Doug A. Bowman

Personal Homepage
https://research.cs.vt.edu/3di/user/123
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Email
bowman@vt.edu

Doug A. Bowman is a Professor of Computer Science and Director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction at Virginia Tech. He is the principal investigator of the 3D Interaction Group, focusing on the topics of three-dimensional user interface design and the benefits of immersion in virtual environments. Dr. Bowman was the lead author of 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, and served as the general chair of the IEEE Virtual Reality Conference in 2007-2008. He received a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation for his work on 3D Interaction, and has been named an ACM Distinguished Scientist. His undergraduate degree in mathematics and computer science is from Emory University, and he received his M.S. and Ph.D. in computer science from the Georgia Institute of Technology.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1997
Publication period end
2014
Number of co-authors
102

Co-authors

Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues

Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Bowman, Doug A., McMahan, Ryan P., Ragan, Eric D. (2012): Questioning naturalism in 3D user interfaces. In Communications of the ACM, 55 (9) pp. 78-88.

Figueroa, Pablo, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Kuntz, Sebastien, Vanacken, Lode, Maesen, Steven, Weyer, Tom De, Notelaers, Sofie, Octavia, Johanna Renny, Beznosyk, Anastasiia, Coninx, Karin, Bacim, Felipe, Kopper, Regis, Leal, Anamary, Ni, Tao, Bowman, Doug A. (2010): 3DUI 2010 Contest Grand Prize Winners. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 30 (6) pp. 86-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2010.108

Kopper, Regis, Bowman, Doug A., Silva, Mara G., McMahan, Ryan P. (2010): A human motor behavior model for distal pointing tasks. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (10) pp. 603-615. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WGR-5033Y14-1/2/a008ef9d17f6bd929379a951d8562a14

Bowman, Doug A., Frohlich, Bernd, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Stuerzlinger, Wolfgang (2009): Current trends in 3D user interface research. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (3) pp. 223-224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2008.10.003

Chen, Jian, Bowman, Doug A. (2009): Domain-Specific Design of 3D Interaction Techniques: An Approach for Designing Useful Virt. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 18 (5) pp. 370-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/pres.18.5.370

Froehlich, Bernd, Bowman, Doug A. (2009): 3D User Interfaces. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 29 (6) pp. 20-21. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MCG.2009.113

Wingrave, Chadwick A., LaViola, Joseph J., Bowman, Doug A. (2009): A natural, tiered and executable UIDL for 3D user interfaces based on Concept-Oriented Des. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 16 (4) pp. 21. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1614390.1614396

Bowman, Doug A., Coquillart, Sabine, Froehlich, Bernd, Hirose, Michitaka, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi, Stürzlinger, Wolfgang (2008): 3D User Interfaces: New Directions and Perspectives. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28 (6) pp. 20-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2008.109

Bowman, Doug A., McMahan, Ryan P. (2008): Virtual Reality: How Much Immersion Is Enough?. In IEEE Computer, 40 (7) pp. 36-43. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2007.257

Polys, Nicholas F., Kim, Seonho, Bowman, Doug A. (2007): Effects of information layout, screen size, and field of view on user performance in infor. In Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation, 18 (1) pp. 19-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cav.159

Wang, Yi, Otitoju, Kunmi, Liu, Tong, Kim, Sijung, Bowman, Doug A. (2007): The Effect of Gaps Between Displays on Spatial Perception and Cognition Tasks in Virtual E. In IJVR, 6 (2) pp. 33-41. http://www.ijvr.org/issues/issue2-2007/4.pdf

Bowman, Doug A., Chen, Jian, Wingrave, Chadwick A., Lucas, John F., Ray, Andrew, Polys, Nicholas F., Li, Qing, Haciahmetoglu, Yonca, Kim, Ji-Sun, Kim, Seonho, Boehringer, Robert, Ni, Tao (2006): New Directions in 3D User Interfaces. In IJVR, 5 (2) pp. 3-14. http://www.ijvr.org/sub/issues/issue2/02!ijvr_bowman_formatted.pdf

