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Eva Hornecker is Assistant Professor at the University of Strathclyde. She has worked at several places before, including the UK's Open University, Sussex University, the Vienna University of Technology, following her PhD in Bremen, Germany.
Eva's research focus is on 'Beyond the Desktop' Interaction Design. She researches in the intersections of UbiComp, tangible interfaces/interaction, and CSCW (focused on co-present social interaction), with application areas e.g. in education and museums. Additional sidetrack research on ethics and professional responsibility in IT.
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Shaer, Orit, Hornecker, Eva (2010): Tangible User Interfaces: Past, Present and Future Directions. In Foundations and Trends in Human-Computer Interaction, 3 (1) pp. 1-138. http://www.nowpublishers.com/product.aspx?product=HCI&doi=1100000026§ion=xstart
Halloran, John, Hornecker, Eva, Stringer, Mark, Harris, Eric, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2009): The Value of Values: An Approach to Resourcing Co-Design of UbiComp. In CoDesign - International Journal of CoCreation in Design and the Arts, 5 (4) pp. 245-273.
Hornecker, Eva, Dünser, Andreas (2009): Children\'s Expectations and Mistaken Interactions with Physical-Digital Tools. In Interacting with Computers, 21 (1) pp. 95-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2008.10.007
Hornecker, Eva, Dünser, Andreas (2009): Of pages and paddles: Children's expectations and mistaken interactions with physical-digi. In Interacting with Computers, 21 (1) pp. 95-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2008.10.007
Hong, Dongpyo, Hollerer, Tobias, Haller, Michael, Takemura, Haruo, Cheok, Adrian David, Kim, Gerard Jounghyun, Billinghurst, Mark, Woo, Woontack, Hornecker, Eva, Jacob, Robert J. K., Hummels, Caroline, Ullmer, Brygg, Schmidt, Albrecht, Hoven, Elise van den, Mazalek, Ali (2008): Advances in Tangible Interaction and Ubiquitous Virtual Reality. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7 (2) pp. 90-96. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MPRV.2008.27
Hornecker, Eva, Jacob, Robert J. K., Hummels, Caroline, Ullmer, Brygg, Schmidt, Albrecht, Hoven, Elise van den, Mazalek, Ali (2008): TEI goes on: Tangible and Embedded Interaction. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7 (2) pp. 91-96. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MPRV.2008.27
Hornecker, Eva (2004). Tangible User Interfaces als kooperationsunterstützendes Medium. Mathematik & Informatik, der Universität Bremen http://elib.suub.uni-bremen.de/diss/docs/E-Diss907_E.pdf
Hornecker, Eva, Buur, Jacob (2006): Getting a grip on tangible interaction: a framework on physical space and social interacti. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2006, . pp. 437-446. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1124772.1124838
Hornecker, Eva (2010): Interactions Around a Contextually Embedded System. In: Proceedings of Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction TEI January 2010, 2010, . pp. 169-176. http://www.ehornecker.de/Papers/JuraFinalWeb.pdf
Kern, Dagmar, Marshall, Paul, Hornecker, Eva, Schmidt, Albrecht, Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Enhancing Navigation Information with Tactile Output Embedded into the Steering Wheel. In: Proceedings of Pervasive , 2009, . pp. 42-58. http://www.ehornecker.de/Papers/note1316-marshall_final.pdf
Hornecker, Eva (2010): Creative Idea Exploration within the Structure of a Guiding Framework: The Card Brainstorm. In: Proceedings of Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction TEI January 2010, 2010, . pp. 101-108. http://www.ehornecker.de/Papers/FrGameWebMini.pdf
Hornecker, Eva (2005): A Design Theme for Tangible Interaction: Embodied Facilitation. In: Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Schmidt, Kjeld, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Mackay, Wendy E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 18-22 September, 2005, Paris, France. pp. 23-43. http://www.ecscw.org/2005/paper02.pdf
Hornecker, Eva (2009): Creative idea exploration within the structure of a guiding framework: the card brainstorm. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction , 2009, . pp. 101-108. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1709886.1709905
Hornecker, Eva (2009): Interactions around a contextually embedded system. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction , 2009, . pp. 169-176. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1709886.1709916
11.11 Commentary by Eva Hornecker
What is Interaction or Interactivity? Most HCI and Interaction Design textbooks do not really define (beyond more then one sentence) one of the most often used terms in our vocabulary. What seems so straightforward turns elusive when we try to dig deeper. We are in this situation probably because it is not evident where to turn to for definitions and theoretical underpinnings.
