Perry, Mark, Bertelsen, Olav W., Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Kraut, Robert E. (2003): HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Morgan Kaufman Publishers,

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Design Rationale as Theory. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks" Morgan Kaufman Publishers .

Reisner, Phyllis, Whiteside, John, Wixon, Dennis (1987): Interfacing Thought, Carroll, John M. (eds.), MIT Press,

Ullmer, Brygg, Ishii, Hiroshi (2001): Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Carroll, John M. (1991): Introduction: The Kittle House manifesto. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface" Cambridge University Press .

Carroll, John M., Tanner, Peter P. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 87 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Canada.

Carroll, John M. (1990): The Nurnberg Funnel: Designing Minimalist Instruction for Practical Computer Skill, MIT Press,

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2001): Usability Engineering: Scenario-Based Development of Human Computer Interaction, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction, Carroll, John M. (eds.), MIT Press,

(1998): Minimalism Beyond the Nurnberg Funnel, Carroll, John M. (eds.), MIT Press,

(2006): Foundations of design in HCI, Carroll, John M. (eds.), CRC Press LLC,

(2002): Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Addison-Wesley Publishing,

(2003): HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks: Toward a multidisciplinary science, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,

(1996): Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use, Moran, Thomas P., Carroll, John M. (eds.), ,

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): Paradox of the Active User. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction" MIT Press .

Carroll, John M. (2014): Human Computer Interaction - brief intro. In: Soegaard, Mads, Dam, Rikke Friis (eds). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed." The Interaction Design Foundation .

Carroll, John M. (2002): MacMillan Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. In: "MacMillan Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science" Macmillan-Nature Publishing Group .

Carroll, John M. (1985): What\'s in a Name: An Essay in the Psychology of Reference, W.H. Freeman,

(2008): The Open Knowledge Society, Lytras, M.D., Carroll, John M., Damiani, E., Tennyson, R. D., Avison, D., Vossen, G., Pablos, P. Ordóñez de (eds.), Springer,

(2008): Emerging Technologies and Information Systems for the Knowledge Society, Lytras, M. D., Carroll, John M., Damiani, E., Tennyson, R.D. (eds.), Springer,

(2008): Learning in Communities: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Human Centered Information Technology, Carroll, John M. (eds.), Springer,

Burge, J. E., Carroll, John M., McCall, R., Mistrik, I. (2008): Rationale-based software engineering, Springer,

Carroll, John M. (2003): HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks: Toward a Multidisciplinary Science (Interactive Technologies), Morgan Kaufmann,