Mary Beth Rosson

Personal Homepage
http://mrosson.ist.psu.edu/
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Email
mrosson@ist.psu.edu

I am a Professor of Information Sciences and Technology, and Affiliate Professor of Instructional Systems in the College of Education. With Dr. John Carroll, I co-direct the Computer-Supported Collaboration and Learning (CSCL). I am also a founding member of PSU's Center for Human-Computer Interaction, a loosely coupled university-wide consortia of researchers and educators pursuing topics in HCI.

My long-term research themes include scenario-based design (SBD) and evaluation methods, materials and tools for informal and collaborative learning, and interactive tools for software design and construction. An overview of the SBD methods can be found in the Usability Engineering textbook I wrote in 2002 as well as our repository of case studies.

Currently I am participating in a broad range of research projects, most involving some aspect of collaborative learning and problem solving. Typically our projects use a mix of methods - lab studies, participatory analysis and design, exploratory software development, and field studies within the general framework of action research.

Within the CSCL, I direct the ILSD group (Informal Learning in Software Development). We are studying a variety of end-user software construction tasks, with a focus on web application design, development, and debugging. We are also starting to work with younger learners, for example middle and high school girls who are first learning about programming.

I am a founding member of the EUSES Consortium (End Users Shaping Effective Software), a group of researchers from Oregon State, CMU, Drexel, University of Nebraska, and Penn State, who collaborate on a broad range of issues and techniques related to end-user software engineering. I am a member of the CHI Academy and an ACM Distinguished Scientist.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1982
Publication period end
2012
Number of co-authors
150

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Rosson, Mary Beth, Li, Na, Ryan, Timothy, Tapia, Andrea H. (2012): Addressing ownership, access and participation needs in scientific collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2012 iConference , 2012, . pp. 271-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2132176.2132211

Gilbert, Juan E., Burnett, Margaret M., Ladner, Richard E., Rosson, Mary Beth, Davis, Janet (2011): Applying the NSF broader impacts criteria to HCI research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 459-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979534

Ko, Andrew J., Abraham, Robin, Beckwith, Laura, Blackwell, Alan, Burnett, Margaret M., Erwig, Martin, Scaffidi, Christopher, Lawrance, Joseph, Lieberman, Henry, Myers, Brad A., Rosson, Mary Beth, Rothermel, Gregg, Shaw, Mary, Wiedenbeck, Susan (2011): The State of the Art in End-User Software Engineering. In ACM Computing Surveys, 43 (3) pp. 1-44.

Tapia, Andrea H., Ocker, Rosalie, Rosson, Mary Beth, Blodgett, Bridget (2011): Good bones: anthropological scientific collaboration around computed tomography data. In: Proceedings of the 2011 iConference , 2011, . pp. 402-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1940761.1940816

Rosson, Mary Beth, Sinha, Hansa, Edor, Tisha (2010): Design Planning in End-User Web Development: Gender, Feature Exploration and Feelings of S. In: Hundhausen, Christopher D., Pietriga, Emmanuel, Diaz, Paloma, Rosson, Mary Beth (eds.) IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2010 21-25 September 2010, 2010, Leganés-Madrid, Spain. pp. 141-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2010.28

Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Ko, Andrew J., Rosson, Mary Beth, Scaffidi, Christopher, Wiedenbeck, Susan (2010): End user software engineering: CHI 2010 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 3189-3192. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753846.1753953

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): Bringing back channels up front: towards an active learning environment. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2010, . pp. 333-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1880071.1880137

Diaz, Paloma, Aedo, Ignacio, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): A visual tool for using design patterns as pattern languages. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces , 2010, . pp. 67-74. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1842993.1843005

Du, Honglu, Jiang, Hao, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2010): Increasing Students In-Class Engagement through Public Commenting: An Exploratory Study. In: ICALT 2010 - 10th IEEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 5-7 July, 2010, Sousse, Tuneisa. pp. 373-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2010.106

Mentis, Helena M., Reddy, Madhu, Rosson, Mary Beth (2010): Invisible emotion: information and interaction in an emergency room. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2010, . pp. 311-320. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1718918.1718975

