Service Design

Your constantly-updated definition of Service Design and collection of topical content and literature


What is Service Design?

Service design is a process in which the designer focuses on creating optimal service experiences. This requires taking a holistic view of all the related actors, their interactions, and supporting materials and infrastructures. Service design often involves the use of customer journey maps, which tell the story of different customers’ interactions with a brand, thus offering deep insights.

Marc Stickdorn and Jakob Schneider, authors of the bestselling book This is Service Design Thinking, provide five basic principles that underlie service design:

  1. User-centered, through understanding the user by doing qualitative research
  2. Co-creative, by involving all relevant stakeholders in the design process
  3. Sequencing, by partitioning a complex service into separate processes
  4. Evidencing, by visualizing service experiences and making them tangible
  5. Holistic, by considering touchpoints in a network of interactions and users

To employ a service design process, a designer uses a wide range of design tools for exploration and creation. Qualitative research methods for service design are similar to general user-centered research methods: observations, contextual interviewing, etc. Using such methods, designers can envision a spectrum of situations in which users may interact with brands, from discovery to conversion and attendant issues such as customer reengagement.

The design process includes the creation of personas, customer journey maps, stakeholder maps, and value network maps—based on the insights from qualitative research. For example, the development of personas carries the vital benefit of allowing designers to consider characteristics of their target audiences that they may otherwise overlook. A heavyweight issue is accessibility. This is why including personas of would-be users with disabilities (such as color blindness) is instrumental in helping to filter through the elements that will make a better design overall. Finally, co-creation sessions result in service prototypes and advertisements, which are further developed in an iterative design process.

Literature on Service Design

Here’s the entire UX literature on Service Design by the Interaction Design Foundation, collated in one place:

Featured article

Service Design - Design is Not Just for Products

Service Design - Design is Not Just for Products

Service design is concerned with the design of services and making them better suit the needs of the service’s users and customers. It examines all activities, infrastructure, communication, people, and material components involved in the service to improve both quality of service and interactions between the provider of the service and its customers.

The objective of service design is to formulate both front office and back office strategies that meet the customers’ needs in the most relevant way whilst remaining economic (or sustainable) for the service provider. Ideal services are considered to be user-friendly and competitive within their market.

There are many different disciplines that comprise service design. The most common are ethnography, information and management sciences, interaction design and process design.

Service design is used both to create new services and to improve the performance of existing services. As Matt Beale, from the Carnegie School of Design says; “Design is about making things good (and then better) and right (and fantastic) for the people who use and encounter them.”

A Brief History of Service Design

In 1982, the term “service design” was coined by Lynn Shostack. They considered service design to be a responsibility of marketing and of management. It was proposed that a business should develop a “service blueprint” which details the processes within a company and how each process interacts with other processes. While this blueprint was initially only used for service design – it has now become a tool for managing operational efficiency as well.

Author/Copyright holder: brandon schauer. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 2.0

The service design blueprint clearly articulates the interactions between each part of the process.

Then in 1991, Prof. Dr. Michael Erlhoff (of Kohn International School of Design – KSID) proposed that service design be considered a design discipline. He would go on to form an international conglomerate of universities that provided service design education and a network for academics and professionals involved in the discipline.

This network then proposed some structure for the discipline:

"[Service Design] is an emerging discipline and an existing body of knowledge, which can dramatically improve the productivity and quality of services.

Service Design provides a systematic and creative approach to:

  • meeting service organisations’ need to be competitive
  • meeting customers’ rising expectations of choice and quality
  • making use of the technologies’ revolution, that multiplies the possibilities for creating, delivering and consuming services
  • answering the pressing environmental, social and economic challenges to sustainability
  • fostering innovative social models and behaviours
  • sharing knowledge & learning”

They also provided the format for a service designer’s responsibilities:

“The Service Designer can:

  • visualise, express and choreograph what other people can’t see, envisage solutions that do not yet exist
  • observe and interpret needs and behaviours and transform them into possible service futures
  • express and evaluate, in the language of experiences, the quality of design”

As well as setting out expectations for the way service design would perform:

  • “Service Design aims to create services that are Useful, Useable, Desirable, Efficient & Effective
  • Service Design is a human-centred approach that focuses on customer experience and the quality of service encounter as the key value for success.
  • Service Design is a holistic approach, which considers in an integrated way strategic, system, process and touchpoint design decisions.
  • Service Design is a systematic and iterative process that integrates user-oriented, team-based, interdisciplinary approaches and methods, in ever-learning cycles."

While these definitions have evolved a little over the years – they remain the core ethos of service design and what service designers should do in their work.

Author/Copyright holder: Annant2015. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-SA 4.0

Service Design fits neatly into all industries – including those managed by ITIL process (shown here).

