Number of co-authors:62
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Stephanie D. Teasley:Eric Cook:Airong Luo:
Judith S. Olson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Jonathan Grudin:105Robert E. Kraut:98Susan Dumais:74
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Judith S. Olson
Has also published under the name of:
Personal Homepage: ics.uci.edu/~jsolson/index.html
Judith Olson is the Bren Professor of Information and Computer Sciences in the Informatics Department at the UC Irvine, with courtesy appointments in the School of Social Ecology and the Merage School of Business.
She has researched teams whose members are not collocated for over 20 years, summaries of which are found in her most cited paper, “Distance Matters,” (Olson & Olson, 2000), and in her key theoretical contribution in the book Scientific Collaboration on the Internet (Olson, Zimerman, and Bos, Eds., 2008).
Her current work focuses on ways to verify the theory's components while at the same time helping new scientific collaborations succeed. She has studied distributed teams both in the field and in the laboratory, the latter focusing on the communication hurdles distributed teams have and the consequent underutilization of remote team members skills and the reduction in trust.
She is a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery and with her husband and colleague, Gary Olson, holds the Lifetime Achievement award from the Special Interest Group in Computer Human Interaction.
Publications by Judith S. Olson (bibliography)
Koehne, Benjamin, Shih, Patrick C. and Olson, Judith S. (2012): Remote and alone: coping with being the remote member on the team. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 1257-1266. Available online
Geographically distributed work has become a popular way to work. Past CSCW research has shown that remote workers rely on innovative communication platforms but still face challenges being remote. Research has also provided organizational and managerial strategies to bridge the distance gap. Our study in contrast investigates how individuals develop strategies to cope with the daily challenges of working remotely and alone, and what managers can do to help them. We interviewed seventeen individuals involved in remote work about their experiences, identifying unique challenges and their workarounds. Our interview results suggest that, although people may work alone, the process of conducting distributed work is actually very social. Individual remote workers establish a unique kind of work rhythm, visibility management for evaluation, social support infrastructure, and personal connection as a part of their coping strategies to balance their professional and personal lives.
© All rights reserved Koehne et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (2012): Collaboration technologies. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.). "Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications, Third Edition (Human Factors and Ergonomics)". CRC Press
Bos, Nathan D., Buyuktur, Ayse, Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Voida, Amy (2010): Shared identity helps partially distributed teams, but distance still matters. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 89-96. Available online
Previous research on partially distributed teams has revealed a cluster of problems, including difficulty coordinating, 'ingroup' formation among members in different locations, and lower trust in teammates across distance. But these prior studies involved groups of strangers; would pre-existing groups have the same problems? We recruited groups from the same fraternity or sorority to test groups with a pre-existing shared identity. We found that these groups did indeed coordinate work better, cooperated more, and were more willing and able to take on larger scale projects. However, even within these high-performing shared identity groups, there were significant differences between collocated and remote members in performance, group efficacy, and sense of group identity.
© All rights reserved Bos et al. and/or their publisher
Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S., Nan, Ning, Shami, N. Sadat, Hoch, Susannah and Johnston, Erik (2006): Collocation blindness in partially distributed groups: is there a downside to being collocated?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1313-1321. Available online
Under what circumstances might a group member be better off as a long-distance participant rather than collocated? We ran a set of experiments to study how partially-distributed groups collaborate when skill sets are unequally distributed. Partially distributed groups are those where some collaborators work together in the same space (collocated) and some work remotely using computer-mediated communications. Previous experiments had shown that these groups tend to form semi-autonomous 'in-groups'. In this set of experiments the configuration was changed so that some player skills were located only in the collocated space, and some were located only remotely, creating local surplus of some skills and local scarcity of others in the collocated room. Players whose skills were locally in surplus performed significantly worse. They experienced 'collocation blindness' and failed to pay enough attention to collaborators outside of the room. In contrast, the remote players whose skills were scarce inside the collocated room did particularly well because they charged a high price for their skills.
© All rights reserved Bos et al. and/or ACM Press
Cook, Eric, Teasley, Stephanie D. and Olson, Judith S. (2005): Heterogeneity in harmony: diverse practice in a multimedia arts collective. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 334-335. Available online
HCI and CSCW researchers have begun to call for greater and more explicit support of creative endeavors. Current theories of creativity suggest that it is an inherently collaborative activity, situated and highly contextualized. This work argues that a contextualized view of creativity calls in turn for assessment and technological support to be considered in situ. This poster presents a case study of the creative collaboration in a multimedia arts collective, with the goal of describing their current practices to inform appropriate information system design. We found that even a small and cohesive collaborative arts group contained a multitude of artistic practices and production tool choices, several distinct but interdependent work tracks and a variety of attitudes about the individual members\' collaborative roles. Such heterogeneity, evidenced even within a self-selected and self-organized group, suggests challenges for future technological support of creative practices.