Rosson, Mary Beth, Sinha, Hansa, Hansford, Tisha, Mahar, Jan (2010): Offering Early Success Experiences in Software Construction: Experiences Teaching Dynamic . In: ICALT 2010 - 10th IEEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 5-7 July, 2010, Sousse, Tuneisa. pp. 458-460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICALT.2010.133

Zang, Nan, Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): Web-active users working with data. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4687-4692. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520721

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Slavkovic, Aleksandra, Carroll, John M. (2009): Supporting content and process common ground in computer-supported teamwork. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 2339-2348. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1519059

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig (2009): I felt like a contributing member of the class: increasing class participation with ClassC. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2009, . pp. 233-242. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1531674.1531709

Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Ko, Andrew J., Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): End user software engineering: CHI: 2009 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 2731-2734. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520393

Du, Honglu, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Ganoe, Craig (2009): \"I felt more of a member of this class\": increasing students\' sense of community with v. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4405-4410. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520674

Diaz, Paloma, Rosson, Mary Beth, Aedo, Ignacio, Carroll, John M. (2009): Web Design Patterns: Investigating User Goals and Browsing Strategies. In: Pipek, Volkmar, Rosson, Mary Beth, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de, Wulf, Volker (eds.) End-User Development - 2nd International Symposium - IS-EUD 2009 March 2-4, 2009, Siegen, Germany. pp. 186-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-00427-8_11

Zang, Nan, Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): Playing with information: How end users think about and integrate dynamic data. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing - VL/HCC 2009 20-24 September, 2009, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp. 85-92. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2009.5295293

Bottoni, Paolo, Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): Special issue on selected papers from VL/HCC 2008: Guest Editors' introduction. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 20 (4) pp. 221-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvlc.2009.04.004

Mentis, Helena M., Bach, Paula M., Hoffman, Blaine, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2009): Development of decision rationale in complex group decision making. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 1341-1350. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1518904

Ocker, Rosalie J., Kracaw, Dana, Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, Rosson, Mary Beth, Plotnick, Linda (2009): Enhancing Learning Experiences in Partially Distributed Teams: Training Students to Work E. In: HICSS 2009 - 42st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 5-8 January, 2009, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2009.192

Zhao, Dejin, Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): How and why people Twitter: the role that micro-blogging plays in informal communication a. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2009, . pp. 243-252. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1531674.1531710

Mentis, Helena M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): \"It\'s like a circus in here!\": affect and information sharing in an emergency departmen. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2009, . pp. 4423-4428. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1520340.1520677

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Theorizing mobility in community networks. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (12) pp. 944-962. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WGR-4SWWT8T-3/2/a85e06eedc9a13fb1ab39e7508da9357

Plotnick, Linda, Ocker, Rosalie J., Hiltz, Starr Roxanne, Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Leadership Roles and Communication Issues in Partially Distributed Emergency Response Soft. In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 29. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2008.230

Kase, Sue E., Zhang, Yang, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Sustainable informal it learning in community-based nonprofits. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 3435-3440. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1358628.1358870

Zang, Nan, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nasser, Vincent (2008): Mashups: who? what? why?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 3171-3176. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1358628.1358826

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Slavkovic, Aleksandra, Ganoe, Craig H. (2008): Articulating common ground in cooperative work: content and process. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 1637-1646. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357310

Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Ko, Andrew J., Blackwell, Alan (2008): End user software engineering: chi\'2008 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 2371-2374. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1358628.1358687

Zang, Nan, Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): What\'s in a mashup? And why? Studying the perceptions of web-active end users. In: VL-HCC 2008 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 15-19 September, 2008, Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany. pp. 31-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2008.4639055

Xiao, Lu, Carroll, John M., Clemson, Pat, Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Support of Case-Based Authentic Learning Activities: A Collaborative Case Commenting Tool . In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 6. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2008.417

Diaz, Paloma, Aedo, Ignacio, Rosson, Mary Beth (2008): Visual representation of web design patterns for end-users. In: Levialdi, Stefano (eds.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 408-411. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1385569.1385645

Rosson, Mary Beth, Sinha, Hansa, Bhattacharya, Mithu, Zhao, Dejin (2008): Design planning by end-user web developers. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 19 (4) pp. 468-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvlc.2008.03.001