Schafer, Wendy A., Bowman, Doug A. (2004): Evaluating the effects of frame of reference on spatial collaboration using desktop collab. In Virtual Reality, 7 (3) pp. 164-174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10055-004-0123-3

Polys, Nicholas F., Bowman, Doug A. (2004): Design and display of enhancing information in desktop information-rich virtual environmen. In Virtual Reality, 8 (1) pp. 41-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10055-004-0134-0

Schafer, Wendy, Bowman, Doug A. (2003): A Comparison of Traditional and Fisheye Radar View Techniques for Spatial Collaboration. In: Graphics Interface 2003 June 11-13, 2003, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. pp. 39-46.

Bowman, Doug A. (2002): A Survey of Usability Evaluation in Virtual Environments: Classification and Comparison of. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11 (4) pp. 404-424.

Bowman, Doug A., Wingrave, Chadwick A., Campbell, J. M., Ly, V. Q., Rhoton, C. J. (2002): Novel Uses of Pinch GlovesTM for Virtual Environment Interaction Techniques. In Virtual Reality, 6 (3) pp. 122-129. http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s100550200013

Bowman, Doug A., Billinghurst, Mark (2002): Introduction. In Virtual Reality, 6 (3) pp. 105-106. http://www.springerlink.com/index/10.1007/s100550200011

Bowman, Doug A., Johnson, Donald B., Hodges, Larry F. (2001): Testbed Evaluation of Virtual Environment Interaction Techniques. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10 (1) pp. 75-95.

Bowman, Doug A., Kruijff, Ernst, LaViola, Joseph J., Poupyrev, Ivan (2001): An Introduction to 3D User Interface Design. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 10 (1) pp. 96-108.

Kessler, G. Drew, Bowman, Doug A., Hodges, Larry F. (2000): The Simple Virtual Environment Library: An Extensible Framework for Building VE Applicatio. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9 (2) pp. 187-208.

Bowman, Doug A., Wineman, Jean, Hodges, Larry F., Allison, Don (1999): The Educational Value of an Information-Rich Virtual Environment. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (3) pp. 317-331.

Bowman, Doug A., Hodges, Larry F. (1999): Formalizing the Design, Evaluation, and Application of Interaction Techniques for Immersiv. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 10 (1) pp. 37-53.

Bowman, Doug A., Davis, Elizabeth Thorpe, Hodges, Larry F., Badre, Albert N. (1999): Maintaining Spatial Orientation during Travel in an Immersive Virtual Environment. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (6) pp. 618-631.

Bowman, Doug A., Wineman, Jean, Hodges, Larry F., Allison, Don (1998): Designing Animal Habitats Within an Immersive VE. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 18 (5) pp. 9-13. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/38.708555

Bowman, Doug A., Hodges, Larry F., Bolter, Jay David (1998): The Virtual Venue: User-Computer Interaction in Information-Rich Virtual Environments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 7 (5) pp. 478-493.

Allison, Don, Wills, Brian, Bowman, Doug A., Wineman, Jean, Hodges, Larry F. (1997): The Virtual Reality Gorilla Exhibit. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 17 (6) pp. 30-38. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/38.626967

Ball, Robert, North, Chris, Bowman, Doug A. (2007): Move to improve: promoting physical navigation to increase user performance with large dis. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2007, . pp. 191-200. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240624.1240656

Lee, Cha, Bonebrake, Scott, Hollerer, Tobias, Bowman, Doug A. (2010): The role of latency in the validity of AR simulation. In: Lok, Benjamin, Klinker, Gudrun, Nakatsu, Ryohei (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2010 March 20-24, 2010, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 11-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2010.5444820

Kopper, Regis, Ni, Tao, Bowman, Doug A., Pinho, Marcio (2006): Design and evaluation of navigation techniques for multiscale virtual environments. In: IEEE Virtual Reality March, 2006, Alexandria, Virginia, USA. pp. 175-182. http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vr/2006/0224/00/02240175.pdf

Wilkes, Curtis B., Tilden, Dan, Bowman, Doug A. (2012): 3D User Interfaces Using Tracked Multi-touch Mobile Devices. In: Joint Virtual Reality Conference of ICAT - EGVE - EuroVR 2012 , 2012, .

