Ben Shneiderman

Personal Homepage
http://www.cs.umd.edu/~ben/
Employer
University of Maryland ()
Email
ben@cs.umd.edu

Ben Shneiderman is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science, Founding Director (1983-2000) of the Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, and Member of the Institute for Advanced Computer Studies at the University of Maryland at College Park. He has taught previously at the State University of New York and at Indiana University. He was made a Fellow of the ACM in 1997, elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 2001, and received the ACM CHI (Computer Human Interaction) Lifetime Achievement Award in 2001. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2010: "For research, software development, and scholarly texts concerning human-computer interaction and information visualization." He was the Co-Chair of the ACM Policy 98 Conference, May 1998 and is the Founding Chair of the ACM Conference on Universal Usability, November 16-17, 2000. Ben Shneiderman's interest in creativity support tools led to organizing the June 2005 NSF workshop and to chairing the June 2007 Conference on Creativity & Cognition.

Dr. Shneiderman is the author of Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computer and Information Systems (1980). His comprehensive text Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (1st edition 1987, 2nd edition 1992, 3rd edition 1998, booksite Addison-Wesley Publishers, Reading, MA), came out in its 4th edition in April 2004 with Catherine Plaisant as co-author. The Fifth edition appeared in March 2009. His 1989 book, co-authored with Greg Kearsley, Hypertext Hands-On!, contains a hypertext version on two disks. He is the originator of the Hyperties hypermedia system, which was produced by Cognetics Corp., Princeton Junction, NJ.

Since 1991 his major focus has been information visualization, beginning with his dynamic queries and starfield display research that led to the development of Spotfire (Christopher Ahlberg, CEO). He was a Member of the of the Board of Directors (1996-2001). Spotfire grew to 200 employees and during Summer 2007 was bought by TIBCO. Dr. Shneiderman developed the treemap concept in 1991 which continues to inspire research and commercial implementations. The University of Maryland's Treemap 4.0, developed in cooperation with Catherine Plaisant, has been licensed by the HiveGroup, and remains available for educational and research purposes. Dr. Shneiderman remains as a Technical Advisor for the Hivegroup and he was a Computer Science Advisor (1999-2002) to Smartmoney which implemented the widely used MarketMap for stock market analyses.

Later information visualization work includes the LifeLines project for exploring a patient history, and its successor project, PatternFinder, which enables search across electronic medical records.We introduced the Align-Rank-Filter approach to temporal event data exploration and added group analysis features in LifeLines2. Searching for patterns in numerical time series data was enabled by three versions of TimeSearcher, which was applied for stock market, auction, genomic, weather, and other data.The Hierarchical Clustering Explorer supports discovery of features in multi-dimensional data, especially for gene expression data, using the powerful rank-by-feature framework.

Three current projects focus on network visualization: Network Visualization by Semantic Substrates, SocialAction, and NodeXL.These tools are being applied for citation analysis and social network analysis, especially for the iOpener project, STICK (Science Technology Innovation Concept Knowledge-base), and ManyNets (explore & visualize many networks at once) projects. The book Analyzing Social Media Networks with NodeXL: Insights from a Connected World will be published in summer 2010. A new direction is based on applying social media to national priorities such as the 911.gov article in Science, which led to work on emergency and disaster response: Community Response Grids. Raising awareness of the need for expanded research was accomplished by the April 2009 meeting that led to the iParticipate report and then two U.S. National Science Foundation supported workshops on Technology-Mediated Social Participation.

He is as Member of the Board of Scientific Counselors Meeting - National Library of Medicine Lister Hill Center, the National Academies Committee on Technical and Privacy Dimensions of Information for Terrorism Prevention and Other National Goals, and the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Networking and Information Technology Technical Advisory Group (TAG). He is on the State of the USA Product Advisory Group and a member of the Web Science Research Initiative Advisory Committee.

In addition he has co-authored two textbooks, edited three technical books, published more than 200 technical papers and book chapters. His 1993 edited book Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction collects 25 papers from the past 10 years of research at the University of Maryland. In 1999 he co-authored Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think with Stu Card and Jock Mackinlay, then in 2003 continued in this direction by co-authoring The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections with Ben Bederson. Ben Shneiderman's vision of the future is presented in his October 2002 book Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies, won the IEEE 2003 award for Distinguished Literary Contribution. Leonardo's Laptop has been published in Chinese, Korean, and Portuguese editions.

Ben Shneiderman has been on the Editorial Advisory Boards of nine journals including the ACM Transactions on Computer- Human Interaction and the ACM Interactions. He edited the Ablex Publishing Co. book series on "Human-Computer Interaction." He has consulted and lectured for many organizations including Apple, AT&T, Citicorp, GE, Honeywell, IBM, Intel, Library of Congress, Microsoft, NASA, NCR, and university research groups.

Dr. Shneiderman's early work included database research including performance and index optimization. He is also known in software engineering, especially for his widely used innovation of structured flowcharts, commonly known as Nassi-Shneiderman Diagrams. He teaches popular short courses on information visualization and has organized an annual satellite television presentation on User Interface Strategies seen by thousands of professionals from 1987 to 1997.

An important component of his work has been related to photography, including development of the Photofinder and PhotoMesa tools. His devotion to photography includes a long history of photographing professional events, which has resulted in the 3300 photos at the ACM SIGCHI PhotoHistory and the Univ. of Maryland Dept. of Computer Science PhotoHistory. The March/April 2007 issue of ACM Interactions has an 8-page portfolio of 100+ photos from the 25-year history of ACM CHI conferences.

Ben Shneiderman's devotion to photography is inspired by his uncle David Seymour (1911-1956), a world-famous photojournalist, whose biography is shown in web sites that Dr. Shneiderman helped design. The International Center of Photography hosts two of them (http://www.icp.org/chim http://www.icp.org/chim/bio) and a third web site has current information on exhibits and publications (http://www.davidseymour.com). Another family connection is the web site about his parents work, tied to the Univ. of Maryland's S.L. and Eileen Shneiderman Collection of Yiddish Books.

