Wayne D. Gray

Personal Homepage
http://www.rpi.edu/~grayw
Employer
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute ()
Email
grayw@rpi.edu

Wayne Gray seeks to understand how goal-directed cognition is shaped by the accommodation of basic cognitive, perceptual, and motor operations to the cost-benefit structure of the designed task environment. These basic elements of integrated behavior, interactive routines, occur over a time span of 1/3 to 3 seconds and are typically beneath the level of our conscious awareness and deliberate control. Hence, non-deliberate forces that dynamically react to our task environment without our conscious awareness shape a large part of our mental life.

There is a basic and applied component to this research agenda. The Cognitive Science side focuses on the control of interactive behavior, resource allocation, dynamic decision-making, memory, attention, and motor movement. The Cognitive Engineering side can be characterized by the terms visual-analytics, human-computer interaction (HCI), cognitive workload, and human error. The two types of research feed into each other and are supported by a core of common techniques and methods including computational cognitive modeling, cognitive task analysis, and detailed collection and analysis of behaviors that take less than 1000 milliseconds to occur (e.g., eeg, keystrokes, mouse movements, and eye gaze).

Wayne earned his Ph.D. from U. C. Berkeley in 1979. His first position was with the U. S. Army Research Institute where he worked on tactical team training (at the Monterey Field Unit) and later on the application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to training for air-defense systems (HAWK) (at ARI-HQ Alexandria, VA). He spent a post-doctoral year with Prof. John R. Anderson's lab at Carnegie Mellon University before joining the AI Laboratory of NYNEX' Science & Technology Division. At NYNEX he applied cognitive task analysis and cognitive modeling to the design and evaluation of interfaces for large, commercial telecommunications systems. His academic career began at Fordham University and then moved to George Mason University. He joined the Cognitive Science Department at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 2002.

He is an active member of his professional communities. Dr. Gray is the Editor-in-Chief for topiCS, Topics in Cognitive Science, the newest journal of the Cognitive Science Society. He is a past Associate Editor for the Cognitive Science journal (2006-2008), the Cognitive Systems Research journal (2003-2008), the Human Factors journal (1998-2006), and ACM's Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (1995-2003). He Chaired the Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (ICCM-2001) and co-Chaired the Cognitive Science Society Conference in 2002. He is the founding Chair of HFES' Human-Performance Modeling Technical Group (HPM-TG). In 2001 he was elected to a 6-yr term on the Board of Governors for the Cognitive Science Society where he served as Chair and member of the Executive Committee from 2003-2006.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1987
Publication period end
2013
Number of co-authors
55

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Sims, Chris R., Gray, Wayne D. (2013): Melioration as rational choice: Sequential decision making in uncertain environments. In Psychological Review, 120 (1) pp. 139-154. http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2012-32645-001/

John, Bonnie E., Patton, Evan W., Gray, Wayne D., Morrison, Donald F. (2012): Tools for Predicting the Duration and Variability of Skilled: Performance without Skilled . In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting , 2012, . pp. 985-989. http://pro.sagepub.com/content/56/1/985

Hope, Ryan M., Wang, Ziheng, Wang, Zuoguan, Ji, Qiang, Gray, Wayne D. (2011): Workload Classification Across Subjects Using EEG. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting , 2011, . pp. 202-206. http://pro.sagepub.com/content/55/1/202

Patton, Evan W., Gray, Wayne D. (2010): SANLab-CM: A tool for incorporating stochastic operations into activity network modeling. In Behavior Research Methods, 42 (3) pp. 877-883.

Myers, Christopher W., Gray, Wayne D. (2010): Visual scan adaptation during repeated visual search. In Journal of Vision, 10 (8) pp. . http://www.rpi.edu/~grayw/pubs/papers/2010/MyersGray10/MyersGray10_JoV.htm

Ralph, Jason, Gray, Wayne D., Schoelles, Michael J. (2010): Squeezing the Balloon: Analyzing the Unpredictable Effects of Cognitive Workload. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting , 2010, . pp. 299-303. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hfproc/2010/00000054/00000004/art00007