Ni, Tao, Bowman, Doug A., North, Chris (2011): AirStroke: bringing unistroke text entry to freehand gesture interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 2473-2476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979303

Ragan, Eric D., Endert, Alex, Bowman, Doug A., Quek, Francis (2011): The effects of spatial layout and view control on cognitive processing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 2005-2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979921

Bowman, Doug A., Sowndararajan, Ajith, Ragan, Eric D., Kopper, Regis (2009): Higher Levels of Immersion Improve Procedure Memorization Performance. In: Hirose, Michitaka, Schmalstieg, Dieter, Wingrave, Chadwick A., Nishimura, Kunihiro (eds.) Proceedings of the Joint Virtual Reality Conference of EGVE - the 15th Eurographics Symposium on Virtual Environments - ICAT-EuroVR , 2009, Lyon, France. pp. 121-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2312/EGVE/JVRC09/121-128

Bowman, Doug A., Kruijff, Ernst, LaViola, Joseph J., Poupyrev, Ivan (2005): 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, Addison-Wesley Professional,

Kopper, Regis, Bacim, Felipe, Bowman, Doug A. (2011): Rapid and accurate 3D selection by progressive refinement. In: Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces , 2011, . pp. 67-74.

Lucas, John F., Kim, Ji-Sun, Bowman, Doug A. (2005): Resizing beyond widgets: object resizing techniques for immersive virtual environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1601-1604. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1056976

Leal, Anamary, Bowman, Doug A., Schaefer, Laurel, Quek, Francis (2011): 3D sketching using interactive fabric for tangible and bimanual input. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface , 2011, . pp. 49-56.

Bowman, Doug A., Hodges, Larry F. (1997): An Evaluation of Techniques for Grabbing and Manipulating Remote Objects in Immersive Virt. In: SI3D 1997 , 1997, . pp. 35-38,182. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/253284.253301

Bowman, Doug A., Kruijff, Ernst, LaViola, Joseph J., Poupyrev, Ivan (2004): 3D User Interfaces: Theory and Practice, Addison-Wesley Professional,

Ni, Tao, Bowman, Doug A., Chen, Jian (2006): Increased display size and resolution improve task performance in Information-Rich Virtual. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Graphics Interface , 2006, . pp. 139-146. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1143079.1143102

Wingrave, Chadwick A., Bowman, Doug A. (2008): Tiered Developer-Centric Representations for 3D Interfaces: Concept-Oriented Design in Cha. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2008 VR 2008 8-12 March, 2008, Reno, Nevada, USA. pp. 193-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2008.4480773

Bowman, Doug A., Wingrave, C. A., Campbell, J. M., Ly, V. Q. (2001): Using Pinch Gloves™ for both Natural and Abstract Interaction Techniques in Virtual . In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 2001, . pp. 629-633.

Carroll, John M., Bowman, Doug A., McCrickard, Scott, North, Chris, Perez-Quinones, Manuel A., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Center for Human-Computer Interaction at Virginia Tech. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 1061.

Ragan, Eric D., Wilkes, Curtis, Bowman, Doug A., Hollerer, Tobias (2009): Simulation of AugmentedReality Systems in Purely Virtual Environments. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2009 VR 2009 14-18 March, 2009, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA. pp. 287-288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VR.2009.4811058

Chen, Jian, Pyla, Pardha S., Bowman, Doug A. (2004): Colorplate: Testbed Evaluation of Navigation and Text Display Techniques in an Information. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 VR 2004 27-31 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 289. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vr/2004/8415/00/84150289abs.htm