Gross, Joshua B., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): Looking for trouble: understanding end-user security management. In: Kandogan, Eser, Jones, Patricia M. (eds.) CHIMIT 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st ACM Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for Management of Information Technology March 30-31, 2007, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1234772.1234786

Convertino, Gregorio, Mentis, Helena M., Ting, Alex Y. W., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): How does common ground increase?. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work , 2007, . pp. 225-228. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1316624.1316657

Gross, Joshua B., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): Looking for trouble: understanding end-user security management. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology , 2007, . pp. 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1234772.1234786

Convertino, G., Farooq, U., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Meyer, B. J. F. (2007): Supporting intergenerational groups in computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (4) pp. 275-285. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290601173473

Gross, Joshua B., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): End user concern about security and privacy threats. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security , 2007, . pp. 167-168. http://cups.cs.cmu.edu/soups/2007/posters/p167_gross.pdf

Merkel, Cecelia, Farooq, Umer, Xiao, Lu, Ganoe, Craig, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Managing technology use and learning in nonprofit community organizations: methodological . In: Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for the Management of Information Technology , 2007, . pp. 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1234772.1234783

Convertino, Gregorio, Zhao, Dejin, Ganoe, Craig H., Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): A Role-Based Multiple View Approach to Distributed Geo-Collaboration. In: Jacko, Julie A. (eds.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part IV , 2007, . pp. 561-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73111-5_64

Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Xiao, Lu, Merkel, Cecelia B., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Supporting community-based learning: case study of a geographical community organization d. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (1) pp. 5-21. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290600811503

Pane, John F., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): Broadening the Audience for Computational Thinking: Graduate Student Consortium. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 249. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2007.11

Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Daniel R., Isenhour, Philip L., Carroll, John M. (2007): Teacher Bridge: Creating a Community of Teacher Developers. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 5. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.512

Zhao, Dejin, Rosson, Mary Beth, Purao, Sandeep (2007): The Future of Work: What Does Online Community Have to Do with It?. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. pp. 180. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2007.531

Merkel, Cecelia, Farooq, Umer, Xiao, Lu, Ganoe, Craig H., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2007): Managing technology use and learning in nonprofit community organizations: methodological . In: Kandogan, Eser, Jones, Patricia M. (eds.) CHIMIT 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st ACM Symposium on Computer Human Interaction for Management of Information Technology March 30-31, 2007, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1234772.1234783

Rosson, Mary Beth, Sinha, Hansa, Bhattacharya, Mithu, Zhao, Dejin (2007): Design Planning in End-User Web Development. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 189-196. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2007.17

Xiao, Lu, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2007): Support Case-Based Authentic Learning Activities: A Collaborative Case Commenting Tool and. In: Jacko, Julie A. (eds.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part IV , 2007, . pp. 371-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73111-5_42

Kissinger, Cory, Burnett, Margaret M., Stumpf, Simone, Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja, Beckwith, Laura, Yang, Sherry, Rosson, Mary Beth (2006): Supporting end-user debugging: what do users want to know?. In: Celentano, Augusto (eds.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 135-142. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1133265.1133293

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Convertino, Gregorio, Ganoe, Craig H. (2006): Awareness and teamwork in computer-supported collaborations. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (1) pp. 21-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2005.05.005

Rosson, Mary Beth (2006): End Users Who Meet Their Own Requirements. In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2006 11-15 September, 2006, Minneapolis/St.Paul, Minnesota, USA. pp. 2. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/RE.2006.20

Rosson, Mary Beth, Kase, Sue E. (2006): Work, Play, and In-Between: Exploring the Role of Work Context for Informal Web Developers. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 151-156. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2006.58

Zhao, Dejin, Rosson, Mary Beth (2006): From Webspace to Workspace and Back Again: Seamless Instantiation, Composition, and Use of. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 177-180. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2006.23

Xiao, Lu, Merkel, Cecelia, Nash, Heather, Ganoe, Craig H., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Shon, Eva, Lee, Roderick, Farooq, Umer (2005): Students as Teachers and Teachers as Facilitators. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.567

Convertino, Gregorio, Farooq, Umer, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2005): Old is Gold: Integrating Older Workers in CSCW. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.461

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): Cases as Minimalist Information. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.135