© All rights reserved Cook et al. and/or ACM Press
Luo, Airong and Olson, Judith S. (2005): Collaboratory use by peripheral scientists. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 336-337. Available online
Recent years have seen an increasing use of collaboratories in scientific work. It is hypothesized that by enabling scientists to reach remotely located data, instruments and experts, collaboratories will benefit peripheral scientists (e.g., scientists from developing countries and scientists from minority colleges in the U.S.) more than core scientists. However, previous studies on computer network use have shown mixed results regarding peripherality effects. Adopting a qualitative approach, this study intends to investigate cultural, political, and technical factors that influence collaboratory use by peripheral scientists.
© All rights reserved Luo and Olson and/or ACM Press
Olson, Judith S. (2005): The HCI program at the School of Information at the University of Michigan. In Interactions, 12 (5) pp. 31-32.
Nan, Ning, Johnston, Erik W., Olson, Judith S. and Bos, Nathan (2005): Beyond being in the lab: using multi-agent modeling to isolate competing hypotheses. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1693-1696. Available online
In studies of virtual teams, it is difficult to determine pure effects of geographic isolation and uneven communication technology. We developed a multi-agent computer model in NetLogo to complement laboratory-based organizational simulations . In the lab, favoritism among collocated team members (collocators) appeared to increase their performance. However, in the computer simulation, when controlled for communication delay, in-group favoritism had a detrimental effect on the performance of collocators. This suggested that the advantage of collocators shown in the lab was due to synchronous communication, not favoritism. The canceling-out effects of in-group bias and communication delay explained why many studies did not see performance difference between collocated and remote team members. The multi-agent modeling in this case proved its value by both clarifying previous laboratory findings and guiding design of future experiments.
© All rights reserved Nan et al. and/or ACM Press
Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S., Cheshin, Arik, Kim, Yong-Suk, Nan, Ning and Shami, N. Sadat (2005): Traveling blues: the effect of relocation on partially distributed teams. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1917-1920. Available online
This experimental study looks at how relocation affected the collaboration patterns of partially-distributed work groups. Partially distributed teams have part of their membership together in one location and part joining at a distance. These teams have some characteristics of collocated teams, some of distributed (virtual) teams, and some dynamics that are unique. Previous experiments have shown that these teams are vulnerable to in-groups forming between the collocated and distributed members. In this study we switched the locations of some of the members about halfway through the experiment to see what effect it would have on these ingroups. People who changed from being isolated 'telecommuters' to collocators very quickly formed new collaborative relationships. People who were moved out of a collocated room had more trouble adjusting, and tried unsuccessfully to maintain previous ties. Overall, collocation was a more powerful determiner of collaboration patterns than previous relationships. Implications and future research are discussed.
© All rights reserved Bos et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Judith S., Grudin, Jonathan and Horvitz, Eric (2005): A study of preferences for sharing and privacy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1985-1988. Available online
We describe studies of preferences about information sharing aimed at identifying fundamental concerns with privacy and at understanding how people might abstract the details of sharing into higher-level classes of recipients and information that are treated similarly. Thirty people specified what information they are willing to share with whom.. Although people vary in their overall level of comfort in sharing, we identified key classes of recipients and information. Such abstractions highlight the promise of developing expressive controls for sharing and privacy.
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press
Bos, Nathan, Shami, N. Sadat, Olson, Judith S., Cheshin, Arik and Nan, Ning (2004): In-group/out-group effects in distributed teams: an experimental simulation. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 429-436. Available online
Modern workplaces often bring together virtual teams where some members are collocated, and some participate remotely. We are using a simulation game to study collaborations of 10-person groups, with five collocated members and five isolates (simulated 'telecommuters'). Individual players in this game buy and sell 'shapes' from each other in order to form strings of shapes, where strings represent joint projects, and each individual players' shapes represent their unique skills. We found that the collocated people formed an in-group, excluding the isolates. But, surprisingly, the isolates also formed an in-group, mainly because the collocated people ignored them and they responded to each other.
© All rights reserved Bos et al. and/or ACM Press
Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S., Gergle, Darren, Olson, Gary M. and Wright, Zach (2002): Effects of four computer-mediated communications channels on trust development. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 135-140.
