Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems

Publisher
ACM Press
Website
Year
1982
Period
March 15-17
Place
Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States
ISBN
Series
CHI - Human Factors in Computing Systems
DOI
Volume
Copyright info

Description

The annual CHI conference is the leading international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about human-computer interaction (HCI).

All years

Articles

Roach, John, Hartson, H. Rex, Ehrich, Roger W., Yunten, Tamer, Johnson, Deborah H. (1982): DMS: A Comprehensive System for Managing Human-Computer Dialogue. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 102-105.

Tombaugh, Jo W., McEwen, Scott A. (1982): Comparison of Two Information Retrieval Methods on Videotex: Tree-Structure versus Alphabe. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 106-110.

Feldman, Michael B., Rogers, George T. (1982): Toward the Design and Development of Style-Independent Interactive Systems. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 111-116.

Norcio, A. F. (1982): Indentation, Documentation and Programmer Comprehension. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 118-120.

Rosenberg, Jarrett (1982): Evaluating the Suggestiveness of Command Names. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 12-16.

Sheppard, Sylvia B., Kruesi, Elizabeth, Bailey, John W. (1982): An Empirical Evaluation of Software Documentation Formats. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 121-124.

Brooks, Ruven (1982): A Theoretical Analysis of the Role of Documentation in the Comprehension of Computer Progr. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 125-129.

Goldstein, David K. (1982): The Impact of Development Aids on the Systems Development Process. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 130-134.

Roberts, Teresa L., Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Evaluation of Text Editors. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 136-141.

Good, Michael (1982): An Ease of Use Evaluation of an Integrated Document Processing System. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 142-147.

Good, Michael (1982): An Ease of Use Evaluation of an Integrated Document Processing System. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 142-147. http://michaelgood.info/publications/text-editing/an-ease-of-use-evaluation-of-an-integrated-document-processing-system/

Schneider, Michael L., Nudelman, S., Hirsh-Pasek, K. (1982): An Analysis of Line Numbering Strategies in Text Editors. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 148-151.

Embley, David W., Nagy, George (1982): Can We Expect to Improve Text Editing Performance?. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 152-156.

Harris, Randall R. (1982): An Automated Office Communications Study in an Operational Setting. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 158-162.

Kedzierski, Beverly I. (1982): Communication and Management Support in System Development Environments. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 163-168.

Licker, Paul S. (1982): LAMP: Language for Active Message Protocols. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 169-173.

Scapin, Dominique L. (1982): Computer Commands Labelled by Users versus Imposed Commands and the Effect of Structuring . In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 17-19.

Epple, W. K. (1982): Communication-Nets for the Specification of Operator Dialogs. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 174-179.

Petersen, Rohn J., Banks, William W., Gertman, David I. (1982): Performance-Based Evaluation of Graphic Displays for Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 182-189.

Card, Stuart K. (1982): User Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 190-196.

Goldsmith, Timothy E., Schvaneveldt, Roger W. (1982): The Role of Integral Displays in Decision Making. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 197-201.

Barnard, Philip J., Hammond, Nick, MacLean, Allan, Morton, J. (1982): Learning and Remembering Interactive Commands. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 2-7.

Hemenway, Kathleen (1982): Psychological Issues in the Use of Icons in Command Menus. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 20-23.

Wilkinson, Leland (1982): An Experimental Evaluation of Multivariate Graphical Point Representations. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 202-209.

Curtis, Bill (1982): A Review of Human Factors Research on Programming Languages and Specifications. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 212-218.

Irons, Dennis M. (1982): Cognitive Correlates of Programming Tasks in Novice Programmers. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 219-222.

DeYoung, Gerrit E., Kampen, Garry R., Topolski, James M. (1982): Analyzer-Generated and Human-Judged Predictors of Computer Program Readability. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 223-228.

McNicholl, Daniel G., Magel, Ken (1982): The Subjective Nature of Programming Complexity. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 229-234.

Reed, Adam V. (1982): Error-Correcting Strategies and Human Interaction with Computer Systems. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 236-238.

Roemer, Joan M., Chapanis, Alphonse (1982): Learning Performance and Attitudes as a Function of the Reading Grade Level of a Computer-. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 239-244.

Gilfoil, David M. (1982): Warming Up to Computers: A Study of Cognitive and Affective Interaction Over Time. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 245-250.

Furnas, George W., Gomez, Louis M., Landauer, Thomas K., Dumais, Susan (1982): Statistical Semantics: How Can a Computer Use What People Name Things to Guess What Things. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 251-253.

Hopelain, David G. (1982): Assessing the Climate for Change: A Methodology for Managing Human Factors in a Computeriz. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 256-261.

Marcus, Aaron (1982): Typographic Design for Interfaces of Information Systems. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 26-30.

Peterson, David E., Botterill, J. Howard (1982): IBM System/38 -- An IBM Usability Experience. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 262-267.

Whitfield, David (1982): Some Human Factors Aspects of Computers in Air Traffic Control. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 268-274.

