Author: Stuart K. Card

Stuart K. Card

Stuart K. Card

Stuart Card is a Senior Research Fellow and the manager of the User Interface Research group at the Palo Alto Research Center. His study of input devices led to the Fitts's Law characterization of the mouse and was a major factor leading to the mouse's commercial introduction by Xerox. His group has developed theoretical characterizations of human-machine interaction, including the Model Human Processor, the GOMS theory of user interaction, information foraging theory, and statistical descriptions of Internet use. These theories have been put to use in new paradigms of human-machine interaction including the Rooms workspace manager, papertronic systems, and the Information Visualizer. The work of his group has resulted in a dozen Xerox products as well as the contributing to the founding of three software companies, Inxight Software, Outride, and Content Guard. Card is a co-author of the book The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, a co-editor of the book, Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering, and has served on many editorial boards, government panels, and university review boards. He received his A.B. in Physics from Oberlin College and his Ph.D. in Psychology from Carnegie Mellon University, where he pursued an interdisciplinary program in psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer science. He has been an adjunct faculty member at Stanford University. His most recent book, Readings in Information Visualization was published in 1999. He is currently developing a supporting science of human-information interaction and visual-semantic prototypes to aid sensemaking. Card is a Fellow of the ACM, the first recipient of the ACM CHI Lifetime Achievement Award, and the first member of the ACM CHI Academy.

Publications

Publication period start: 1978
Publication period end: 2010
Number of co-authors: 69

Co-authors

Number of publications with favourite co-authors
Peter Pirolli
13
George G. Robertson
17
Jock D. Mackinlay
21

Productive Colleagues

Most productive colleagues in number of publications
Ronald M. Baecker
67
James A. Landay
91
Ben Shneiderman
225

Publications

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K., Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2003): The effects of information scent on visual search in the hyperbolic tree browser. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (1) pp. 20-53. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/606658.606660

Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter, Wege, Mija M. Van Der, Morrison, Julie B., Reeder, Robert W., Schraedley, Pamela, Boshart, Jenea (2001): Information Scent as a Driver of Web Behavior Graphs: Results of a Protocol Analysis Metho. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 498-505. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p498-card/p498-card.pdf

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K., Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2001): Visual Information Foraging in a Focus + Context Visualization. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 506-513. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p506-pirolli/p506-pirolli.pdf

Woodruff, Allison, Gossweiler, Rich, Pitkow, James, Chi, Ed H., Card, Stuart K. (2000): Enhancing a Digital Book with a Reading Recommender. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio, Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 153-160. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/332040/p153-woodruff/p153-woodruff.pdf

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. (1999): Information foraging. In Psychological Review, 106 (4) pp. 643-675.

Gershon, Nahum, Eick, Stephen G., Card, Stuart K. (1998): Design: Information Visualization. In Interactions, 5 (2) pp. 9-15. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/interactions/1998-5-2/p9-gershon/p9-gershon.pdf

Chi, Ed H., Pitkow, James, Mackinlay, Jock D., Pirolli, Peter, Gossweiler, Rich, Card, Stuart K. (1998): Visualizing the Evolution of Web Ecologies. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle, Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 400-407. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/274644/p400-chi/p400-chi.pdf

Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. (1997): Fix and Float: Object Movement by Egocentric Navigation. In: Robertson, George G., Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 149-150. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/263407/p149-robertson/p149-robertson.pdf

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G., York, William (1996): The WebBook and the Web Forager: An Information Workspace for the World-Wide Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D., Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 111-117. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Card/skc1txt.html

Rao, Ramana, Pedersen, Jan O., Hearst, Marti A., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Masinter, Larry, Halvorsen, Per-Kristian, Robertson, George G. (1995): Rich Interaction in the Digital Library. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 29-39.

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. (1995): Information Foraging in Information Access Environments. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 51-58. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/proceedings/papers/ppp_bdy.htm

Mackinlay, Jock D., Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K. (1995): An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 67-73. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/proceedings/papers/jdm_bdy.htm

Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter, Mackinlay, Jock D. (1994): The Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function: Display Evaluation for Direct-Walk Dynamic . In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 238-244. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p238-card/p238-card.pdf

Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K. (1994): The Table Lens: Merging Graphical and Symbolic Representations in an Interactive Focus+Con. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 318-322. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p318-rao/p318-rao.pdf

Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 56-71.