Zheng, Jun, Veinott, Elizabeth S., Bos, Nathan, Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (2002): Trust without touch: jumpstarting long-distance trust with initial social activities. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 141-146.
Teasley, Stephanie, Covi, Lisa, Krishnan, M. S. and Olson, Judith S. (2000): How does Radical Collocation Help a Team Succeed?. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 339-346. Available online
Companies are experimenting with putting teams into warrooms, hoping for some productivity enhancement. We conducted a field study of six such teams, tracking their activity, attitudes, use of technology and productivity. Teams in these warrooms showed a doubling of productivity. Why? Among other things, teams had easy access to each other for both coordination of their work and for learning, and the work artifacts they posted on the walls remained visible to all. These results imply that if we are to truly support remote teams, we should provide constant awareness and easy transitions in and out of spontaneous meetings.
© All rights reserved Teasley et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (2000): Distance Matters. In Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (2) pp. 139-178.
Giant strides in information technology at the turn of the century may have unleashed unreachable goals. With the invention of groupware, people expect to communicate easily with each other and accomplish difficult work even though they are remotely located or rarely overlap in time. Major corporations launch global teams, expecting that technology will make "virtual collocation" possible. Federal research money encourages global science through the establishment of "collaboratories." We review over 10 years of field and laboratory investigations of collocated and noncollocated synchronous group collaborations. In particular, we compare collocated work with remote work as it is possible today and comment on the promise of remote work tomorrow. We focus on the sociotechnical conditions required for effective distance work and bring together the results with four key concepts: common ground, coupling of work, collaboration readiness, and collaboration technology readiness. Groups with high common ground and loosely coupled work, with readiness both for collaboration and collaboration technology, have a chance at succeeding with remote work. Deviations from each of these create strain on the relationships among teammates and require changes in the work or processes of collaboration to succeed. Often they do not succeed because distance still matters.
© All rights reserved Olson and Olson and/or Taylor and Francis
Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (2000): i2i trust in e-commerce. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (12) pp. 41-44. Available online
Veinott, Elizabeth S., Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Fu, Xiaolan (1999): Video Helps Remote Work: Speakers Who Need to Negotiate Common Ground Benefit from Seeing Each Other. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 302-309. Available online
More and more organizations are forming teams that are not co-located. These teams communicate via email, fax, telephone and audio conferences, and sometimes video. The question often arises whether the cost of video is worth it. Previous research has shown that video makes people more satisfied with the work, but it doesn't help the quality of the work itself. There is one exception; negotiation tasks are measurably better with video. In this study, we show that the same effect holds for a more subtle form of negotiation, when people have to negotiate meaning in a conversation. We compared the performance and communication of people explaining a map route to each other. Half the pairs have video and audio connections, half only audio. Half of the pairs were native speakers of English; the other half were non-native speakers, those presumably who have to negotiate meaning more. The results showed that non-native speaker pairs did benefit from the video; native speakers did not. Detailed analysis of the conversational strategies showed that with video, the non-native speaker pairs spent proportionately more effort negotiating common ground.
© All rights reserved Veinott et al. and/or ACM Press
Koschmann, Timothy, Anderson, Anne, Hall, Rogers, Heath, Christian, LeBaron, Curtis, Olson, Judith S. and Suchman, Lucy A. (1998): Six Readings of a Single Text: A Videoanalytic Session. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 407-409. Available online
The purpose of this special session will be to illuminate some of the possible ways in which we, as observers and researchers, can come to understand collaboration and how it is achieved within the context of joint activity. Historically, collaboration has been studied in a variety of ways, both quantitative and qualitative, drawing on the research traditions of both the psychological and the social (i.e., Anthropology, Sociology, Linguistics, Communications) sciences. Our goal here is to highlight some of these methodological differences while at the same time demonstrating how different approaches can each contribute to a richer and more fully elaborated view of the collaborative process. In preparation for this session six researchers with extensive experience in studying collaboration were asked to analyze a common piece of data -- a pre-selected segment of videotaped interaction. Each will summarize their findings followed by a discussion intended to highlight the complementarities and incommensurabilities among the six analyses.
© All rights reserved Koschmann et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States.