Miller, Dale (1982): Experience with Advanced Office Automation Techniques for Project Management. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 276-277.

Hersh, Harry (1982): Electric Mail Usage Analysis. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 278-280.

DeVaris, Panayotis Eric (1982): The Impact of Electronics on Humans and Their Work Environment. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 281-286.

Badre, Albert N. (1982): Designing the Human-Computer Interface. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 288-291.

Foley, James D. (1982): Teaching the Design and Evaluation of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 292-294.

Moran, Thomas P., Card, Stuart K. (1982): Applying Cognitive Psychology to Computer Systems: A Graduate Seminar in Psychology. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 295-298.

Shneiderman, Ben (1982): Teaching Software Psychology Experimentation Through Team Projects. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 299-301.

Reisner, Phyllis (1982): Further Developments Toward Using Formal Grammar as a Design Tool. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 304-308.

Bleser, Teresa, Foley, James D. (1982): Towards Specifying and Evaluating the Human Factors of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 309-314.

Sauter, Steven L., Gottlieb, Mark S., Jones, Karen C. (1982): A Systems Analysis of Stress-Strain in VDT Operation. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 31-35.

Jacob, Robert J. K. (1982): Using Formal Specifications in the Design of a Human-Computer Interface. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 315-321.

Tyler, Sherman W., Roth, Steven F., Post, Timothy (1982): The Acquisition of Text Editing Skills. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 324-325.

Folley, Lisa J., Williges, Robert C. (1982): User Models of Text Editing Command Languages. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 326-331.

Foss, Donald J., Rosson, Mary Beth, Smith, Penny L. (1982): Reducing Manual Labor: An Experimental Analysis of Learning Aids for a Text Editor. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 332-336.

Egan, Dennis E., Bowers, Cheryll, Gomez, Louis M. (1982): Learner Characteristics that Predict Success in Using a Text-Editor Tutorial. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 337-340.

Smith, Stuart (1982): Patterned Prose for Automatic Specification Generation. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 342-346.

Hendricks, Daniel E. (1982): An Exploratory, Human Engineering Study of DARCOM Human-Computer Interfaces in Management . In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 347-349.

Maguire, M. (1982): The Development of Dialogue Design Guidelines for a Computer Based Local Information Syste. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 350-354.

Zachary, Wayne, Wherry, R., Glenn, F., Hopson, J. (1982): Decision Situations, Decision Processes, and Decision Functions: Towards a Theory-Based Fr. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 355-358.

Savage, Ricky E., Habinek, James K., Barnhart, Thomas W. (1982): The Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of a Menu Driven User Interface. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 36-40.

Bolt, Richard A. (1982): Eyes at the Interface. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 360-362.

Schmandt, Chris, Hulteen, Eric A. (1982): The Intelligent Voice-Interactive Interface. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 363-366.

Gould, John D., Conti, John, Hovanyecz, Todd (1982): Composing Letters with a Simulated Listening Typewriter. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 367-370.

Bly, Sara A. (1982): Presenting Information in Sound. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 371-375.

Norman, Donald A. (1982): Steps Toward a Cognitive Engineering: Design Rules Based on Analyses of Human Error. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 378-382.

Halasz, Frank, Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Analogy Considered Harmful. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 383-386.

Lewis, Clayton H., Mack, Robert L. (1982): Learning to Use a Text Processing System: Evidence from "Thinking Aloud" Protocols. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 387-392.

Durrett, John, Stimmel, Theron (1982): A Production-System Model of Human-Computer Interaction. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 393-399.

Bury, Kevin F., Boyle, James M., Evey, R. James, Neal, Alan S. (1982): Windowing vs Scrolling on a Visual Display Terminal. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 41-44.

Geiselman, Ralph E., Samet, Michael G. (1982): Notetaking and Comprehension for Computer-Displayed Messages: Personalized versus Fixed Fo. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 45-50.

Soloway, Elliot, Ehrlich, Kate, Bonar, Jeffrey (1982): Tapping Into Tacit Programming Knowledge. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 52-57.

Jayaraman, Sundaresan, Lee, Mary Jane, Konopasek, Milos (1982): Human-Computer Interface Considerations in the Design of Personal Computer Software. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 58-62.

Malone, Thomas W. (1982): Heuristics for Designing Enjoyable User Interface: Lessons from Computer Games. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 63-68.

Webb, Ronald (1982): Political Determinants of System Design and Content. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 70-73.

Zoltan, Elizabeth (1982): How Acceptable are Computers to Professional Persons?. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 74-77.

Kraft, Philips, Strauss, David (1982): Human Relations, Scientific Management, and Human Factors Research. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 78-79.

Black, John B., Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Learning and Remembering Command Names. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 8-11.

Cordes, Richard (1982): Software Guideline Development: A Proposed Methodology. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 82-84.

Ball, Eugene, Hayes, Philip J. (1982): A Test-Bed for User Interface Designs. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 85-88.

Turoff, Murray, Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, Kerr, Elaine B. (1982): Controversies in the Design of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems: A Delphi Study. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 89-100.