Olson, Judith S., Card, Stuart K., Landauer, Thomas K., Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W., Leggett, John (1993): Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work: Research Issues for the 90s. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 115-129.

Johnson, Walter, Jellinek, Herbert, Klotz Jr, Leigh, Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K. (1993): Bridging the Paper and Electronic Worlds: The Paper User Interface. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 507-512. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/169059/p507-johnson/p507-johnson.pdf

Russell, Daniel M., Stefik, Mark, Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. (1993): The Cost Structure of Sensemaking. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 269-276. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/169059/p269-russell/p269-russell.pdf

Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applica. In: Mackinlay, Jock D., Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/142621/p23-rao/p23-rao.pdf

Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P., Robertson, George G. (1992): Remembering Allen Newell. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) pp. 22-24.

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K. (1991): Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 189-194. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p189-robertson/p189-robertson.pdf

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K. (1991): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 461-462. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p461-robertson/p461-robertson.pdf

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. (1991): The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 181-188. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p181-card/p181-card.pdf

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. (1991): The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 173-179. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p173-mackinlay/p173-mackinlay.pdf

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. (1991): A Morphological Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9 (2) pp. 99-122. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1991-9-2/p99-card/p99-card.pdf

Robertson, George G., Henderson Jr, D. Austin, Card, Stuart K. (1991): Buttons as First Class Objects on an X Desktop. In: Rhyne, James R. (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States, 1991, Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States. pp. 35-44. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/120782/p35-robertson/p35-robertson.pdf

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. (1991): Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 455-456. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p455-mackinlay/p455-mackinlay.pdf

Card, Stuart K., Polson, Peter G. (1990): Introduction to this Special Issue on Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 119-123.

Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. (1990): A Semantic Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 145-190.

Jellinek, Herbert, Card, Stuart K. (1990): Powermice and User Performance. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 213-220.

Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. (1989): The Cognitive Coprocessor Architecture for Interactive User Interfaces. In: Sibert, John L. (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 10-18.

Mackay, Wendy E., Malone, Thomas W., Crowston, Kevin, Rao, Ramana, Rosenblitt, David, Card, Stuart K. (1989): How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules?. In: Bice, Ken, Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 211-216.

Fuchs, Henry, Card, Stuart K., Crow, Frank, Pizer, Stephen M. (1987): Issues from the 1986 workshop on interactive 3D graphics. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 309.

Card, Stuart K., Henderson Jr, D. Austin (1987): A multiple virtual--workspace interface to support user task switching. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 53-59.

Card, Stuart K., Henderson, D. Austin (1987): Catalogues: A Metaphor for Computer Application Delivery. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 959-964.

Henderson, Jr. D. Austin, Card, Stuart K. (1986): Rooms: The Use of Multiple Virtual Workspaces to Reduce Space Contention in a Window-Based. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (3) pp. 211-243.

Newell, Allen, Card, Stuart K. (1986): Straightening Out Softening Up: Response to Carroll and Campbell. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (3) pp. 251-267.

Newell, Allen, Card, Stuart K. (1985): The prospects for psychological science in human-computer interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (3) pp. 209-242.

Card, Stuart K., Pavel, Misha, Farrell, J. E. (1984): Window-Based Computer Dialogues. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 239-243.

Card, Stuart K., Robert, J. M., Keenan, L. N. (1984): On-Line Composition of Text. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 51-56.

Card, Stuart K. (1982): User Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 190-196.

Moran, Thomas P., Card, Stuart K. (1982): Applying Cognitive Psychology to Computer Systems: A Graduate Seminar in Psychology. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 295-298.

Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P., Newell, Allen (1980): The keystroke-level model for user performance with interactive systems. In Communications of the ACM, 23 (0) pp. 396-410.

Card, Stuart K., English, William K., Burr, Betty J. (1978): Evaluation of mouse, rate controlled isometric joystick, step keys, and text keys for text. In Ergonomics, 21 (0) pp. 386-392.