Ben Shneiderman's biography appears in Marquis's Who's Who in America and Who's Who in Science and Technology. He is listed among the top 1000 creative people in the USA in the book: 1000: Richard Wurman's Who's Really Who (2002).

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1973
Publication period end
2011
Number of co-authors
256

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Butler, Keith, Payne, Thomas, Shneiderman, Ben, Brennan, Patricia, Zhang, Jiajie (2011): Re-engineering health care with information technology: the role of computer-human interac. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 451-454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979490

Shneiderman, Ben (2011): Social discovery framework: building capacity and seeking solutions. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2011, . pp. 307-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2069618.2069669

Wongsuphasawat, Krist, Gómez, John Alexis Guerra, Plaisant, Catherine, Wang, Taowei, Taieb-Maimon, Meirav, Shneiderman, Ben (2011): LifeFlow: visualizing an overview of event sequences (video preview). In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 507-510. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979557

Wongsuphasawat, Krist, Gómez, John Alexis Guerra, Plaisant, Catherine, Wang, Taowei David, Taieb-Maimon, Meirav, Shneiderman, Ben (2011): LifeFlow: visualizing an overview of event sequences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 1747-1756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979196

Rotman, Dana, Vieweg, Sarah, Yardi, Sarita, Chi, Ed, Preece, Jenny, Shneiderman, Ben, Pirolli, Peter, Glaisyer, Tom (2011): From slacktivism to activism: participatory culture in the age of social media. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 819-822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979543

Hourcade, Juan Pablo, Bullock-Rest, Natasha E., Friedman, Batya, Nelson, Mark, Shneiderman, Ben, Zaphiris, Panayiotis (2011): HCI for peace: from idealism to concrete steps. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 613-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979493

Freire, Manuel, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben, Golbeck, Jen (2010): ManyNets: an interface for multiple network analysis and visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 213-222. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753358

Hochheiser, Harry, Shneiderman, Ben (2010): From bowling alone to tweeting together: technology-mediated social participation. In Interactions, 17 (2) pp. 64-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1699775.1699790

Fischer, Gerhard, Jennings, Pamela, Maher, Mary Lou, Resnick, Mitchel, Shneiderman, Ben (2009): Creativity challenges and opportunities in social computing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 3283-3286. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520470

Schraefel, MC, André, Paul, White, Ryen, Tan, Desney, Berners-Lee, Tim, Consolvo, Sunny, Jacobs, Robert, Kohane, Issac, Dantec, Christopher A. La, Mamykina, Lena, Marsden, Gary, Shneiderman, Ben (2009): Interacting with eHealth: towards grand challenges for HCI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 3309-3312. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520476

Shneiderman, Ben, Churchill, Elizabeth, Fischer, Gerhard, Goldberg, Ken (2009): Promoting social creativity: a component of a national initiative for social participation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2009, . pp. 7-8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1640233.1640237

Perer, Adam, Shneiderman, Ben (2009): Integrating Statistics and Visualization for Exploratory Power: From Long-Term Case Studie. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 29 (3) pp. 39-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCG.2009.44

Zhao, Haixia, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben, Lazar, Jonathan (2008): Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment: A Case Study with Georeferenced Data. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (1) pp. 4. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352786

Perer, Adam, Shneiderman, Ben (2008): Systematic yet flexible discovery: guiding domain experts through exploratory data analysi. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces , 2008, . pp. 109-118. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1378773.1378788

Wang, Taowei David, Plaisant, Catherine, Quinn, Alexander J., Stanchak, Roman, Murphy, Shawn, Shneiderman, Ben (2008): Aligning temporal data by sentinel events: discovering patterns in electronic health recor. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 457-466. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357129

Perer, Adam, Shneiderman, Ben (2008): Integrating statistics and visualization: case studies of gaining clarity during explorato. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 265-274. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357101

Shneiderman, Ben, Colwell, Rita, Diamond, Sara, Greenhalgh, Paul, Wulf, William (2007): Bridging art and science with creativity support tools. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2007, Washington DC, USA. pp. 309. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1254960.1255044

Shneiderman, Ben (2007): 25 years of CHI conferences: capturing the exchange of ideas. In Interactions, 14 (2) pp. 24-31. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229863.1229865

Shneiderman, Ben (2007): Creativity support tools: accelerating discovery and innovation. In Communications of the ACM, 50 (12) pp. 20-32. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1323688.1323689

Namata, Galileo, Staats, Brian, Getoor, Lise, Shneiderman, Ben (2007): A dual-view approach to interactive network visualization. In: Silva, Mario J., Laender, Alberto H. F., Baeza-Yates, Ricardo A., McGuinness, Deborah L., Olstad, Bjørn, Olsen, Øystein Haug, Falcão, André O. (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2007 November 6-10, 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 939-942. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1321440.1321580

Don, Anthony, Zheleva, Elena, Gregory, Machon, Tarkan, Sureyya, Auvil, Loretta, Clement, Tanya, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2007): Discovering interesting usage patterns in text collections: integrating text mining with v. In: Silva, Mario J., Laender, Alberto H. F., Baeza-Yates, Ricardo A., McGuinness, Deborah L., Olstad, Bjørn, Olsen, Øystein Haug, Falcão, André O. (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2007 November 6-10, 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 213-222. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1321440.1321473

Shneiderman, Ben (2007): Human Values for Shaping the Made World. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio, Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_1

Kang, Hyunmo, Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Exploring personal media: A spatial interface supporting user-defined semantic regions. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 17 (3) pp. 254-283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvlc.2006.01.001

Shneiderman, Ben, Fischer, Gerhard, Czerwinski, Mary, Resnick, Mitchel, Myers, Brad A., Candy, Linda, Edmonds, Ernest, Eisenberg, Michael, Giaccardi, Elisa, Hewett, Tom, Jennings, Pamela, Kules, Bill (2006): Creativity Support Tools: Report From a U.S. National Science Foundation Sponsored Worksho. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (2) pp. 61-77. http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327590ijhc2002_1

Lazar, Jonathan, Jones, Adam, Hackley, Mary, Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Severity and impact of computer user frustration: A comparison of student and workplace us. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (2) pp. 187-207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2005.06.001