Farooq, Umer, Merkel, Cecelia, Nash, Heather, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Xiao, Lu (2005): Participatory Design as Apprenticeship: Sustainable Watershed Management as a Community Co. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/HICSS.2005.485

Rosson, Mary Beth, Ballin, Julie F., Rode, Jochen (2005): Who, What, and How: A Survey of Informal and Professional Web Developers. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 199-206. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2005.73

Kavanaugh, Andrea, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Reese, Debbie D., Zin, Than T. (2005): Participating in civil society: the case of networked communities. In Interacting with Computers, 17 (1) pp. 9-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intcom.2004.10.006

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Zhou, Jingying (2005): Collective efficacy as a measure of community. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1-10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1054972.1054974

Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): End users creating effective software. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 2047-2048. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1057093

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): A case library for teaching usability engineering: Design rationale, development, and clas. In ACM Journal of Educational Resources in Computing, 5 (1) pp. 1-22. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1101670.1101673

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan, Isenhour, Philip L. (2005): Frameworks for Sharing Teaching Practices. In Educational Technology & Society, 8 (3) pp. 162-175. http://www.ifets.info/journals/8_3/15.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Ballin, Julie F., Nash, Heather (2004): Everyday Programming: Challenges and Opportunities for Informal Web Development. In: VL-HCC 2004 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 26-29 September, 2004, Rome, Italy. pp. 123-130. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2004.26

Rode, Jochen, Rosson, Mary Beth, Perez-Quinones, Manuel A. (2004): End-Users\' Mental Models of Concepts Critical to Web Application Development. In: VL-HCC 2004 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 26-29 September, 2004, Rome, Italy. pp. 215-222. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/VLHCC.2004.25

Merkel, Cecelia, Xiao, Lu, Farooq, Umer, Ganoe, Craig H., Lee, Roderick, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): Participatory design in community computing contexts: tales from the field. In: Clement, Andrew, Besselaar, Peter Van den (eds.) PDC 2004 - Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Participatory Design July 27-31, 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 1-10. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1011870.1011872

Convertino, Gregorio, Neale, Dennis C., Hobby, Laurian, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): A laboratory method for studying activity awareness. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 313-322. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1028014.1028063

Neale, Dennis C., Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2004): Evaluating computer-supported cooperative work: models and frameworks. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2004, . pp. 112-121. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1031607.1031626

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): A Trajectory for Community Networks. In The Information Society, 19 (5) pp. . http://www.indiana.edu/~tisj/19/5/ab-carroll.htm

Carroll, John M., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Rosson, Mary Beth, McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Notification and awareness: synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 605-632.

Ganoe, Craig, Somervell, Jacob P., Neale, Dennis C., Isenhour, Philip, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, McCrickard, D. Scott (2003): Classroom BRIDGE: using collaborative public and desktop timelines to support activity awa. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 21-30. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/964696.964699

Carroll, John M., Bowman, Doug A., McCrickard, Scott, North, Chris, Perez-Quinones, Manuel A., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Center for Human-Computer Interaction at Virginia Tech. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 1061.

Rode, Jochen, Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Programming at runtime: requirements and paradigms for nonprogrammer web application devel. In: HCC 2003 - IEEE Symposium on Human Centric Computing Languages and Environments 28-31 October, 2003, Auckland, New Zealand. pp. 23-30.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan, Isenhour, Philip L. (2003): rameworks for Sharing Knowledge Toward a Professional Language for Teaching Practices. In: HICSS 2003 , 2003, . pp. 120. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/2003/1874/04/187440120babs.htm

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Seals, Cheryl D., Lewis, Tracy L. (2002): Community design of community simulations. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2002, . pp. 75-83. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/778712.778726

Kim, Kibum, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2002): An Empirical Study of Web Personalization Assistants: Supporting End-Users in Web Informat. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 60-62. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440060abs.htm

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2002): Scenario-based usability engineering. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2002, . pp. 413. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/778712.778776

Seals, Cheryl D., Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Lewis, Tracy, Colson, Lenese (2002): Fun Learning Stagecast Creator: An Exercise in Minimalism and Collaboration. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 177-. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440177abs.htm