Heer, Jeffrey, Card, Stuart K., Landay, James A. (2005): prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 421-430. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1054972.1055031

Card, Stuart K. (2004): Keynote Address: From Information Visualization to Sensemaking: Connecting the Mind\'s Eye. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/infovis/2004/8779/00/8779xiiabs.htm

Card, Stuart K. (1992): Capstone Address: Human Engineering the User Interface to Spaceland. In: SI3D 1992 , 1992, . pp. 215. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/147156.147208

Commentary for Bifocal Display chapter of The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed..

Bier, Eric A., Billman, Dorrit, Dent, Kyle, Card, Stuart K. (2009): Collaborative Sensemaking Tools for Task Forces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting , 2009, . pp. 439-443. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hfproc/2009/00000053/00000006/art00001

Kim, Nam Wook, Card, Stuart K., Heer, Jeffrey (2010): Tracing genealogical data with TimeNets. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2010, . pp. 241-248. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1842993.1843035

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. (1990): The Design Space of Input Devices. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI April, 1990, . pp. 117-124.

Hewett, Thomas T., Baecker, Ronald M., Card, Stuart K., Carey, Tom, Gasen, Jean G., Mantei, Marilyn, Perlman, Gary, Strong, Gary W., Verplank, William (1997). ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved 2003-08-07 00:00:00 from ACM SIGHCI: http://sigchi.org/cdg/index.html

Card, Stuart K. (1995): Keynote Address: Information Visualization: Wings for the Mind. In: Gershon, Nahum D., Eick, Stephen G. (eds.) InfoVis 1995 - IEEE Symposium On Information Visualization 30-31 October, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 2. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/INFOVIS.1995.10002

Chi, Ed H., Card, Stuart K. (1999): Sensemaking of Evolving Web Sites Using Visualization Spreadsheets. In: InfoVis 1999 , 1999, . pp. 18-. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/infovis/1999/0431/00/04310018abs.htm

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. (1997): The structure of the information visualization design space. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 92-99. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/infovis/1997/8189/00/81890092abs.htm

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. (1998): Information foraging models of browsers for very large document spaces. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Santucci, Giuseppe, Tarantino, Laura (eds.) AVI 1998 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 24 - 27, 1998, LAquila, Italy. pp. 83-93. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/948496.948509

Hong, Lichan, Chi, Ed H., Card, Stuart K. (2005): Annotating 3D electronic books. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1463-1466. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1056942

Heer, Jeffrey, Card, Stuart K. (2004): DOITrees revisited: scalable, space-constrained visualization of hierarchical data. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 421-424. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/989863.989941

Card, Stuart K., Hong, Lichan, Mackinlay, Jock D., Chi, Ed H. (2004): 3Book: a 3D electronic smart book. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 303-307. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/989863.989915

Card, Stuart K. (1996): Information visualization and information foraging. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano, Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 12. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/948449.948451

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K., Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2000): The Effect of Information Scent on Searching - Information Visualization of Large Tree Str. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 , 2000, . pp. 161-172.

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. (1992): The Information Visualizer: A 3D User Interface for Information Retrieval. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1992 , 1992, . pp. 173-179.

Card, Stuart K. (1994): Information Workspaces for Large Scale Cognition. In: Bergeron, R. Daniel, Kaufman, Arie E. (eds.) VIS 1994 - Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1994 October 17-21, 1994, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 5.

Russell, Daniel M., Pirolli, Peter, Furnas, George, Card, Stuart K., Stefik, Mark (2009): Sensemaking workshop CHI 2009. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4751-4754. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520732

Russell, Daniel M., Furnas, George W., Stefik, Mark, Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter (2008): Sensemaking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 3981-3984. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1358628.1358972

Evans, Brynn M., Card, Stuart K. (2008): Augmented information assimilation: social and algorithmic web aids for the information lo. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 989-998. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357207

Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. (1999). Information Foraging. Retrieved 2013-10-12 00:00:00 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.31.5407&rep=rep1&type=pdf