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2006): Strategies for evaluating information visualization tools: multi-dimensional in-depth long. In: Bertini, Enrico, Plaisant, Catherine, Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) BELIV 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on BEyond time and errors novel evaluation methods for information visualization May 23, 2006, Venice, Italy. pp. 1-7. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1168149.1168158

Perer, Adam, Shneiderman, Ben, Oard, Douglas W. (2006): Using rhythms of relationships to understand e-mail archives. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57 (14) pp. 1936-1948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.20387

Lazar, Jonathan, Jones, Adam, Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Workplace user frustration with computers: an exploratory investigation of the causes and . In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (3) pp. 239-251. http://www.journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0144-929X&volume=25&issue=3&spage=239

Kules, Bill, Kustanowitz, Jack, Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Categorizing web search results into meaningful and stable categories using fast-feature t. In: JCDL06: Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries , 2006, . pp. 210-219. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1141753.1141801

Marchionini, Gary, Haas, Stephanie W., Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2006): Integrating data and interfaces to enhance understanding of government statistics: toward . In: Fortes, José A. B., MacIntosh, Ann (eds.) DG.O 2006 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research May 21-24, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 334-335. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1146598.1146689

Shneiderman, Ben, Bederson, Benjamin B., Drucker, Steven M. (2006): Find that photo!: interface strategies to annotate, browse, and share. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (4) pp. 69-71. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1121949.1121985

Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Human-computer interaction themes in digital government: web site comprehension and statis. In: Delcambre, Lois M. L., Giuliano, Genevieve (eds.) DG.O 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 National Conference on Digital Government Research May 15-18, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 7-8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1065226.1065230

Zhao, Haixia, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2005): iSonic: interactive sonification for non-visual data exploration. In: Seventh Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies , 2005, . pp. 194-195. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1090785.1090826

Aris, A., Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Shmueli, G., Jank, W. (2005): Representing Unevenly-Spaced Time Series Data for Visualization and Interactive Exploratio. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction , 2005, . pp. 835-846. http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/11555261_66

Klawe, Maria M., Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Crisis and opportunity in computer science. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (11) pp. 27-28. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1096000.1096024

Kustanowitz, Jack, Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Meaningful presentations of photo libraries: rationale and applications of bi-level radial. In: JCDL05: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries , 2005, . pp. 188-196. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1065385.1065431

Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Managing Design Processes for Successful User Interfaces. In: Holzinger, Andreas, Weidmann, Karl-Heinz (eds.) 1st Usability Symposium, HCI&UE Workgroup 8 November, 2005, Vienna, Austria. pp. 15-30.

Marchionini, Gary, Haas, Stephanie W., Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Hert, Carol A. (2005): Project highlight: toward a statistical knowledge network--2004-05. In: Delcambre, Lois M. L., Giuliano, Genevieve (eds.) DG.O 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 National Conference on Digital Government Research May 15-18, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 177-178. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1065226.1065278

Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Show Me! Guidelines for Producing Recorded Demonstrations. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 171-178. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2005.57

Zhao, Haixia, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2005): \"I hear the pattern\": interactive sonification of geographical data patterns. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1905-1908. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1057052

Shneiderman, Ben, Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Maintaining concentration to achieve task completion. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 , 2005, . pp. 9. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1138235.1138246

Shneiderman, Ben (2005): Leonardo\'s laptop: human needs and the new computing technologies. In: Herzog, Otthein, Schek, Hans-Jorg, Fuhr, Norbert (eds.) Proceedings of the 2005 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management October 31 - November 5, 2005, Bremen, Germany. pp. 1. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1099554.1099555

Kules, Bill, Kang, Hyunmo, Plaisant, Catherine, Rose, Anne, Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Immediate usability: a case study of public access design for a community photo library. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (6) pp. 1171-1193. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2004.07.005

Ceaparu, Irina, Lazar, Jonathan, Bessiere, Katie, Robinson, John, Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Determining Causes and Severity of End-User Frustration. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 17 (3) pp. 333-356. http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327590ijhc1703_3

Seo, Jinwook, Shneiderman, Ben (2004): A Rank-by-Feature Framework for Unsupervised Multidimensional Data Exploration Using Low D. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. pp. 65-72. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/INFOVIS.2004.3

Ceaparu, Irina, Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Finding governmental statistical data on the Web: A study of categorically organized links. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 55 (11) pp. 1008-1015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.20052

Chintalapani, Gouthami, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Extending the Utility of Treemaps with Flexible Hierarchy. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 335-344. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/iv/2004/2177/00/21770335abs.htm

Marchionini, Gary, Haas, Stephanie W., Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Hert, Carol A. (2004): Toward the National Statistical Knowledge Network. In: DG.O 2004 , 2004, . http://dgrc.org/dgo2004/disc/presentations/statistics/marchionini.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Designing for fun: how can we design user interfaces to be more fun?. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 48-50. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1015530.1015552

Shneiderman, Ben (2004): Facilitating Understanding of Information Visualizations: Emerging Principles and Examples. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 5-5. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/iv/2004/2177/00/21770005abs.htm

Hert, Carol A., Liddy, Elizabeth D., Shneiderman, Ben, Marchionini, Gary (2003): Supporting statistical electronic table usage by citizens. In Communications of the ACM, 46 (1) pp. 52-54. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/602421.602449

Kang, Hyunmo, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Helping Users Get Started with Visual Interfaces: Multi-Layered Interfaces, Integrated Ini. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/DEMOS/kang.pdf

Plaisant, Catherine, Kang, H., Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Helping users get started with visual interfaces: multi-layered interfaces, integrated ini. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 790-794.