Pfaff, Mark S., Allender, Laurel, Gray, Wayne D., McNeese, Michael D., Mendonca, David J., Wright, Melanie C. (2010): Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Simulations and Games in Human Factors Research. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting , 2010, . pp. 294-298. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hfproc/2010/00000054/00000004/art00006

Patton, Evan W., Gray, Wayne D., Schoelles, Michael J. (2009): SANLab-CM The Stochastic Activity Network Laboratory for Cognitive Modeling. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting , 2009, . pp. 1654-1658. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hfproc/2009/00000053/00000021/art00005

Ralph, Jason, Gray, Wayne D., Schoelles, Michael J. (2009): The Functional Resource Hypothesis as a Basis for Understanding Cognitive Workload in Imme. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting , 2009, . pp. 404-408. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hfproc/2009/00000053/00000004/art00050

Gray, Wayne D. (2008): Cognitive architectures: Choreographing the dance of mental operations with the task envir. In Human Factors, 50 (3) pp. 497-505.

Altmann, Erik M., Gray, Wayne D. (2008): An integrated model of cognitive control in task switching. In Psychological Review, 115 (3) pp. 602-639.

Chen, Jixu, Tong, Yan, Gray, Wayne D., Ji, Qiang (2008): A robust 3D eye gaze tracking system using noise reduction. In: Räihä, Kari-Jouko, Duchowski, Andrew T. (eds.) ETRA 2008 - Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium March 26-28, 2008, Savannah, Georgia, USA. pp. 189-196. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1344471.1344518

Neth, Hansjorg, Khemlani, Sangeet S., Gray, Wayne D. (2008): Neth, H., Khemlani, S.S., & Gray, W.D. (2008). Feedback Design for the Control of a Dynami. In Human Factors, 50 (4) pp. 643–651. http://hfes.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/hfes/hf/2008/00000050/00000004/art00006

Liao, Wenhui, Zhang, Weihong, Zhu, Zhiwei, Ji, Qiang, Gray, Wayne D. (2006): Toward a decision-theoretic framework for affect recognition and user assistance. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (9) pp. 847-873. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.04.001

Fu, Wai-Tat, Gray, Wayne D. (2006): Suboptimal tradeoffs in information seeking. In Cognitive Psychology, 52 (3) pp. 195-242.

Gray, Wayne D., Sims, Chris R., Fu, Wai-Tat, Schoelles, Michael J. (2006): The soft constraints hypothesis: A rational analysis approach to resource allocation for i. In Psychological Review, 113 (3) pp. 461-482.

Gray, Wayne D., Schoelles, Michael J., Myers, Christopher W. (2005): Profile before optimizing: a cognitive metrics approach to workload analysis. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1411-1414. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1056929

Fu, Wai-Tat, Gray, Wayne D. (2004): Resolving the paradox of the active user: Stable suboptimal performance in interactive tas. In Cognitive Science, 28 (6) pp. 901-935.

Gray, Wayne D., Fu, Wai-Tat (2004): Soft constraints in interactive behavior: The case of ignoring perfect knowledge in-the-wo. In Cognitive Science, 28 (3) pp. 359-382. http://www.rpi.edu/~grayw/pubs/papers/GF04_SoftConstraints-CSj.htm

Gray, Wayne D. (2002): Simulated task environments: The role of high-fidelity simulations, scaled worlds, synthet. In Cognitive Science Quarterly, 2 (2) pp. 205–227. http://www.rpi.edu/~grayw/pubs/papers/STE.html

Gray, Wayne D., Fu, Wai-Tat (2001): Ignoring Perfect Knowledge In-the-World for Imperfect Knowledge In-the-Head. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 112-119. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/365024/p112-gray/p112-gray.pdf

Gray, Wayne D., Boehm-Davis, Deborah (2000): Milliseconds Matter: An introduction to microstrategies and to their use in describing and. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6 (4) pp. 322–335.

Gray, Wayne D. (2000): The nature and processing of errors in interactive behavior. In Cognitive Science, 24 (2) pp. 205-248.

Gray, Wayne D., Palanque, Philippe A., Paterno, Fabio (1999): Introduction to the Special Issue on Interface Issues and Designs for Safety-Critical Inte. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (4) pp. 309-310. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p309-gray/p309-gray.pdf

Gray, Wayne D., Salzman, Marilyn C. (1998): Repairing Damaged Merchandise: A Rejoinder. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (3) pp. 325-335.

