User Centered Design User Experience (UX) topic overview/definition

What is User Centered Design?

User centered design (UCD) is a design process that focuses on user needs and requirements. The consistent application of human factors, ergonomics, usability engineering, and other techniques is what keeps UCD revolving around the users. The aim is to produce highly usable and accessible systems, aiming for user satisfaction while averting negative effects on health, safety, and performance.

UCD is an iterative design approach that aims to develop an understanding of user needs, doing so through a mixture of investigative (e.g., surveys and interviews) and generative (e.g., brainstorming) methods and tools. Crucially, UCD heavily involves users in all design and evaluation phases. In general, each iteration of the UCD approach involves four distinct phases. First, designers attempt to understand the context in which a system may be used. Subsequently, the users’ requirements are specified. A design phase then follows, which is then succeeded by an evaluation phase. The outcomes of the evaluation are assessed against the users’ context and requirements so as to check how well a design is performing—namely, how close it is to a level that matches the users’ specific context and satisfies all their relevant needs. From here, further iterations of these four phases are made, until the evaluation results are satisfactory.

During UCD, the design is based upon an explicit understanding of the users, tasks, and environments. The process aims to capture and address the whole user experience; therefore, the design team must include professionals across multiple disciplines (e.g., ethnographers, psychologists, software and hardware engineers), as well as domain experts, stakeholders, and the users themselves. Evaluations of the produced designs may be carried out by experts using design guidelines and criteria. However, a crucial matter is that UCD must—at some point—involve the users, and it should also involve long-term monitoring of use.

Literature on User Centered Design

Here’s the entire UX literature on User Centered Design by the Interaction Design Foundation, collated in one place:

Featured article

A User-Centred Approach to Mobile Design and a 5 Stage Process for You to Use

A User-Centred Approach to Mobile Design and a 5 Stage Process for You to Use

The mobile web is here to stay. However, it’s important to remember that having a mobile website isn’t the key to success – it’s providing the right approach to the mobile user experience that brings success. Taking a user-centred approach to mobile (and other) design can help you keep in mind the outcomes that you intend rather than wasting time on unrewarding designs.

The mobile web is a description intended to distinguish accessing the internet on a tablet or a smartphone as opposed to a regular PC or laptop. As the world has adopted smartphones over the last decade – companies have come to understand the advantages of catering for the mobile web. However, too many businesses start with the end-point in mind; “We need a mobile app or a mobile website!” rather than considering why their users would want it.

There are advantages to delivering a mobile web experience:

  • There is the opportunity to cater for the specific users’ needs at the right moment and in the right place.
  • The mobile web can be accessed in places where the Internet is not easily accessible from other devices.
  • Development for the mobile web can be cost effective and even be cheaper than standard websites.
  • There is potential to reach a much larger user base (there are more smartphone owners than desktop and laptop owners).
  • There is the opportunity to reach a much wider geographic area (in developing nations smartphones are often the only way for a user to access the internet).

The User-Centred Mobile Design Approach

Author/Copyright holder: Paul Veugen. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 2.0

There are 5 stages of the cycle (all development is assumed to be cyclical with products going through multiple iterations over a lifetime).

You assess the situation as it is at the moment (maybe that’s “we don’t have a mobile website” or maybe it’s “our mobile app is not performing as we’d hoped it would”, etc.).

Then you work out what it is that your users need from you. Once that’s done, you sit down and prioritize features for your mobile platform and then you work on designing those features while ensuring that you’ve put “mobile first” and finally, you review and refine the design.

1. Assessing the Current Situation

Yes, the mobile web is a big thing. Yes, there are more smartphone and tablet users than PC/Desktop users. But (and isn’t there always a but?) you can’t assume that your users want to use your website via those platforms. In fact, recent research suggests that many users (in general terms) use the mobile web for a limited array of things (mainly dating, e-mail, some apps and social media) and that when users have an option – they prefer to do more complex work from their desktops.

You need to think about whether a fully functional mobile app or website is really what you need – or is it possible that your users only need a small subset of functionality on the move and that they’ll do most of their work at a desktop?

Is it possible that your user base is less interested in a mobile web experience and more interested in an enhanced experience with the products and platforms you already offer?

2. Understanding Your User

Before you go rushing out to do any design or feature prioritization it’s important to understand your users better and in a mobile context.

You need to know things like:

  • How do they prefer to access the internet?
  • How much time do they spend interacting with your site at the moment?
  • How much time do they spend online using a mobile access point?
  • What features would be critical for providing a mobile experience?
  • What are they frustrated with in your offering at the moment that could be done better via mobile?
  • What devices are they using to access the mobile web?

If you have more than one user persona – you’ll need to answer these questions about each user group.

You’ll also want to tie this into a “higher-level” picture. Get out and investigate trends in your industry and on the mobile web. You may have noticed that apps are more popular than browsing on the mobile web – does that matter to your users?