Kules, Bill, Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Designing a Metadata -Driven Visual Information Browser for Federal Statistics. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/PAPERS/metadata/kules_shneiderman.pdf

Marchionini, Gary, Haas, Stephanie W., Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Toward a Statistical Knowledge Network. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/PAPERS/datastats/marchionini.pdf

Kules, Bill, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2003): Data Exploration with Paired Hierarchical Visualizations: Initial Designs of Pair Trees. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/DEMOS/kules.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Promoting universal usability with multi-layer interface design. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability , 2003, . pp. 1-8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/957205.957206

Kang, Hyunmo, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2003): New Approaches to Help Users Get Started with Visual Interfaces: Multi-Layered Interfaces . In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/PAPERS/hci_usability/kang_plaisant.pdf

Zhao, Haixia, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Zotkin, Dmitry N., Duraiswami, Ramani (2003): Improving Accessibility and Usability of Geo-referenced Statistical Data. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/PAPERS/hci_usability/zhao.pdf

Golub, Evan, Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Dynamic query visualizations on World Wide Web clients: a DHTML solution for maps and scat. In Int. J. Web Eng. Technol., 1 (1) pp. 63-78.

Zhao, Haixia, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2003): Improving Accessibility and Usability of Geo-referenced Statistical Data. In: DG.O 2003 , 2003, . http://diggov.org/dgrc/dgo2003/cdrom/DEMOS/demos2/zhao.pdf

Norman, Kent L., Zhao, H., Shneiderman, Ben, Golub, E. (2003): Dynamic Query Choropleth Maps for Information Seeking and Decision Making. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1263-1267.

Grinstein, Georges G., Kobsa, Alfred, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben, Stasko, John T. (2003): Which Comes First, Utility or Usability?. In: Turk, Greg, Wijk, Jarke J. van, II, Robert J. Moorhead (eds.) 14th IEEE Visualization 2003 Conference VIS 2003 19-24 October, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 605-606.

Shneiderman, Ben (2003): Why Not Make Interfaces Better than 3D Reality?. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 23 (6) pp. 12-15.

Kang, Hyunmo, Shneiderman, Ben, Wolff, Gregory J. (2002): Dynamic Layout Management in a Multimedia Bulletin Board. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 51-53. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440051abs.htm

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Creativity support tools: a tutorial overview. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Creativity and Cognition , 2002, . pp. 1-2. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/581710.581711

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Creativity support tools. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (10) pp. 116-120. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/570907.570945

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): ACM\'s computing professionals face new challenges. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (2) pp. 31-34. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/503124.503142

Shneiderman, Ben, Kang, Hyunmo, Kules, Bill, Plaisant, Catherine, Rose, Anne, Rucheir, Richesh (2002): A photo history of SIGCHI: evolution of design from personal to public. In Interactions, 9 (3) pp. 17-23.

Seo, Jinwook, Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Interactively Exploring Hierarchical Clustering Results. In IEEE Computer, 35 (7) pp. 80-86. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2002/07/r7080abs.htm

Zaphiris, Panayiotis, Shneiderman, Ben, Norman, Kent L. (2002): Expandable indexes vs. sequential menus for searching hierarchies on the World Wide Web. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 21 (3) pp. 201-207.

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Understanding human reactivites and relationships: an excerpt from Leonardo's laptop. In Interactions, 9 (5) pp. 40-53.

Konishi, M., Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Enabling Commuters to Find the Best Route: An Interface for Analyzing Driving History Logs. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction , 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 799-800.

Dang, Gunjan, North, Chris, Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Dynamic Queries and Brushing on Choropleth Maps. In: IV 2001 , 2001, . pp. 757-764. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/iv/2001/1195/00/11950757abs.htm

Hochheiser, Harry, Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Using interactive visualizations of WWW log data to characterize access patterns and infor. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 52 (4) pp. 331-343.

Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Information Visualization: The Path from Innovation to Adoption. In: IV 2001 , 2001, . pp. 3-. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/iv/2001/1195/00/11950003abs.htm

Shneiderman, Ben, Wattenberg, Martin (2001): Ordered Treemap Layouts. In: InfoVis 2001 , 2001, . pp. 73-78. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/infovis/2001/1342/00/13420073abs.htm

Hochheiser, Harry, Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Universal usability statements: Marking the trail for all users. In Interactions, 8 (2) pp. 16-18. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/361897.361913 Citation

Shneiderman, Ben (2001): Design: CUU: bridging the digital divide with universal usability. In Interactions, 8 (2) pp. 11-15. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/361897.361905 Citation

Shneiderman, Ben, Hochheiser, Harry (2001): Universal usability as a stimulus to advanced interface design. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 20 (5) pp. 367-376.

Shneiderman, Ben, Feldman, David, Rose, Anne, Grau, Xavier Ferre (2000): Visualizing Digital Library Search Results with Categorical and Hierarchical Axes. In: DL00: Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries , 2000, . pp. 57-66. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/dl/336597/p57-shneiderman/p57-shneiderman.pdf

Tanin, Egemen, Lotem, Amnon, Haddadin, Ihab, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Slaughter, Laura (2000): Facilitating Data Exploration with Query Previews: A Study of User Performance and Prefere. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (6) pp. 393-403.

Hochheiser, Harry, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Performance Benefits of Simultaneous Over Sequential Menus as Task Complexity Increases. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (2) pp. 173-192.

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Universal Usability. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (5) pp. 84-91. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/332833.332843

Christian, Kevin, Kules, Bill, Shneiderman, Ben, Youssef, Adel (2000): A Comparison of Voice Controlled and Mouse Controlled Web Browsing. In: Fourth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies , 2000, . pp. 72-79. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/assets/354324/p72-christian/p72-christian.pdf

North, Chris, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Snap-Together Visualization: A User Interface for Coodinating Visualizations via Relationa. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 , 2000, . pp. 128-135.

Marchionini, Gary, Hert, Carol A., Liddy, Liz, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Extending understanding of federal statistics in tables. In: DG.O 2000 - Proceedings of the 2000 National Conference on Digital Government Research May 15-17, 2000, . http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1123075.1123079

North, Chris, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Snap-Together Visualization: Can Users Construct and Operate Coordinated Visualizations?. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53 (5) pp. 715-739.

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Designing trust into online experiences. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (12) pp. 57-59. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/355112.355124

Shneiderman, Ben, Kang, Hyunmo (2000): Direct Annotation: A Drag-and-Drop Strategy for Labeling Photos. In: IV 2000 , 2000, . pp. 88-. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/iv/2000/0743/00/07430088abs.htm

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): The limits of speech recognition. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (9) pp. 63-65. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/348941.348990

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Welcome to the ACM Conference on Universal Usability. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability , 2000, . pp. viii. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/cuu/proceedings/conf-welcome.html

Greene, Stephan, Marchionini, Gary, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Previews and overviews in digital libraries: Designing surrogates to support visual inform. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51 (4) pp. 380-393.

