Eric Horvitz

Ph.D

Personal Homepage
http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/horvitz/
Employer
Microsoft Research (http://research.microsoft.com/)
Email
horvitz@microsoft.com

Eric Horvitz is a Distinguished Scientist at Microsoft, where he serves as a research area manager within Microsoft Research. His research interests span theoretical and practical challenges with developing systems that perceive, learn, and reason. His contributions include advances in principles and applications of machine learning and inference, information retrieval, human-computer interaction, bioinformatics, and e-commerce. He has been elected a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He currently serves on the NSF Computer & Information Science & Engineering (CISE) Advisory Board and on the council of the Computing Community Consortium (CCC). He received his PhD and MD degrees at Stanford University.
Dr. Horvitz played a significant role in establishing the credibility of artificial intelligence with other areas of computer science and computer engineering, influencing fields ranging from human-computer interaction to operating systems. His research helped establish the link between artificial intelligence and decision science. As an example, he coined the concept of bounded optimality, a decision-theoretic approach to bounded rationality.
Dr. Horvitz speaks on the topic of artificial intelligence around the world, including on NPR and the Charlie Rose show. His research has been featured in the New York Times and the Technology Review.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1995
Publication period end
2012
Number of co-authors
67

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Shahaf, Dafna, Guestrin, Carlos, Horvitz, Eric (2012): Trains of thought: generating information maps. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2012, . pp. 899-908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2187836.2187957

Radinsky, Kira, Svore, Krysta, Dumais, Susan, Teevan, Jaime, Bocharov, Alex, Horvitz, Eric (2012): Modeling and predicting behavioral dynamics on the web. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2012, . pp. 599-608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2187836.2187918

Horvitz, Eric, Krumm, John (2012): Some help on the way: opportunistic routing under uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing , 2012, . pp. 371-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2370216.2370273

White, Ryen W., Horvitz, Eric (2012): Studies of the onset and persistence of medical concerns in search logs. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2012, . pp. 265-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2348283.2348322

Law, Edith, Bennett, Paul N., Horvitz, Eric (2011): The effects of choice in routing relevance judgments. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2011, . pp. 1127-1128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2009916.2010082

Cartright, Marc-Allen, White, Ryen W., Horvitz, Eric (2011): Intentions and attention in exploratory health search. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2011, . pp. 65-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2009916.2009929

Bohus, Dan, Horvitz, Eric (2011): Decisions about turns in multiparty conversation: from perception to action. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2011, . pp. 153-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2070481.2070507

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Grudin, Jonathan, Horvitz, Eric (2011): Peripheral computing during presentations: perspectives on costs and preferences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 891-894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979073

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Horvitz, Eric, Ju, Yun-Cheng, Mathews, Ella (2011): Hang on a sec!: effects of proactive mediation of phone conversations while driving. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 463-472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979008

Wilcox, Lauren, Morris, Dan, Tan, Desney, Gatewood, Justin, Horvitz, Eric (2011): Characterizing patient-friendly "micro-explanations" of medical events. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 29-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1978948

White, Ryen W., Horvitz, Eric (2010): Predicting escalations of medical queries based on web page structure and content. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2010, . pp. 769-770. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1835449.1835607

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Ju, Yun-Cheng, Horvitz, Eric (2010): Cars, calls, and cognition: investigating driving and divided attention. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 1281-1290. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753518

Kapoor, Ashish, Lee, Bongshin, Tan, Desney, Horvitz, Eric (2010): Interactive optimization for steering machine classification. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 1343-1352. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753529

Bailey, Brian P., Horvitz, Eric (2010): What's your idea?: a case study of a grassroots innovation pipeline within a large softwar. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 2065-2074. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753641

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Horvitz, Eric (2010): Notifications and awareness: a field study of alert usage and preferences. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2010, . pp. 27-30. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1718918.1718926

Bohus, Dan, Horvitz, Eric (2010): Facilitating multiparty dialog with gaze, gesture, and speech. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2010, . pp. 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1891903.1891910

Bernstein, Michael S., Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric (2010): Personalization via friendsourcing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (2) pp. 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1746259.1746260

Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2010): Potential for personalization. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (1) pp. 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721831.1721835

Bernstein, Michael, Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric (2009): Collabio: a game for annotating people within social networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology , 2009, . pp. 97-100. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1622176.1622195

White, Ryen W., Horvitz, Eric (2009): Cyberchondria: Studies of the escalation of medical concerns in Web search. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 27 (4) pp. 23. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1629096.1629101

Bohus, Dan, Horvitz, Eric (2009): Dialog in the open world: platform and applications. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2009, . pp. 31-38. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1647314.1647323

Kapoor, Ashish, Horvitz, Eric (2008): Experience sampling for building predictive user models: a comparative study. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008, . pp. 657-666. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357159

Downey, Doug, Dumais, Susan, Liebling, Daniel J., Horvitz, Eric (2008): Understanding the relationship between searchers\' queries and information goals. In: Shanahan, James G., Amer-Yahia, Sihem, Manolescu, Ioana, Zhang, Yi, Evans, David A., Kolcz, Aleksander, Choi, Key-Sun, Chowdhury, Abdur (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2008 October 26-30, 2008, Napa Valley, California, USA. pp. 449-458. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1458082.1458143

Leskovec, Jure, Horvitz, Eric (2008): Planetary-scale views on a large instant-messaging network. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2008, . pp. 915-924. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367497.1367620

Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul, Subramani, Muru (2007): Mobile Opportunistic Planning: Methods and Models. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F., Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 228-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73078-1_26

Morris, Meredith Ringel, Horvitz, Eric (2007): S3: Storable, Shareable Search. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio, Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 120-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_13

Krumm, John, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Driver Destination Models. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F., Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 360-364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73078-1_45

Kapoor, Ashish, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Principles of Lifelong Learning for Predictive User Modeling. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F., Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 37-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73078-1_7

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Horvitz, Eric (2007): Conversations Amidst Computing: A Study of Interruptions and Recovery of Task Activity. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F., Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 350-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73078-1_43

Krumm, John, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Predestination: Where Do You Want to Go Today?. In IEEE Computer, 40 (4) pp. 105-107. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2007.141

Leskovec, Jure, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Web projections: learning from contextual subgraphs of the web. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2007, . pp. 471-480. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1242572.1242636

Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Characterizing the value of personalizing search. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2007, . pp. 757-758. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1277741.1277894

Downey, Doug, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2007): Heads and tails: studies of web search with common and rare queries. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2007, . pp. 847-848. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1277741.1277939

Morris, Meredith Ringel, Horvitz, Eric (2007): SearchTogether: an interface for collaborative web search. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 3-12. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1294211.1294215

Iqbal, Shamsi T., Horvitz, Eric (2007): Disruption and recovery of computing tasks: field study, analysis, and directions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2007, . pp. 677-686. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240624.1240730

Krumm, John, Horvitz, Eric (2006): Predestination: Inferring Destinations from Partial Trajectories. In: Dourish, Paul, Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 243-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11853565_15

Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric (2005): A Comparison of HMMs and Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Recognizing Office Activities. In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul, Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 199-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11527886_26

Olson, Judith S., Grudin, Jonathan, Horvitz, Eric (2005): A study of preferences for sharing and privacy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2005, . pp. 1985-1988. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1057073

Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2005): Personalizing search via automated analysis of interests and activities. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2005, . pp. 449-456. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1076034.1076111

Hariharan, Ramaswamy, Krumm, John, Horvitz, Eric (2005): Web-Enhanced GPS. In: Strang, Thomas, Linnhoff-Popien, Claudia (eds.) Location- and Context-Awareness - First International Workshop - LoCA 2005 May 12-13, 2005, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. pp. 95-104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11426646_9

Hinckley, Ken, Pierce, Jeffrey S., Horvitz, Eric, Sinclair, Mike (2005): Foreground and background interaction with sensor-enhanced mobile devices. In ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 12 (1) pp. 31-52. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1057237.1057240