Lewis, Tracy, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Seals, Cheryl D. (2002): A Community Learns Design: Towards a Pattern Language for Novice Visual Programmers. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 168-176. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hcc/2002/1644/00/16440168abs.htm

Lloyd, Wesley James, Rosson, Mary Beth, Arthur, James D. (2002): Effectiveness of Elicitation Techniques in Distributed Requirements Engineering. In: 10th Anniversary IEEE Joint International Conference on Requirements Engineering RE 2002 9-13 September, 2002, Essen, Germany. pp. 311-318. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/re/2002/1465/00/14650311abs.htm

Rosson, Mary Beth, Seals, Cheryl D. (2001): Teachers as Simulation Programmers: Minimalist Learning and Reuse. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 237-244. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p237-rosson/p237-rosson.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2001): Better Home Shopping or New Democracy?: Evaluating Community Network Outcomes. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 372-379. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p372-carroll/p372-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Isenhour, Philip, Ganoe, Craig, Dunlap, Dan, Fogarty, James, Schafer, Wendy, Metre, Christina Van (2001): Designing Our Town: MOOsburg. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 54 (5) pp. 725-751.

Isenhour, Philip, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (2001): Supporting Interactive Collaboration on the Web with CORK. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (6) pp. 655-676.

Carroll, John M., Chin, George, Rosson, Mary Beth, Neale, Dennis C. (2000): The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual School. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2000, . pp. 239-251. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/347642/p239-carroll/p239-carroll.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Seals, Cheryl D. (2000): Learning and Reuse of a Visual Programming Language. In: VL 2000 , 2000, . pp. 85-86. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/vl/2000/0840/00/08400085abs.htm

Isenhour, Philip L., Carroll, John M., Neale, Dennis C., Rosson, Mary Beth, Dunlap, Dan (2000): The Virtual School: An integrated collaborative environment for the classroom. In Educational Technology & Society, 3 (3) pp. . http://ifets.ieee.org/periodical/vol_3_2000/a03.html

Rosson, Mary Beth (1999): I Get by With a Little Help from My Cyber-Friends: Sharing Stories of Good and Bad Times o. In: HICSS 1999 , 1999, . http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/02/00012025abs.htm

Begole, James, Rosson, Mary Beth, Shaffer, Clifford A. (1999): Flexible Collaboration Transparency: Supporting Worker Independence in Replicated Applicat. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (2) pp. 95-132. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1999-6-2/p95-begole/p95-begole.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth (1999): Integrating Development of Task and Object Models. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (1) pp. 49-56. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/291469.293168

Rosson, Mary Beth (1999): I Get By With A Little Help From My Cyber-Friends: Sharing Stories of Good and Bad Times o. In J. Computer-Mediated Communication, 4 (4) pp. . http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol4/issue4/rosson.html

Chin Jr., George, Rosson, Mary Beth (1998): Progressive Design: Staged Evolution of Scenarios in the Design of a Collaborative Science. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle, Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 611-618. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/274644/p611-chin/p611-chin.pdf

Kies, Jonathan K., Williges, Robert C., Rosson, Mary Beth (1998): Coordinating Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: A Review of Research Issues and Strategi. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 49 (9) pp. 776-791.

Begole, James, Rosson, Mary Beth, Shaffer, Clifford A. (1998): Supporting Worker Independence in Collaboration Transparency. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 133-142. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/288392/p133-begole/p133-begole.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth (1998): Synthesizing Diverse Perspectives. In ACM SIGDOC *Journal of Computer Documentation, 22 (1) pp. 18-19.

Harmelen, Mark van, Artim, John, Butler, Keith A., Henderson, Austin, Roberts, Dave, Rosson, Mary Beth, Tarby, Jean-Claude, Wilson, Stephanie (1997): Object Models in User Interface Design: A CHI 97 Workshop. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (4) pp. 55-62. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/bulletin/1997.4/harmelen.html

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Chin, George, Koenemann, Jurgen (1997): Requirements Development: Stages of Opportunity for Collaborative Needs Discovery. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1997, . pp. 55-64. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/263552/p55-carroll/p55-carroll.pdf