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 114-138. http://acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p114-shneiderman/p114-shneiderman.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Research Alerts. In Interactions, 7 (6) pp. 9-17. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/interactions/2000-7-6/p9-shneiderman/p9-shneiderman.html

Marchionini, Gary, Hert, Carol, Liddy, Liz, Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Extending User Understanding of Federal Statistics in Tables. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability , 2000, . pp. 132-138. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/355460/p132-marchionini/p132-marchionini.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (2000): Supporting Creativity with Powerful Composition Tools for Artifacts and Performances. In: HICSS 2000 , 2000, . http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2000/0493/07/04937005abs.htm

Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben, Doan, Khoa, Bruns, Tom (1999): Interface and data architecture for query preview in networked information systems. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 17 (3) pp. 320-341. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/314516.314522

Scholtz, Jean, Muller, Michael J., Novick, David G., Olsen, Jr. Dan R., Shneiderman, Ben, Wharton, Cathleen (1999): A Research Agenda for Highly Effective Human-Computer Interaction: Useful, Usable, and Uni. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (4) pp. 13-16. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/bulletin/1999.4a/scholtz.pdf

Brown, Judith R., Dam, Andy van, Earnshaw, Rae A., Encarnação, José L., Guedj, Richard, Preece, Jennifer, Shneiderman, Ben, Vince, John (1999): Human-Centered Computing, Online Communities, and Virtual Environments. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 19 (6) pp. 70-74. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/38.799742

Shneiderman, Ben (1998): Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2) pp. 87-106.

Shneiderman, Ben, Byrd, Donald, Croft, W. Bruce (1998): Sorting Out Searching: A User-Interface Framework for Text Searches. In Communications of the ACM, 41 (4) pp. 95-98.

Shneiderman, Ben (1998): Visualizing Personal Histories. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (1) pp. 34-35. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/bulletin/1998.1/shneiderman.html

Kandogan, Eser, Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Elastic Windows: Evaluation of Multi-Window Operations. In: Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 250-257. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/258549/p250-kandogan/p250-kandogan.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Between Hope and Fear. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (2) pp. 59-62.

Kandogan, Eser, Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Elastic Windows: A Hierarchical Multi-Window World-Wide Web Browser. In: Robertson, George G., Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 169-177. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/263407/p169-kandogan/p169-kandogan.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben, Maes, Pattie (1997): Direct Manipulation vs Interface Agents. In Interactions, 4 (6) pp. 42-61. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/interactions/1997-4-6/p42-shneiderman/p42-shneiderman.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Designing Information-Abundant Web Sites: Issues and Recommendations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 47 (1) pp. 5-29. http://ijhcs.open.ac.uk/shneiderman/shneiderman.pdf

Kumar, Harsha P., Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Browsing Hierarchical Data with Multi-Level Dynamic Queries and Pruning. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 46 (1) pp. 103-124.

Scarlatos, Lori L., Darken, Rudolph P., Harada, Komei, Heeter, Carrie, Muller, Richard, Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Designing Interactive Multimedia (Panel). In: ACM Multimedia 1997 , 1997, . pp. 215-218. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/266180.266370

Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Direct Manipulation for Comprehensible, Predictable and Controllable User Interfaces. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest, Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 33-39. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/238218/p33-shneiderman/p33-shneiderman.pdf

Tanin, Egemen, Beigel, Richard, Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Design and Evaluation of Incremental Data Structures and Algorithms for Dynamic Query Inte. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 81-86. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/infovis/1997/8189/00/81890081abs.htm

Kandogan, Eser, Shneiderman, Ben (1996): Elastic windows: improved spatial layout and rapid multiple window operations. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano, Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 29-38. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/948449.948454

Harvey, Francis, Gross, Ben, Agre, Philip E., Shneiderman, Ben (1996): The Durango Declarations Forum. In The Information Society, 12 (1) pp. . http://www.indiana.edu/~tisj/readers/abstracts/12/12-1%20Harvey.html

Plaisant, Catherine, Milash, Brett, Rose, Anne, Widoff, Seth, Shneiderman, Ben (1996): LifeLines: Visualizing Personal Histories. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D., Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 221-227. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Plaisant/cps1txt.htm

Joyce, Michael, Kolker, Robert, Moulthrop, Stuart, Shneiderman, Ben, Unsworth, John Merritt (1996): Visual Metaphor and the Problem of Complexity in the Design of Web Sites: Techniques for G. In: Hypertext 96 - Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext March 16-20, 1996, Washington, DC. pp. 257. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/hypertext/234828/p257-joyce/p257-joyce.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1996): The Eyes Have It: A Task by Data Type Taxonomy for Information Visualizations. In: VL 1996 , 1996, . pp. 336-343.

Shneiderman, Ben (1995): Looking for the Bright Side of User Interface Agents. In Interactions, 2 (1) pp. 13-15.

Guzdial, Mark, Kafai, Yasmin B., Carroll, John M., Fischer, Gerhard, Schank, Roger, Soloway, Elliot, Shneiderman, Ben (1995): Learner-Centered System Design: HCI Perspective for the Future. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1995, . pp. 143-147.

Shneiderman, Ben, Alavi, Maryam, Norman, Kent L., Borkowski, Ellen Yu (1995): Windows of Opportunity in Electronic Classrooms. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (11) pp. 19-24.

Rose, Anne, Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (1995): An Applied Ethnographic Method for Redesigning User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1995, . pp. 115-122.

Shneiderman, Ben (1995): The Info Superhighway: For the People. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (1) pp. 162.

Sears, Andrew, Shneiderman, Ben (1994): Split Menus: Effectively Using Selection Frequency to Organize Menus. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 27-51. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1994-1-1/p27-sears/p27-sears.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1994): The Future of Graphic User Interfaces. In: Bergeron, R. Daniel, Kaufman, Arie E. (eds.) VIS 1994 - Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1994 October 17-21, 1994, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 7.