Different disciplines offer a large variety of definitions of interaction, ranging from phenomena of intersubjectivity and human sociality in social philosophy to system-theoretical approaches that analyze and model observable reciprocal action-effect relations and patterns. The word ‘interaction’ thus allows both for ‘human as information processor’ models, the kinds of formal state diagrams exemplified in this encyclopedia entry with a light switch, and 3d generation HCI approaches investigating the user experience of interaction. It even allows for anthropomorphic interpretations of human-computer interaction. Dag Svanaes provides a very good example of how we ascribe intentionality and agency to an animated object (the Mr. Peters button is evasive), even though the button itself merely acts on preprogrammed stimuli-response schemata. We perceive its behaviour – and our mind is basically desperately trying to see meaning in whatever we perceive and experience.
Svanaes’ article traces the history of HCI’s understanding of what happens on the user side of HCI. He steers the reader towards Phenomenology, starting with the Heideggerian view introduced by Winograd and Flores. The videos go into far more detail here – an important thought that seems missing from the written version is that ecologies of object derive meaning through each other.
The unique view that Svanaes contributes combines ‘interaction as perception-action’ (Merleau-Ponty) with elements of gestalt-perception, using very simple but powerful examples. He emphasizes how experiencing the ‘feel’ of interaction requires active engagement – the encyclopedia entry itself has interactive components that provide a first-hand experience. To experience this process, users must enter it; they need to actively interact in order to conceive the “dynamic gestalt” and the feel of interactive products. Feel is about dynamics, timing, and how the users’ body is part of the interaction. One of the unusual recommendations that arises from this thought is that interaction designers should learn some form of sport or exercise that trains kinesthetic thinking and bodily awareness.
Svaneas beautifully explains (and illustrates) the part of interactivity that results from the perception-action loop – but it is hard to scale this up from his little colour-shifting disobedient buttons to large-scale behaving, intelligent, ambient objects and environments, with interactions that extend over long periods of time (and/or space). It is a bit like we smashed a mirror and now inspect a small crystal, which in miniature allows us to experiment with reflections, but that we find hard to put together so we can see the whole picture. I don’t really have any recommendations on how to proceed from here – I think we are still only just beginning to understand what it means to have artificial interactive objects (that are not really living entities), and there may be further branches of philosophy to look at.
The view that Svanaes shares with many other contemporary interaction design protagonists is that the dynamics of interaction should be central in design. The experience of use is created through the interrelation of system behaviour and user activity. It is a dialogical and time-based, temporal process. I want to point out some of the literature in interaction design that I have found helpful for a better understanding of the longer-term process of interaction. These take a far more pragmatic and practical approach, without aiming to provide a philosophy of interaction, that may complement the approach taken in this article.