Wingrave, Chadwick A., Hix, Deborah, Schmalstieg, Dieter, MacIntyre, Blair, Bowman, Doug A., Mine, Mark R. (2003): Mixed Reality: The Continuum from Virtual to Augmented Reality. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2003 VR 2003 22-26 March, 2003, Los Angeles, CA, USA. pp. 121-124. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vr/2003/1882/00/18820121abs.htm

McMahan, Ryan P., Gorton, Doug, Gresock, Joe, McConnell, Will, Bowman, Doug A. (2006): Separating the effects of level of immersion and 3D interaction techniques. In: Slater, Mel, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Tal, Ayellet, Amditis, Angelos, Chrysanthou, Yiorgos (eds.) VRST 2006 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 1-3, 2006, Limassol, Cyprus. pp. 108-111. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1180495.1180518

Bowman, Doug A., Badillo, Brian, Manek, Dhruv (2007): Evaluating the Need for Display-Specific and Device-Specific 3D Interaction Techniques. In: Shumaker, Randall (eds.) ICVR 2007 - Virtual Reality - Second International Conference - Part 1 July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 195-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73335-5_22

Bowman, Doug A., Johnson, Donald B., Hodges, Larry F. (1999): Testbed evaluation of virtual environment interaction techniques. In: VRST 1999 , 1999, . pp. 26-33. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/323663.323667

Bowman, Doug A., North, Chris, Chen, Jian, Polys, Nicholas F., Pyla, Pardha S., Yilmaz, Umur (2003): Information-rich virtual environments: theory, tools, and research agenda. In: VRST 2003 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology October 1-3, 2003, Osaka, Japan. pp. 81-90. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1008653.1008669

Narayan, Michael, Waugh, Leo, Zhang, Xiaoyu, Bafna, Pradyut, Bowman, Doug A. (2005): Quantifying the benefits of immersion for collaboration in virtual environments. In: Singh, Gurminder, Lau, Rynson W. H., Chrysanthou, Yiorgos, Darken, Rudolph P. (eds.) VRST 2005 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 7-9, 2005, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 78-81. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1101616.1101632

Pinho, Márcio S., Bowman, Doug A., Freitas, Carla Maria Dal Sasso (2002): Cooperative object manipulation in immersive virtual environments: framework and technique. In: Shi, Jiaoying, Hodges, Larry F., Sun, Hanqiu, Peng, Qunsheng (eds.) VRST 2002- Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 11-13, 2002, Hong Kong, China. pp. 171-178. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/585740.585769

Polys, Nicholas F., Kim, Seonho, Bowman, Doug A. (2005): Effects of information layout, screen size, and field of view on user performance in infor. In: Singh, Gurminder, Lau, Rynson W. H., Chrysanthou, Yiorgos, Darken, Rudolph P. (eds.) VRST 2005 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 7-9, 2005, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 46-55. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1101616.1101626

Wilkes, Curtis, Bowman, Doug A. (2008): Advantages of velocity-based scaling for distant 3D manipulation. In: Feiner, Steven K., Thalmann, Daniel, Guitton, Pascal, Frohlich, Bernd, Kruijff, Ernst, Hachet, Martin (eds.) VRST 2008 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology October 27-29, 2008, Bordeaux, France. pp. 23-29. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1450579.1450585

Ray, Andrew, Bowman, Doug A. (2007): Towards a system for reusable 3D interaction techniques. In: Majumder, Aditi, Hodges, Larry F., Cohen-Or, Daniel, Spencer, Stephen N. (eds.) VRST 2007 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 5-7, 2007, Newport Beach, California, USA. pp. 187-190. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1315184.1315219

Wang, Yi, Otitoju, Kunmi, Liu, Tong, Kim, Sijung, Bowman, Doug A. (2006): Evaluating the effects of real world distraction on user performance in virtual environmen. In: Slater, Mel, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Tal, Ayellet, Amditis, Angelos, Chrysanthou, Yiorgos (eds.) VRST 2006 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 1-3, 2006, Limassol, Cyprus. pp. 19-26. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1180495.1180501