Gray, Wayne D., Salzman, Marilyn C. (1998): Damaged Merchandise? A Review of Experiments That Compare Usability Evaluation Methods. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (3) pp. 203-261.

Gray, Wayne D., Young, Richard M., Kirschenbaum, Susan S. (1997): Introduction to This Special Issue on Cognitive Architectures and Human-Computer Interacti. In Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (4) pp. 301-309.

Kirschenbaum, Susan S., Gray, Wayne D., Young, Richard M. (1996): Cognitive Architectures and HCI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (2) pp. 18-21. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/bulletin/1996.2/kirsch.html

Boehm-Davis, Deborah A., Gray, Wayne D. (1996): ESP6 (or, Snowbound during the great storm of \'96): 6th Workshop on Empirical Studies of . In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (3) pp. 42-43. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/bulletin/1996.3/boehm.html

Gray, Wayne D., Sabnani, Haresh, Kirschenbaum, Susan S. (1993): "Human Error," by James Reason. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (6) pp. 1051-1057.

Gray, Wayne D., John, Bonnie E., Nardi, Bonnie A., Petre, Marion, Spohrer, James C., Turner, Althea A. (1993): End-User Programming. In: Cook, Curtis, Scholtz, Jean, Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Fifth Workshop December 3-15, 1993, 1993, Palo Alto, California. pp. 1-2.

Gray, Wayne D., John, Bonnie E., Atwood, Michael E. (1993): Project Ernestine: Validating a GOMS Analysis for Predicting and Explaining Real-World Tas. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (3) pp. 237-309.

Gray, Wayne D., Spohrer, James C., Green, T. R. G. (1993): End-User Programming Language: The CHI\'92 Workshop Report. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (2) pp. 46-50.

Gray, Wayne D., John, Bonnie E., Atwood, Michael E. (1992): The Precis of Project Ernestine, or, An Overview of a Validation of GOMS. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John, Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 307-312. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p307-gray/p307-gray.pdf

Gray, Wayne D., Anderson, John R., Reiser, Brian J., Soloway, Elliot, Spohrer, James C. (1991): Tutors and Environments for Novice Programmers. In: Koenemann-Belliveau, Jurgen, Moher, Thomas G., Robertson, Scott P. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Workshop on Empirical Studies of Programmers , 1991, Norwood, New Jersey, USA. pp. 3-4.

Gray, Wayne D., John, Bonnie E., Stuart, Rory, Lawrence, Deborah, Atwood, Michael E. (1990): GOMS Meets the Phone Company: Analytic Modeling Applied to Real-World Problems. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 29-34.

Gray, Wayne D., Atwood, Michael E., Olson, Judith S., John, Bonnie E., Elkerton, Jay (1990): Real-Time GOMS: Comparative Modeling of a User-Nintendo Interaction. In: D., Woods,, E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting , 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 385-386.

Atwood, Michael E., Fischer, Gerhard, Gray, Wayne D., Polson, Peter G. (1989): Theoretical Models for System Design. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting , 1989, . pp. 278-280.

Gray, Wayne D., Burns, Bart, Schooler, Lael (1989): The Usability of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting , 1989, . pp. 1343-1347.

Atwood, Michael E., Brooks, Ruven, Gray, Wayne D., Guindon, Raymonde, Mastaglio, Thomas W. (1989): Current Research in the Psychology of Programming. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting , 1989, . pp. 242-244.

Gray, Wayne D., Anderson, John R. (1987): Change-Episodes in Coding: When and How Do Programmers Change Their Code?. In: Olson, Gary M., Sheppard, Sylvia B., Soloway, Elliot (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Second Workshop December 7-8 1987, 1987, Washington, DC. pp. 185-197.

Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William, Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA.

(2007): Integrated models of cognitive systems, Gray, Wayne D. (eds.), Oxford University Press,

Gray, Wayne D., Neth, Hansjorg, Schoelles, Michael J. (2006): The functional task environment. In: "Attention: From theory to practice" Oxford University Press .

Gray, Wayne D., Boehm-Davis, Deborah A., Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Sixth Workshop January 5-7, 1996, 1996, Alexandria, Virginia.