Chimera, Richard, Shneiderman, Ben (1994): An Exploratory Evaluation of Three Interfaces for Browsing Large Hierarchical Tables of Co. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 12 (4) pp. 383-406. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1994-12-4/p383-chimera/p383-chimera.pdf

Rivlin, Ehud, Botafogo, Rodrigo A., Shneiderman, Ben (1994): Navigating in Hyperspace: Designing a Structure-Based Toolbox. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (2) pp. 87-96.

Jain, Vinit, Shneiderman, Ben (1994): Data Structures for Dynamic Queries: An Analytical and Experimental Evaluation. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1994 , 1994, . pp. 1-11. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/192309.192313

Shneiderman, Ben, Badre, Albert N., Santos, Paulo (1994): AVI \'94. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 54-55.

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (1994): The Future of Graphic User Interfaces: Personal Role Managers. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven, Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. pp. 3-8.

Ahlberg, Christopher, Shneiderman, Ben (1994): Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Display. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 313-317. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p313-ahlberg/p313-ahlberg.pdf

Ahlberg, Christopher, Shneiderman, Ben (1994): The Alphaslider: A Compact and Rapid Selector. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 365-371. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p365-ahlberg/p365-ahlberg.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1994): "Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction," edited by Ben Shneiderman. In Interactions, 1 (1) pp. 67-71. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/interactions/1994-1-1/p67-bookreview/p67-bookreview.pdf

Young, Degi, Shneiderman, Ben (1993): A Graphical Filter/Flow Representation of Boolean Queries: A Prototype Implementation and . In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 44 (6) pp. 327-339.

Karl, Lewis R., Pettey, Michael, Shneiderman, Ben (1993): Speech versus Mouse Commands for Word Processing: An Empirical Evaluation. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (4) pp. 667-687.

Shneiderman, Ben, Lewis, Clayton H. (1993): Building HCI Partnerships and Infrastructure. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 130-135.

Sears, Andrew, Revis, Doreen, Swatski, Janet, Crittenden, Rob, Shneiderman, Ben (1993): Investigating Touchscreen Typing: The Effect of Keyboard Size on Typing Speed. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (1) pp. 17-22.

Ahlberg, Christopher, Williamson, Christopher, Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Dynamic Queries for Information Exploration: An Implementation and Evaluation. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John, Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 619-626. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p619-ahlberg/p619-ahlberg.pdf

Don, Abbe, Brennan, Susan, Laurel, Brenda K., Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Anthropomorphism: From Eliza to Terminator 2. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John, Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 67-70. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p67-don/p67-don.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Socially Responsible Computing II: First Steps on the Path to Positive Contributions. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (3) pp. 16-17.

Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Socially Responsible Computing I: A Call to Action Following the L.A. Riots. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (3) pp. 14-15.

Shneiderman, Ben, Williamson, Christopher, Ahlberg, Christopher (1992): Dynamic Queries: Database Searching by Direct Manipulation. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John, Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 669-670. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p669-shneiderman/p669-shneiderman.pdf

Botafogo, Rodrigo A., Rivlin, Ehud, Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Structural Analysis of Hypertexts: Identifying Hierarchies and Useful Metrics. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (2) pp. 142-180. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1992-10-2/p142-botafogo/p142-botafogo.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Tree Visualization with Tree-Maps: a 2-D Space-Filling Approach. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 11 (1) pp. 92-99.

Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Scheduling Home Control Devices: Design Issues and Usability Evaluation of Four Touchscree. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 36 (3) pp. 375-393.

Williamson, Christopher, Shneiderman, Ben (1992): The Dynamic HomeFinder: Evaluating Dynamic Queries in a Real-Estate Information Exploratio. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 1992, . pp. 338-346. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/ir/133160/p338-williamson/p338-williamson.pdf

Johnson, B., Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Tree maps: A Space-Filling Approach to the Visualization of Hierarchical Information Struc. In: IEEE Visualization 1991 , 1991, . pp. 284-291.

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Botafogo, Rodrigo, Hopkins, Don, Weiland, William (1991): Designing to Facilitate Browsing: A Look Back at the Hyperties Workstation Browser. In Hypermedia, 3 (2) pp. 101-117.

Botafogo, Rodrigo A., Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Identifying Aggregates in Hypertext Structures. In: Walker, Jan (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 63-74. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/hypertext/122974/p63-botafogo/p63-botafogo.pdf

Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Human Values and the Future of Technology: A Declaration of Responsibility. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) pp. 11-16.

Zweben, Stu, Curtis, Bill, Shneiderman, Ben (1991): The Best of ESP. In: Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Moher, Thomas G., Robertson, Scott P. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers , 1991, Norwood, New Jersey, USA. pp. 1-2.

Keil-Slawik, R., Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Remote Direct Manipulation: A Case Study of a Telemedicine Workstation. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1991, . pp. 1006-1011.

Myers, Brad A., Cypher, Allen, Maulsby, David, Smith, David Canfield, Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Demonstrational Interfaces: Coming Soon?. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 393-396. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p393-myers/p393-myers.pdf

Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Scheduling ON-OFF Home Control Devices. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 459-460. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p459-plaisant/p459-plaisant.pdf

Sears, Andrew, Shneiderman, Ben (1991): High Precision Touchscreens: Design Strategies and Comparisons with a Mouse. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 (4) pp. 593-613.

Faloutsos, Christos, Lee, Raymond, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1990): Incorporating String Research in a Hypertext System: User Interface and Signature File Des. In Hypermedia, 2 (3) pp. 183-200.

Shneiderman, Ben (1990): Future Directions for Human-Computer Interaction. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (1) pp. 73-90.

Baird, Patricia, Covo, Jacqueline, Shneiderman, Ben, Williams, Ian, Deter, Renee (1990): The Advantages of Hypertext for Large Information Spaces; Where Are the Big Systems?. In: Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A., Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France. pp. 343-346.

Shneiderman, Ben (1990): Protecting Rights in User Interface Designs. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 22 (2) pp. 18-19.