Bowman, Doug A., Wingrave, Chadwick A. (2001): Design and Evaluation of Menu Systems for Immersive Virtual Environments. In: VR 2001 , 2001, . pp. 149-156. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vr/2001/0948/00/09480149abs.htm

Schuchardt, Philip, Bowman, Doug A. (2007): The benefits of immersion for spatial understanding of complex underground cave systems. In: Majumder, Aditi, Hodges, Larry F., Cohen-Or, Daniel, Spencer, Stephen N. (eds.) VRST 2007 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 5-7, 2007, Newport Beach, California, USA. pp. 121-124. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1315184.1315205

Bowman, Doug A. (2014): 3D User Interfaces. In: Lowgren, Jonas, Carroll, John M., Hassenzahl, Marc, Erickson, Thomas, Blackwell, Alan, Overbeeke, Kees, Hummels, Caroline, Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Holtzblatt, Karen, Beyer, Hugh R., Kjeldskov, Jesper, Burnett, Margaret M., Scaffidi, Christopher, Svanaes, Dag, Hook, Kristina, Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Schmidt, Albrecht, Cockton, Gilbert, Kaptelinin, Victor, Christensen, Clayton M., Hippel, Eric von, Tractinsky, Noam, Challis, Ben, Shusterman, Richard, Hudson, William, Mann, Steve, Whitworth, Brian, Ahmad, Adnan, de Souza, Clarisse Sieckenius, Fishwick, Paul A., Grudin, Jonathan, Poltrock, Steven, Gallagher, Shaun, Dix, Alan J., Nielsen, Lene, Randall, Dave, Rouncefield, Mark, Bowman, Doug A., Kock, Ned, Cairns, Paul, Few, Stephen, Dautenhahn, Kerstin, Paterno, Fabio, Cyr, Dianne, Mortier, Richard, Haddadi, Hamed, Henderson, Tristan, McAuley, Derek, Crowcroft, Jon, Crabtree, Andy, Stephanidis, Constantine, Blandford, Ann (eds). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed." The Interaction Design Foundation .

Schafer, Wendy A., Bowman, Doug A. (2005): Integrating 2D and 3D views for spatial collaboration. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 41-50. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1099203.1099210

Silva, Mara G., Bowman, Doug A. (2009): Body-based interaction for desktop games. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4249-4254. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520648

Chen, Jian, Bowman, Doug A. (2006): Evaluation of the effectiveness of cloning techniques for architectural virtual environmen. In: Proc. of IEEE virtual reality , 2006, . pp. 139-146. http://www.cs.brown.edu/~jchen

Chen, Jian, Pyla, Pardha S., Bowman, Doug A. (2004): Testbed Evaluation of Navigation and Text Display Techniques in an Information-Rich Virtua. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 VR 2004 27-31 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 181-190. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VR.2004.73

Bowman, Doug A., Gracey, Matthew, Lucas, John F. (2004): Efficient, Intuitive User Interfaces for Classroom-Based Immersive Virtual Environments. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 VR 2004 27-31 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 219-220. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VR.2004.38

Bowman, Doug A., Setareh, Mehdi, Pinho, Márcio Serolli, Ndiwalana, Ali, Kalita, Alex, Lee, Yunha, Lucas, John F., Gracey, Matthew, Kothapalli, Malini, Zhu, Qinwei, Datey, Ameya, Tumati, Pradeep (2003): Virtual-SAP: An Immersive Tool for Visualizing the Response of Building Structures to Envi. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2003 VR 2003 22-26 March, 2003, Los Angeles, CA, USA. pp. 243-250. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vr/2003/1882/00/18820243abs.htm

Frohlich, Bernd, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Bowman, Doug A. (2004): Beyond Wand and Glove Based Interaction. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 VR 2004 27-31 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. pp. 268.

Ragan, Eric D., Endert, Alex, Bowman, Doug A., Quek, Francis (2012): How spatial layout, interactivity, and persistent visibility affect learning with large di. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2012, . pp. 91-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2254556.2254576