3. What Will Your Mobile Web Experience Offer?

Then it’s on to prioritizing what goes in to your mobile experience. Your user research will show you what your users want but you also need to consider what the business wants from the process too. You may need to revise and modify components of the experience in order to handle conflicts between users and the business.

User experience is essential but it’s no good if it doesn’t deliver business results. Compromise can be a key part of getting this right.

Don’t forget that too much complexity early in the product lifecycle can be a major drawback. Prioritizing needs also means not being afraid to hold back ideas to future releases. A great minimum viable product can often be better than an overly complex one.

Author/Copyright holder: Daniel Würstl. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

4. Mobile Design Considerations

There are going to be mobile specific design considerations too. Are you going to integrate your mobile offering with your current offering? Will you use responsive design or adaptive design if you do?

A lot of this will boil down to context. E.g the context in which the mobile device will be used. If your users access the mobile web from their desks, that’s awesome, but many users don’t. They’re going to be trying to use them in the supermarket, on their daily commute, on the walk to the coffee shop, etc. But also from their sofas and beds and many more places that the ones we often think of.

That means you’re going to have to consider how to reduce distractions and make it easy for the user to focus on the task in hand too.

Josh Clark, the author of Tapworthy- Designing Great iPhone Apps, offers three categories for mobile web access:

  • Microtasking: When the user interacts with their device for brief but frenzied periods of activity
  • Local: When the user wants to know what’s going on around them
  • Bored: When the user has nothing better to do and is looking to be entertained or otherwise diverted

Keeping these categories in mind can make it much easier to design for the user’s needs and focus on what makes mobile different from other access platforms.

5. Review and Refine

Sketch and prototype in early iteration phases. Make sure to test them with users. Get feedback and iterate rapidly.

Don’t forget to ensure your site is compliant with W3C standards.

Then go back to the beginning and iterate. It’s why the user-centred design process for mobile is cyclical. Well, just like all user-centred design processes!

UCD for Mobile, is it Really Different from UCD for Other Platforms?

User-centred design is user-centred design. The process for mobile should be the same as it is for any other platform. However, mobile platforms are different from desktop and laptop platforms and it’s important for a designer to take that into account when applying a user-centred design approach.

The process above is a standard UCD process, as proposed by Norman and Draper the original architects of UCD, but one which asks you to reflect on the mobile platform before moving ahead with the design.

Author/Copyright holder: Pixabay. Copyright terms and licence: Free to Use.

The Take Away

The mobile web is not a new concept. Deciding whether your users need mobile web facilities is important and then following a user-centred design process offers you the best chance of success. There are significant differences in the way that mobile devices operate compared to other devices and you need to make sure that you handle those differences with care to deliver the best rend result.

References

Want to gain insight into the way that the mobile web is being used? Here’s a great starting point - http://www.smartinsights.com/mobile-marketing/mobile-marketing-analytics/mobile-marketing-statistics/

Read the Mobile Computing chapter by Jesper Kjeldskov: https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/book/the-encyclopedia-of-human-computer-interaction-2nd-ed/mobile-computing

Take a look at how user centred design can be utilized in mobile app development here - http://www.slideshare.net/michaelon9/user-centered-design-in-mobile-app-development

Here’s a great resource on guerrilla UCD for mobile for when time and budget is constricted - http://www.slideshare.net/UserIntelligence/usercentered-design-for-mobile-guerrilla-style

Some suggested roles for the team in mobile UCD environments can be found here - http://www.mobileaware.com/mobile-user-centered-design-four-steps-to-a-results-driven-mobile-channel/

Norman and Draper’s work on User-Centred Design can be found here - http://www.inf.ufpr.br/laura/IHC-2014-2/Material%20anterior/User%20centered%20system%20design.pdf

References

Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: Wikimedia Foundation. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 3.0

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Learn more about User Centered Design

Take a deep dive into User Centered Design with our course User Experience: The Beginner's Guide.

User experience, or UX, has been a buzzword since about 2005. Chances are, you’ve heard of the term, or even have it on your portfolio. But your understanding of what the term “user experience” means might be wrong—or, more accurately, insufficient.

“[User experience] is used by people to say ‘I’m a user experience designer, I design websites’, or ‘I design apps.’ And they have no clue as to what they’re doing, and they think the experience is that simple device, the website, or the app, or who knows what. No! It’s everything—it’s the way you experience the world, it’s the way you experience your life, it’s the way you experience the service. Or, yeah, an app or a computer system. But it’s a system that’s everything.”
Don Norman, pioneer and inventor of the term “user experience”1

Most people fail to see the whole picture of “user experience.” And when you can’t see the forest for the trees, you’re missing a lot of factors that help to create an optimal user experience. That’s why having a comprehensive understanding of the entire umbrella of “user experience” is critical, backed with solid theory—especially since customer intelligence agency Walker predicts that experience will overtake price and product as the key brand differentiator by 20202.

Through this course, you will gain a thorough understanding of the various design principles that come together to create a user’s experience of using a product or service. Through this, you’ll learn how to design a product or service properly, one that will avoid any design pitfalls that blight your competitors’ offerings.

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