Perlman, Gary, Egan, Dennis E., Ehrlich, Kate, Marchionini, Gary, Nielsen, Jakob, Shneiderman, Ben (1990): Evaluating Hypermedia Systems. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 387-390. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/97243/p387-perlman/p387-perlman.pdf

Halasz, Frank, McCracken, Donald, Meyrowitz, Norman, Pearl, Amy, Shneiderman, Ben (1989): Confessions -- What's Wrong with Our Systems. In: Halasz, Frank, Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 399.

Balzer, Robert, Begeman, Michael L., Garg, Pankaj K., Schwartz, Mayer, Shneiderman, Ben (1989): Hypertext and Software Engineering. In: Halasz, Frank, Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 395-396.

Rous, Bernard, Shneiderman, Ben, Yankelovich, Nicole, Yoder, Elise (1989): Lessons Learned from the ACM Hypertext on Hypertext Project. In: Halasz, Frank, Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 385-386.

Shneiderman, Ben (1989): Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, University of Maryland, Center for Automation Resea. In: Bice, Ken, Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 309-310.

Potter, Richard E., Berman, Mitchell, Shneiderman, Ben (1989): An Experimental Evaluation of Three Touch Screen Strategies within a Hypertext Database. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 41-52.

Shneiderman, Ben, Brethauer, Dorothy, Plaisant, Catherine, Potter, Richard (1989): Evaluating three museum installations of a hypertext system. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 40 (3) pp. 172-182.

Mitchell, Jeffrey, Shneiderman, Ben (1989): Dynamic versus Static Menus: An Exploratory Comparison. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (4) pp. 33-37.

Furuta, Richard, Plaisant, Catherine, Shneiderman, Ben (1989): A Spectrum of Automatic Hypertext Constructions. In Hypermedia, 1 (2) pp. 179-195.

Shneiderman, Ben (1989): Future Directions for Human-Computer Interaction. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1989, . pp. 2-17.

Seabrook, Richard H. C., Shneiderman, Ben (1989): The User Interface in a Hypertext, Multiwindow Program Browser. In Interacting with Computers, 1 (3) pp. 299-337.

Shneiderman, Ben, Carroll, John M. (1988): Ecological Studies of Professional Programmers (Introduction to the Special Section). In Communications of the ACM, 31 (11) pp. 1256-1258.

Callahan, Jack, Hopkins, Don, Weiser, Mark, Shneiderman, Ben (1988): An Empirical Comparison of Pie vs. Linear Menus. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas, Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 95-100.

Marchionini, Gary, Shneiderman, Ben (1988): Finding Facts vs. Browsing Knowledge in Hypertext Systems. In IEEE Computer, 21 (1) pp. 70-80.

Potter, Richard E., Weldon, Linda J., Shneiderman, Ben (1988): Improving the Accuracy of Touch Screens: An Experimental Evaluation of Three Strategies. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas, Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 27-32.

Wallace, Daniel F., Anderson, Nancy S., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): Time Stress Effects on Two Menu Selection Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting , 1987, . pp. 727-731.

Laverson, Alan, Norman, Kent L., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): An Evaluation of Jump-Ahead Techniques in Menu Selection. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 6 (2) pp. 97-108.

Shneiderman, Ben (1987): User Interface Design and Evaluation for an Electronic Encyclopedia. In: Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) HCI International 1987 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 10-14, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp. 207-223.

Shneiderman, Ben (1987): User Interface Design for the Hyperties Electronic Encyclopedia. In: Weiss, Stephen, Schwartz, Mayer (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 87 Conference November 13-15, 1987, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. pp. 189-194.

Greif, Irene, Curtis, Bill, Krasner, Herb, Malone, Thomas W., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): Computer--supported cooperative work: Is this REALLY a new field of research?. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 227-228.

Laverson, Alan, Norman, Kent L., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): An Evaluation of Jump-Ahead Techniques in Menu Selection. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 6 (2) pp. 97-108.

Reisel, J. F., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): Is Bigger Better? The Effects of Display Size on Program Reading. In: Salvendy, Gavriel, Sauter, Steven L., Jr., Joseph J. Hurrell (eds.) Social, Ergonomic and Stress Aspects of Work with Computers, Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 1 August 10-14, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp. 113-122.

Wolf, Catherine G., Shneiderman, Ben (1987): Understanding Direct Manipulation Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting , 1987, . pp. 565.

Shneiderman, Ben (1986): Empirical Studies of Programmers: The Territory, Paths, and Destinations. In: Soloway, Elliot, Iyengar, Sitharama (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers June 5-6 1986, 1986, Washington, DC. pp. 1-12.

Shneiderman, Ben (1986): Seven Plus or Minus Two Central Issues in Human-Computer Interaction. In: Mantei, Marilyn, Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 343-349.

Thomas, John C., Brown, John Seely, Buxton, Bill, Curtis, Bill, Landauer, Thomas K., Malone, Thomas W., Shneiderman, Ben (1986): Human Computer Interaction in the Year 2000. In: Mantei, Marilyn, Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 253-255.

Norman, Kent L., Weldon, Linda J., Shneiderman, Ben (1986): Cognitive Layouts of Windows and Multiple Screens for User Interfaces. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 25 (2) pp. 229-248.

Shneiderman, Ben (1986): No members, no officers, no dues: A ten year history of the software psychology society. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 18 (2) pp. 14-16.

Ewing, John, Mehrabanzad, Simin, Sheck, Scott, Ostroff, Dan, Shneiderman, Ben (1986): An Experimental Comparison of a Mouse and Arrow-Jump Keys for an Interactive Encyclopedia. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 24 (1) pp. 29-45.

Koved, Larry, Shneiderman, Ben (1986): Embedded Menus: Selecting Items in Context. In Communications of the ACM, 29 (4) pp. 312-318.

Parton, Diana, Huffman, Keith, Pridgen, Patty, Norman, Kent L., Shneiderman, Ben (1985): Learning a Menu Selection Tree: Training Methods Compared. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 4 (2) pp. 81-91.

Powers, Matthew, Lashley, Conda, Sanchez, Pamela, Shneiderman, Ben (1984): An Experimental Comparison of Tabular and Graphic Data Presentation. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 20 (6) pp. 545-566.