Crawford (2002) uses human conversation as a metaphor. It does not fully work, but turns out to be useful – the metaphor carried much further than I initially thought it was able to. It emphasizes how interactivity depends on having two active participants that contribute to the interaction and how the quality of interaction depends on what they are able to contribute, how well they understand each other, and what they can perceive of each other. The metaphor highlights that interaction can be skewed and dominated by one partner, or that one partner might be severely handicapped in their expressivity or ability to perceive and understand the other. Toni Robertson and her coworkers have done a similar analysis from a situated action perspective, analyzing what is available to the machine in an interaction process. Shedroff (2000) sees Interactivity as a continuum, between passive and interactive experiences. He points out aspects that make a system interactive, the most elemental components being system feedback and user control. Of more interest is that it often is the nature of the user activity that makes something interactive, e.g. in creativity tools or communication media. This means that a system that merely mediates messages between 2 points may be perceived as interactive, because it is an open system where the interactive component is ‘donated’ by the outside world, or, in the case of e.g. a drawing tool, by the user. Interaction transforms closed to open systems (cf. Wegner 1997) – even more so if interaction contributes content. Svanaes’ article highlights how even within the seemingly mundane level where we only have user control and system feedback (the Mr. Peters button) interactional meaning emerges. Crawford and Shedroff motivate and might help us to analyse longer and more complex processes – does Mr Peters always react the same way, can we engage in a dialogue with him and what else can we do?
Fischer, Patrick Tobias, Zollner, Christian, Hornecker, Eva (2010): VR/Urban: Spread.gun -- design process and challenges in developing a shared encounter for. In: Proceedings of the HCI10 Conference on People and Computers XXIV , 2010, . pp. 289-298. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2146346
McCrindle, Carrie, Hornecker, Eva, Lingnau, Andreas, Rick, Jochen (2011): The design of t-vote: a tangible tabletop application supporting children's decision makin. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC11 Interaction Design and Children , 2011, . pp. 181-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1999030.1999056
Hornecker, Eva, Swindells, Stuart, Dunlop, Mark (2011): A mobile guide for serendipitous exploration of cities. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services , 2011, . pp. 557-562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2037373.2037460
Hornecker, Eva (2012): Beyond affordance: tangibles' hybrid nature. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction , 2012, . pp. 175-182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2148131.2148168
Weal, Mark J., Cruickshank, Don, Michaelides, Danius T., Millard, David E., Roure, David De, Hornecker, Eva, Halloran, John, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2006): A Reusable, Extensible Infrastructure for Augmented Field Trips. In: PerCom 2006 - 4th IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops 13-17 March, 2006, Pisa, Italy. pp. 201-205. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/PERCOMW.2006.12
Hornecker, Eva, Halloran, John, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Weal, Mark J., Millard, David E., Michaelides, Danius T., Cruickshank, Don, Roure, David De (2006): UbiComp in opportunity spaces: challenges for participatory design. In: Jacucci, Gianni, Kensing, Finn (eds.) PDC 2006 - Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Participatory Design August 1-5, 2006, Trento, Italy. pp. 47-56. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1147261.1147269
Eden, Hal, Scharff, Eric, Hornecker, Eva (2002): Multilevel design and role play: experiences in assessing support for neighborhood partici. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2002, . pp. 387-392. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/778712.778768
Hornecker, Eva, Marshall, Paul, Dalton, Nick Sheep, Rogers, Yvonne (2008): Collaboration and interference: awareness with mice or touch input. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2008, . pp. 167-176. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460563.1460589
Halloran, John, Hornecker, Eva, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Weal, Mark, Millard, David E., Michaelides, Danius, Cruickshank, Don, Roure, David C. De (2006): Unfolding understandings: co-designing UbiComp In Situ, over time. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2006, . pp. 109-118. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1142405.1142423
Halloran, John, Hornecker, Eva, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Weal, Mark, Millard, David E., Michaelides, Danius, Cruickshank, Don, Roure, David C. De (2006): The literacy fieldtrip: using UbiComp to support children\'s creative writing. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children , 2006, . pp. 17-24. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1139073.1139083