Olson, Judith S. and Teasley, Stephanie (1996): Groupware in the Wild: Lessons Learned from a Year of Virtual Collocation. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 419-427. Available online
Current research on CSCW for remote groups focuses on one technology at a time: shared editing on the desktop, video conferencing, glancing at others' offices, email, etc. When a real group sets out to work remotely, however, they need to consider all aspects of work, synchronous, asynchronous, and the transitions to and from. This paper explores the planning, implementation, and use of a suite of groupware tools over the course of a year in a real group with remote members. We found that groupware affected people's commitments and the nature of the work distribution.
© All rights reserved Olson and Teasley and/or ACM Press
Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M. and Meader, David K. (1995): What Mix of Video and Audio is Useful for Small Groups Doing Remote Real-Time Design Work?. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 362-368. Available online
This study reports the second in a series of related studies of the ways in which small groups work together, and the effects of various kinds of technology support. In this study groups of three people worked for an hour and a half designing an Automated Post Office. Our previous work showed that people doing this task produced higher quality designs when they were able to use a shared-editor to support their emerging design. This study compares the same kinds of groups now working at a distance, connected to each other both by this shared editor and either with high-quality stereo audio or the same audio plus high-quality video. The video was arranged so that people made eye contact and spatial relations were preserved, allowing people to have a sense of who was doing what in a way similar to that in face-to-face work. Results showed that with video, work was as good in quality as that face-to face; with audio only, the quality of the work suffered a small but significant amount. When working at a distance, however, groups spent more time clarifying to each other and talking longer about how to manage their work. Furthermore, groups rated the audio-only condition as having a lower discussion quality, and reported more difficulty communicating Perceptions suffer without video, and work is accomplished in slightly different manner, but the quality of work suffers very little.
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press
Herbsleb, James D., Klein, Helen, Olson, Gary M., Brunner, Hans, Olson, Judith S. and Harding, Joe (1995): Object-Oriented Analysis and Design in Software Project Teams. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (2) pp. 249-292.
Software development poses enormous cognitive, organizational, and managerial challenges. In this article, we focus on two of the most formidable of these challenges and on the promise of object-oriented (OO) technology for addressing them. In particular, we analyze the claims made about OO design (OOD) and (a) dissemination of domain knowledge and (b) communication and coordination. In order to address the validity of these claims, we conducted an in-depth observational study of OOD in an industrial setting as well as a series of interviews with experienced OOD practitioners. Compared to similar projects using traditional methods, our study found evidence in the OOD project for a reduced need for clarification in design discussions; differences in participation, in how meeting time is spent, and in the sequential order of design discussions; and a much greater tendency to ask why questions. We discuss the implications of these findings for tools, grain size of design units, interactions with clients, and organizing for OOD.
© All rights reserved Herbsleb et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Bekker, Tilde, Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (1995): Analysis of Gestures in Face-to-Face Design Teams Provides Guidance for How to Use Groupware in Design. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 157-166.
Many phases of design projects are done in groups. Communication in these groups is naturally supported through a variety of gestures. We catalog four types of gestures that people use when engaged in design (kinetic, spatial, pointing, and other), and overlay it with the purpose of the design subtask, -- design, meeting management, and other. From this and other observations, we list recommendations for supporting this kind of communication in settings which have technology support, either face-to-face with group editors (where people do not necessarily see the same thing at the same time), and remote work (where people see neither the same view of the object nor a full room view of the other participants).
© All rights reserved Bekker et al. and/or ACM Press
Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts.
Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference, CHI 94 April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts.
Nilsen, Erik, Jong, HeeSen, Olson, Judith S., Biolsi, Kevin, Rueter, Henry and Mutter, Sharon (1993): The Growth of Software Skill: A Longitudinal Look at Learning & Performance. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 149-156. Available online
This research follows a group of users over time (16 months) as they progress from novice towards expert in their use of Lotus 1-2-3. Quantitative and qualitative measures of performance are compared with expert users having over three years of experience. The results indicate that the motor aspects of performance are relatively stable over time, while improvement in the cognitive components of the skill are dependent on aspects of the menu structure and how many things must be retrieved from memory, among other things. These results imply extensions to the Keystroke Level Model of skilled performance as well as suggest ways to design the user interfaces so as to speed the acquisition of expertise.
© All rights reserved Nilsen et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Judith S., Card, Stuart K., Landauer, Thomas K., Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W. and Leggett, John (1993): Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work: Research Issues for the 90s. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 115-129.
Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Storrosten, Marianne and Carter, Mark (1993): Groupwork Close Up: A Comparison of the Group Design Process With and Without a Simple Group Editor. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (4) pp. 321-348. Available online
A simple collaborative tool, a shared text editor called ShrEdit, changed the way groups of designers performed their work, and changed it for the better. First, the designs produced by the 19 groups of three designers were of higher quality than those of the 19 groups who worked with conventional whiteboard, paper and pencil. The groups with the new tool reported liking their work process a little less, probably because they had to adapt their work style to a new tool. We expected, from the brainstorming literature and recent work on Group Support Systems, that the reason the designs were of better quality was that the supported groups generated more ideas. To our surprise, the groups working with ShrEdit generated fewer design ideas, but apparently better ones. It appears that the tool helped the supported groups keep more focused on the core issues in the emerging design, to waste less time on less important topics, and to capture what was said as they went. This suggests that small workgroups can capitalize on the free access they have to a shared workspace, without requiring a facilitator or a work process embedded in the software.
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press
Nilsen, Erik, Jong, HeeSen, Olson, Judith S. and Polson, Peter G. (1992): Method Engineering: From Data to Model to Practice. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 313-320. Available online
This paper explores the behavior of experts choosing among various methods to accomplish tasks. Given the results showing that methods are not chosen solely on the basis of keystroke efficiency, we recommend a technique to help designers assess whether they should offer multiple methods for some tasks, and if they should, how to make them so that they are chosen appropriately.
© All rights reserved Nilsen et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Storrosten, Marianne and Carter, Mark (1992): How a Group-Editor Changes the Character of a Design Meeting as Well as its Outcome. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 91-98. Available online
This study reports how the introduction of a simple collaborative tool changed the way groups of people did an interesting problem solving task, the design of an automatic post office. The designs produced by the groups supported with this tool were of higher quality than those who worked with conventional whiteboard and paper and pencil. They liked the process a little less, probably because it was a new tool. But, more surprising was the fact that those supported with the tool did less extensive exploration of the design space. Our expectation was just the opposite. It appears that the tool helped the supported group keep more focused on the core issues in the emerging design, to waste less time on less important topics, and to capture what was said as they went.
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press
Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1992): Introduction to This Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 251-256.
Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S., Carter, Mark and Storrosten, Marianne (1992): Small Group Design Meetings: An Analysis of Collaboration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (4) pp. 347-374.
The development of schemes to support group work, whether behavioral methods or new technologies like groupware, should be based on detailed knowledge about how groups work, what they do well, and what they have trouble with. Such data can be used to suggest what kinds of tools people might need as well as to provide a baseline for evaluating the effects of schemes for improvement. We present details of how real groups engage in a representative collaborative task -- early software design meetings -- to provide such knowledge. We studied 10 design meetings from four projects in two organizations. The meetings were videotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using a coding scheme that looked at participants' problem solving and the activities they used to coordinate and manage themselves. We also analyzed the structure of their design arguments. We found, to our surprise, that although the meetings differed in how many issues were covered they were strikingly similar in both how people spent their time and in the sequential organization of that activity. Overall, only 40% of the time was spent in direct discussions of design, with many swift transitions between alternative ideas and their evaluation. The groups spent another 30% taking stock of their progress through walkthroughs and summaries. Pure coordination activities consumed
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (1991): User-Centered Design of Collaboration Technology. In Journal of Organizational Computing, 1 (1) pp. 61-83.
Groupware, like other forms of information technology, should be designed with the users' needs and capabilities as the focus. User-centered system design consists of observation and analysis of users at work, assistance in design from relevant aspects of theory, and iterative testing with users. We illustrate the various stages of this approach with our development of groupware for software designers. We have extensive studies of designers at work, have developed the beginnings of a theory of distributed cognition, and are at the first stages of iterative testing and redesign of a prototype of a shared editor to support their work.
© All rights reserved Olson and Olson and/or Ablex Publishing
Olson, Judith S., Olson, Gary M., Mack, Lisbeth A. and Wellner, Pierre D. (1990): Concurrent Editing: The Groups Interface. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 835-840.
We review aspects of systems built for group work that allow real-time, concurrent editing of a single work object. Existing systems vary in both what group functions they offer users (e.g., whether simultaneous editing is possible or it must proceed one by one) and how these functions appear in the user interface (e.g. what signals are given to the user that the window is public or private). Design alternatives suggested by existing systems are analyzed in terms of their value for various phases of group work and their support for individuals' needs in coordinating their work.
© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or North-Holland
Gray, Wayne D., Atwood, Michael E., Olson, Judith S., John, Bonnie E. and Elkerton, Jay (1990): Real-Time GOMS: Comparative Modeling of a User-Nintendo Interaction. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 385-386.
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