Miara, Richard J., Musselman, Joyce A., Navarro, Juan A., Shneiderman, Ben (1983): Program Indentation and Comprehensibility. In Communications of the ACM, 26 (11) pp. 861-867.

Shneiderman, Ben (1983): Direct manipulation: A step beyond programming languages. In IEEE Computer, 16 (8) pp. 57-69.

Shneiderman, Ben (1982): Pracniques: Designing Computer System Messages. In Communications of the ACM, 25 (9) pp. 610-611.

Shneiderman, Ben (1982): Teaching Software Psychology Experimentation Through Team Projects. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 299-301.

Shneiderman, Ben (1982): Control Flow and Data Structure Documentation: Two Experiments. In Communications of the ACM, 25 (1) pp. 55-63.

Shneiderman, Ben (1982): The Future of Interactive Systems and the Emergence of Direct Manipulation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (3) pp. 237-256.

Persio, Tom Di, Isbister, Dan, Shneiderman, Ben (1980): An Experiment Using Memorization/Reconstruction as a Measure of Programmer Ability. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 13 (3) pp. 339-354.

Shneiderman, Ben (1978): Jump Searching: A Fast Sequential Search Technique. In Communications of the ACM, 21 (10) pp. 831-834.

Brosey, Margaret, Shneiderman, Ben (1978): Two Experimental Comparisons of Relational and Hierarchical Database Models. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 10 (6) pp. 625-637.

Shneiderman, Ben, Mayer, Richard E., McKay, Don, Heller, Peter (1977): Experimental Investigations of the Utility of Detailed Flowcharts in Programming. In Communications of the ACM, 20 (6) pp. 373-381.

Shneiderman, Ben (1977): Measuring Computer Program Quality and Comprehension. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 9 (4) pp. 465-478.

Shneiderman, Ben, Scheuermann, Peter (1974): Structured Data Structures. In Communications of the ACM, 17 (10) pp. 566-574.

Shneiderman, Ben (1973): Optimum Data Base Reorganization Points. In Communications of the ACM, 16 (6) pp. 362-365.

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2010): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (5th Edition), Addison-Wesley,

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine, Cohen, Maxine, Jacobs, Steven (2009): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (5th Edition), Prentice Hall,

Shneiderman, Ben

5.10 Commentary by Ben Shneiderman

Since computer displays are such powerful visual appliances, careful designers devote extensive effort to getting the visual representation right. They have to balance the demands of many tasks, diverse users, and challenging requirements, such as short learning time, rapid performance, low error rates, and good retention over time. Designing esthetic interfaces that please and even delight users is a further expectation that designers must meet to be successful. For playful and discretionary tasks esthetic concerns may dominate, but for life critical tasks, rapid performance with low error rates are essential.

Alan Blackwell's competent description of many visual representation issues is a great start for newcomers with helpful reminders even for experienced designers. The videos make for a pleasant personal accompaniment that bridges visual representation for interface design with thoughtful analyses of representational art. Blackwell's approach might be enriched by more discussion of visual representations in functional product design tied to meaningful tasks. Learning from paintings of Paris is fine, but aren't there other lessons to learn from visual representations in airport kiosks, automobile dashboards, or intensive care units?

These devices as well as most graphical user interfaces and mobile devices raise additional questions of changing state visualization and interaction dynamics. Modern designers need to do more than show the right phone icon, they need to show ringing, busy, inactive, no network, conference mode, etc., which may include color changes (highlighted, grayed out), animations, and accompanying sounds. These designers also need to deal with interactive visual representations that happen with a click, double-click, right-click, drag, drag-and-drop, hover, multi-select, region-select, brushing-linking, and more.

The world of mobile devices such as phones, cameras, music players, or medical sensors is the new frontier for design, where visual representations are dynamic and tightly integrated with sound, haptics, and novel actions such as shaking, twisting, or body movements. Even more challenging is the expectation that goes beyond the solitary viewer to the collaboration in which multiple users embedded in a changing physical environment produce new visual representations.

These changing and interactive demands on designers invite creative expressions that are very different from designs for static signs, printed diagrams, or interpretive art. The adventure for visual representation designers is to create a new language of interaction that engages users, accelerates learning, provides comprehensible feedback, and offers appropriate warnings when dangers emerge. Blackwell touches on some of these issues in the closing Gapminder example, but I was thirsty for more.

(1998): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (eds.), Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,

Shneiderman, Ben (1980): Software Psychology: Human Factors in Computer and Information Systems, Winthrop,

Shneiderman, Ben, Kearsley, Greg (1989): Hypertext Hands-On! An Introduction to a New Way of Organizing and Accessing Information, Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Applications and Implications. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (eds). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think" Academic Press .

Bederson, Benjamin B., Shneiderman, Ben (2003): The Craft of Information Visualization: Readings and Reflections, Morgan Kaufman Publishers,

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Leonardo's Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies, MIT Press,

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben, Tweedie, Lisa (1999): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think, Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (eds.), Academic Press,

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Information Visualization. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D., Shneiderman, Ben (eds). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think" Academic Press .

Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction. (3rd ed.), Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Shneiderman, Ben (1987): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Shneiderman, Ben (1992): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (Second Edition), Addison-Wesley Publishing,

(1982): Directions in Human/Computer Interaction, Badre, Albert N., Shneiderman, Ben (eds.), Ablex Publishing,

(1993): Sparks of Innovation in Human-Computer Interaction, Shneiderman, Ben (eds.), Intellect,

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2005): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (4th ed.), Addison-Wesley,

(1980): Directions in Human-Computer Interaction, Badre, Albert N., Shneiderman, Ben (eds.), Ablex Publishing,

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2004): Designing the User Interface : Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Shneiderman, Ben (1997): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction, Addison-Wesley Publishing,

Shneiderman, Ben (2002): Leonardo\'s laptop : human needs and the new computing technologies /, MIT Press,

Shneiderman, Ben, Plaisant, Catherine (2009): Designing the User Interface: Strategies for Effective Human-Computer Interaction (5th ed.), Addison-Wesley,