Service Design Methodology

Morelli proposed in 2006 that service design methodologies should operate in 3 directions:

  • The actors on the service must be identified and defined with respect to the service. This can be done using analytical tools.
  • The service scenarios should be defined. Then user cases should be developed and sequenced to reflect the interactions with the actors.
  • The service should be then represented using diagrams and written elements as required to show all the physical components, actors, interactions and sequences.

The tools for analysis can involve social studies, ethnographic studies, anthropology, etc. these areas offer an incredible number of tools and care should be taken to select the right tool for the service design project.

Design tools are used to create the blueprint of the service and the nature and characteristics of the interactions that fall within it. These tools include (but are not limited to) development of service scenarios and use cases. These tools are similar to those employed in software design and UX designers should have little trouble adapting to them. It is worth noting that in service design these tools tend to be broader in scope and accommodate management techniques (such as Kaizen, Just-In-Time – JIT, Total Quality Management – TQM, etc.). Care should be taken when selecting management techniques as in many service systems customer interactions are too loosely defined to be forced into the narrow path of quality management (which was originally designed for manufacturing).

Blueprints can be any useful form of diagram which elicits the services’ scope. Storyboards are often the preferred tool but there is no requirement for this and designers should choose the tool which suits them and the project best.

The Take Away

Service design is every bit as important as product design and UX designers will find that as web products evolve to become web services, they are more and more involved in service design. The good news is that the core skills of UX design are similar when it comes to service design – they are just altered somewhat in scope.

Author/Copyright holder: _dChris . Copyright terms and licence: CC BY 2.0

Service design methodologies are very similar to existing UX methodologies. UX designers may find big opportunities in this field.


Lynn Shostack’s original publications can be found here "How to Design a Service." European Journal of Marketing 16(1): 49–63. and here "Design Services that Deliver." Harvard Business Review(84115): 133-139. They are available in hard copy only.

You can find out more about Service Design Blueprints here at Wikipedia -

Morelli’s work can be found here - "Designing product/service systems. A methodological exploration." Design Issues 18(3): 3–17 and "Developing new PSS, Methodologies and Operational Tools." Journal of Cleaner Production 14(17): 1495–1501.

The Design4Services website is also a great resource for service designers in general -

Hero Image: Author/Copyright holder: Marcel Münch. Copyright terms and licence: CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

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Learn more about Service Design

Take a deep dive into Service Design with our course Design Thinking: The Beginner's Guide.

Some of the world’s leading brands, such as Apple, Google, Samsung, and General Electric, have rapidly adopted the design thinking approach, and design thinking is being taught at leading universities around the world, including Stanford, Harvard, and MIT. What is design thinking, and why is it so popular and effective?

The overall goal of this design thinking course is to help you design better products, services, processes, strategies, spaces, architecture, and experiences. Design thinking helps you and your team develop practical and innovative solutions for your problems. It is a human-focused, prototype-driven, innovative design process. Through this course, you will develop a solid understanding of the fundamental phases and methods in design thinking, and you will learn how to implement your newfound knowledge in your professional work life. We will give you lots of examples; we will go into case studies, videos, and other useful material, all of which will help you dive further into design thinking.

This course contains a series of practical exercises that build on one another to create a complete design thinking project. The exercises are optional, but you’ll get invaluable hands-on experience with the methods you encounter in this course if you complete them, because they will teach you to take your first steps as a design thinking practitioner. What’s equally important is you can use your work as a case study for your portfolio to showcase your abilities to future employers! A portfolio is essential if you want to step into or move ahead in a career in the world of human-centered design.

Design thinking methods and strategies belong at every level of the design process. However, design thinking is not an exclusive property of designers—all great innovators in literature, art, music, science, engineering, and business have practiced it. What’s special about design thinking is that designers and designers’ work processes can help us systematically extract, teach, learn, and apply these human-centered techniques in solving problems in a creative and innovative way—in our designs, in our businesses, in our countries, and in our lives.

That means that design thinking is not only for designers but also for creative employees, freelancers, and business leaders. It’s for anyone who seeks to infuse an approach to innovation that is powerful, effective and broadly accessible, one that can be integrated into every level of an organization, product, or service so as to drive new alternatives for businesses and society.

All literature

The Principles of Service Design Thinking - Building Better Services

The Principles of Service Design Thinking - Building Better Services

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Service Blueprints - Communicating the Design of Services

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Service Design - Design is Not Just for Products

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The Moment of Truth - Build Desirable Relationships with Users and Customers

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Service Design

Ch 53: Service Design

Introduction Over the last several decades, large portions of the world’s industrialized economies transitioned from manufacturing products to delivering services. The tech industry been a huge part of this transition, moving from hardware and software products to Software as a Service and hardware, such as smartphones, as components of product...

Book chapter
Making sense of new UX words: A first dictionary for UX Ecosystem Design

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User experience (UX) is very much about communicating, advocating and spreading. As UX practitioners, we spend a great amount of our time engaged in these types of activities. To help you learn and understand new buzzwords, I have written this article to introduce some of the words related to the User Experience Ecosystem Design. You will see ho...

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