Chin Jr, George, Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1997): Participatory Analysis: Shared Development of Requirements from Scenarios. In: Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 162-169. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/258549/p162-chin/p162-chin.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Messner, David (1996): A Web StoryBase. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J., Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 369-382.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1996): The Reuse of Uses in Smalltalk Programming. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (3) pp. 219-253. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p219-rosson/p219-rosson.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1996): Scaffolded Examples for Learning Object-Oriented Design. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (4) pp. 46-47.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1996): Developing the Blacksburg Electronic Village. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (12) pp. 69-74.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1995): Managing Evaluation Goals for Training. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (7) pp. 40-48.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Cohill, Andrew M., Schorger, John R. (1995): Building a History of the Blacksburg Electronic Village. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 1995, . pp. 1-6.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1995): Integrating Task and Software Development for Object-Oriented Applications. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 377-384. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi95/proceedings/papers/mbr1body.htm

Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1994): Comparative Usability Evaluation: Critical Incidents and Critical Threads. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 245-251. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p245-koenemann-belliveau/p245-koenemann-belliveau.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Putting metaphors to work. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 112-119.

Carroll, John M., Alpert, Sherman R., Karat, John, Deusen, Mary S. Van, Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Raison d'Etre: capturing design history and rationale in mutimedia narratives. In: Plaisant, Catherine (eds.) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 1994, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 24-28, 1994, Conference Companion , 1994, . pp. 213. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/259963.260349

Carroll, John M., Mack, Robert L., Robertson, Scott P., Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Binding Objects to Scenarios of Use. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 41 (1) pp. 243-276.

Carroll, John M., Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1993): Critical Incidents and Critical Themes in Empirical Usability Evaluation. In: Alty, James L., Diaper, Dan, Guest, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VIII August 7-10, 1993, Loughborough University, UK. pp. 279-292.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Singley, Mark K. (1993): The Collaboration Thread: A Formative Evaluation of Object-Oriented Education. In: Cook, Curtis, Scholtz, Jean, Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Fifth Workshop December 3-15, 1993, 1993, Palo Alto, California. pp. 26-41.

Carroll, John M., Singley, Mark K., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Integrating Theory Development with Design Evaluation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 11 (5) pp. 247-255.

Carroll, John M., Singley, Mark K., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Integrating Theory Development with Design Evaluation. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 , 1992, . pp. 446-452.

Myers, Brad A., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Survey on User Interface Programming. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John, Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 195-202. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p195-myers/p195-myers.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1992): Getting Around the Task-Artifact Cycle: How to Make Claims and Design by Scenario. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (2) pp. 181-212. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tois/1992-10-2/p181-carroll/p181-carroll.pdf

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1991): Deliberated Evolution: Stalking the View Matcher in Design Space. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 281-318.

Myers, Brad A., Rosson, Mary Beth (1991): User Interface Programming Survey. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (2) pp. 27-30.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Sweeney, Christine (1991): A View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 277-283. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p277-rosson/p277-rosson.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Sweeney, Christine (1991): Demonstrating a View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 431-432. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p431-rosson/p431-rosson.pdf

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M., Bellamy, Rachel K. E. (1990): Smalltalk Scaffolding: A Case Study of Minimalist Instruction. In: Carrasco, Jane, Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference , 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 423-429.

Dudley, Tim, Baecker, Ronald M., Eisenstadt, Marc, Glinert, Ephraim P., Rosson, Mary Beth (1990): Multi-Dimensional Interfaces for Software Design. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1063-1066.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. (1990): Climbing the Smalltalk Mountain. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (3) pp. 76-79.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Alpert, Sherman R. (1990): The Cognitive Consequences of Object-Oriented Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (4) pp. 345-379.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Maaß, Susanne, Kellogg, Wendy A. (1988): The Designer As User: Building Requirements for Design Tools From Design Practice. In Communications of the ACM, 31 (11) pp. 1288-1298.

Foss, Donald J., Smith-Kerker, Penny L., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): On Comprehending a Computer Manual: Analysis of Variables Affecting Performance. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 26 (3) pp. 277-300.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Grischkowsky, Nancy L. (1987): Transfer of Learning in the Real World. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 891-896.

Rosson, Mary Beth, Maass, Susanne, Kellogg, Wendy A. (1987): Designing for designers: An analysis of design practice in the real world. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 137-142.

Rosson, Mary Beth (1985): Listener Training for Speech-Output Applications. In: Borman, Lorraine, Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 193-196.