Dünser, Andreas, Hornecker, Eva (2007): Lessons from an AR book study. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction , 2007, . pp. 179-182. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1226969.1227006
Hornecker, Eva, Psik, T. (2005): Using ARToolKit Markers to Build Tangible Prototypes and Simulate Other Technologies. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction , 2005, . pp. 30-42. http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/11555261_6
Weal, Mark J., Hornecker, Eva, Cruickshank, Don G., Michaelides, Danius T., Millard, David E., Halloran, John, Roure, David C. De, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2006): Requirements for in-situ authoring of location based experiences. In: Proceedings of 8th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services , 2006, . pp. 121-128. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1152215.1152241
Hornecker, Eva, Stifter, Matthias (2006): Learning from interactive museum installations about interaction design for public setting. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper, Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 2006, . pp. 135-142. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1228175.1228201
Hornecker, Eva, Stifter, Matthias (2006): Digital backpacking in the museum with a SmartCard. In: Proceedings of CHINZ06, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction , 2006, . pp. 99-107. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1152760.1152773
Hornecker, Eva (2015): Tangible Interaction. In: Papantoniou, Bill, Soegaard, Mads, Lupton, Julia Reinhard, Goktürk, Mehmet, Trepess, David, Knemeyer, Dirk, Svoboda, Eric, Memmel, Thomas, Folmer, Eelke, Gunes, Hatice, Harrod, Martin, Spillers, Frank, Hornecker, Eva (eds). "The Glossary of Human Computer Interaction" The Interaction Design Foundation .
Hornecker, Eva, Marshall, Paul, Rogers, Yvonne (2007): From entry to access: how shareability comes about. In: Koskinen, Ilpo, Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 328-342. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314161.1314191
Marshall, Paul, Fleck, Rowanne, Harris, Amanda, Rick, Jochen, Hornecker, Eva, Rogers, Yvonne, Yuill, Nicola, Dalton, Nick Sheep (2009): Fighting for control: children\'s embodied interactions when using physical and digital re. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 2149-2152. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1519027
England, David, Hornecker, Eva, Roast, Chris, Romero, Pablo, Fergus, Paul, Marshall, Paul (2009): Whole body interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4815-4818. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520748
Hornecker, Eva (2008): \"I don\'t understand it either, but it is cool\" - visitor interactions with a multi-touc. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 113-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TABLETOP.2008.4660193
Marshall, Paul, Hornecker, Eva, Morris, Richard, Dalton, Nick Sheep, Rogers, Yvonne (2008): When the fingers do the talking: A study of group participation with varying constraints t. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 33-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TABLETOP.2008.4660181
Weal, Mark J., Hornecker, Eva, Cruickshank, Don, Michaelides, Danius T., Millard, David E., Halloran, John, Roure, David De, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine (2006): Requirements for in-situ authoring of location based experiences. In: Nieminen, Marko, Roykkee, Mika (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2006 September 12-15, 2006, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 121-128. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1152215.1152241
Werner, Julia, Wettach, Reto, Hornecker, Eva (2008): United-pulse: feeling your partner\'s pulse. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 535-538. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409240.1409338
Eichhorn, Elisabeth, Wettach, Reto, Hornecker, Eva (2008): A stroking device for spatially separated couples. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 303-306. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1409240.1409274
Bittner, Peter, Hornecker, Eva (2005): A micro-ethical view on computing practice. In: Bertelsen, Olav W., Bouvin, Niels Olof, Krogh, Peter Gall, Kyng, Morten (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Conference on Critical Computing 2005 August 20-24, 2005, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 69-78. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1094562.1094571
Torpel, Bettina, Hornecker, Eva, Henninger, Annette (2001): Informatisierung der Arbeit: Praxis - Theorie - Empirie. In: Oberquelle, Horst, Oppermann, Reinhard, Krause, Jürgen (eds.) Mensch and Computer 2001 March 5-8, 2001, Bad Honnef, Germany. http://mc.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/konferenzbaende/mc2001/W20.pdf
Hornecker, Eva, Nicol, Emma (2012): What do lab-based user studies tell us about in-the-wild behavior?: insights from a study . In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems , 2012, . pp. 358-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2317956.2318010