Rosson, Mary Beth (1984): The Role of Experience in Editing. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 45-50.

Thomas, John C., Rosson, Mary Beth, Chodorow, Martin (1984): Human Factors and Synthetic Speech. In: Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 219-224.

Rosson, Mary Beth (1983): Patterns of Experience in Text Editing. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W., Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 171-175.

Foss, Donald J., Rosson, Mary Beth, Smith, Penny L. (1982): Reducing Manual Labor: An Experimental Analysis of Learning Aids for a Text Editor. In: Nichols, Jean A., Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 332-336.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): Paradox of the Active User. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction" MIT Press .

Rosson, Mary Beth, Gilmore, David J. (eds.) Extended Abstracts Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2007, San Jose, California, USA, April 28 - May 3, 2007 , 2007, .

Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth, Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado.

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (2003): Design Rationale as Theory. In: Carroll, John M. (eds). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks" Morgan Kaufman Publishers .

Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth (1987): The paradox of the active user. In: "Interfacing Thought: Cognitive Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction (Bradford Books)" The MIT Press .

Rosson, Mary Beth

10.8 Commentary by Mary Beth Rosson

End-user development is happening all around us. Burnett and Scaffidi do a good job of getting this message across, as well as surveying the many paths and supports for end users who participate in software development. But one issue that is hard to pin down is the why and who of EUD. HCI researchers have known for many years that people rarely become experts even in the use of their existing software applications (Rosson, 1984). So why would they choose to develop new software?

The answer to why lies in people’s real world goals. In some situations the task at hand depends entirely on building a computational artifact – e.g., creating a spreadsheet model, building a website for oneself or a group, learning science via a simulation, or connecting a set of equipment and their inputs and outputs for a lab experiment. Such situations qualify as EUD because the creator is not trained in software development and is building an artifact to meet other primary goals (e.g., education, business models). End users in these situations need tools and languages that can guide design: they must decompose their problems in a way that lets them map from domain knowledge and goals to computational abstractions and procedures. Sometimes a domain-specific language is the best approach, other times a generic creativity medium like a spreadsheet or web authoring tool.

An even larger set of EUD situations falls under the concept of tailoring as summarized by Burnett and Scaffidi. In these cases a person becomes dissatisfied with the functionality of a piece of software and changes it. This may be a change to how a bit of functionality is accessed or viewed (e.g., customization of keys, buttons or layout); a small and focused extension (e.g., defining a new document formatting style or recording steps to be repeated as a macro); or the redefinition of central aspects of an application (e.g., designing a better install configuration for a work group). Morch (1997) posits three levels of tailoring: customizing existing functionality; integrating functionality available elsewhere; and extending a system with new functionality created by end users. The degree of modification increases at each level, along with the impact of the sociotechnical context of use. That is, while simple customization may be entirely up to an individual user and his or her preferences, extending an organizational tool is the result of a complex social network of stakeholders, even if the actual change is enacted by a single individual (Mackay, 1990; Nardi, 1993). When a situation calls for tailoring, a critical aspect of the supporting EUD tools is integration with the abstractions and mechanisms of the existing application and associated practices (Costabile et al., 2006).

That leaves us with the question of who. Many scholars have pointed to the emergence of specific individuals in organizations, using metaphors like “gardener” to describe some people’s willingness to synthesize, abstract and support the computational needs present in their sociotechnical context (Mackay, 1990; Nardi, 1993). Others have noted the personal characteristics of individuals who appear intrinsically motivated to notice and explore new technology options (Rosson, Ballin & Nash, 2004; Zang & Rosson, 2010). The design of EUD languages and tools might certainly begin with an emphasis on evoking and supporting these tendencies. More worrying however, is evidence that some groups of end users (e.g., women and minorities) have a sort of learned avoidance about EUD, likely due to a myriad of personal, technical and social factors (Beckwith, 2007). The paradox of the active user (Carroll & Rosson, 1987) and the attention investment model (Blackwell, 2001) offer an essential lesson: only when EUD tools or languages can suggest or evoke benefits that are perceived to be significant enough – at the moment in time that an opportunity arises – should we expect to see a full range of end users enjoying the power that such tools bring.

References

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