Horvitz, Eric, Apacible, Johnson, Subramani, Muru (2005): Balancing Awareness and Interruption: Investigation of Notification Deferral Policies. In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul, Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 433-437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11527886_59

Shen, Xuehua, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2005): Analysis of topic dynamics in web search. In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2005, . pp. 1102-1103. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1062745.1062889

Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul, Sarin, Raman, Apacible, Johnson, Subramani, Muru (2005): Bayesphone: Precomputation of Context-Sensitive Policies for Inquiry and Action in Mobile . In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul, Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 251-260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11527886_33

Gabrilovich, Evgeniy, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2004): Newsjunkie: providing personalized newsfeeds via analysis of information novelty. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2004, . pp. 482-490. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/988672.988738

Robertson, George G., Horvitz, Eric, Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C., Smith, Greg (2004): Scalable Fabric: flexible task management. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 85-89. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/989863.989874

Robbins, Daniel C., Cutrell, Edward, Sarin, Raman, Horvitz, Eric (2004): ZoneZoom: map navigation for smartphones with recursive view segmentation. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (eds.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 231-234. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/989863.989901

Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric, Wilhite, Susan (2004): A diary study of task switching and interruptions. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth, Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 175-182. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/985692.985715

Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul, Apacible, Johnson (2004): BusyBody: creating and fielding personalized models of the cost of interruption. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2004, . pp. 507-510. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1031607.1031690

Krumm, John, Cermak, Gerry, Horvitz, Eric (2003): RightSPOT: A Novel Sense of Location for a Smart Personal Object. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht, McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 36-43. http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2864/28640036.htm

Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric (2003): Selective perception policies for guiding sensing and computation in multimodal systems: a. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T., Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 36-43. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958432.958442

Horvitz, Eric, Apacible, Johnson (2003): Learning and reasoning about interruption. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T., Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 20-27. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958432.958440

Ringel, Meredith, Cutrell, Edward, Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2003): Milestones in Time: The Value of Landmarks in Retrieving Information from Personal Stores. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction , 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. pp. 184.

Horvitz, Eric, Apacible, Johnson (2003): Learning and reasoning about interruption. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2003, . pp. 20-27. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958432.958440

Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric (2003): Selective perception policies for guiding sensing and computation in multimodal systems: a. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2003, . pp. 36-43. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958432.958442

Horvitz, Eric (2002): Uncertainty, intelligence, and interaction. In: Gil, Yolanda, Leake, David (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2002 January 13-16, 2002, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 3. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/502716.502719

Bennett, Paul N., Dumais, Susan, Horvitz, Eric (2002): Probabilistic combination of text classifiers using reliability indicators: models and res. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval , 2002, . pp. 207-214. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/564376.564413

Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric (2002): An Investigation of Memory for Daily Computing Events. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet, Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 229-246.

Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric, Garg, Ashutosh (2002): Layered Representations for Human Activity Recognition. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces , 2002, . pp. 3. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/846222.847727

Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric, Garg, Ashutosh (2002): Layered Representations for Human Activity Recognition. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 3-8. http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/icmi/2002/1834/00/18340003abs.htm

Anderson, Corin R., Horvitz, Eric (2002): Web montage: a dynamic personalized start page. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on the World Wide Web , 2002, . pp. 704-712. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/511446.511537

Cutrell, Edward, Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric (2001): Notification, Disruption, and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Per. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction , 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 263-269.

Horvitz, Eric, Paek, Tim (2001): Harnessing Models of Users\' Goals to Mediate Clarification Dialog in Spoken Language Syst. In: Bauer, Mathias, Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr J., Vassileva, Julita (eds.) User Modeling 2001 - 8th International Conference - UM 2001 July 13-17, 2001, Sonthofen, Germany. pp. 3-13. http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2109/21090003.htm

Hinckley, Ken, Horvitz, Eric (2001): Toward more sensitive mobile phones. In: Marks, Joe, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 191-192. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/502348.502382

Hinckley, Ken, Pierce, Jeff, Sinclair, Mike, Horvitz, Eric (2000): Sensing Techniques for Mobile Interaction. In: Ackerman, Mark S., Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 91-100. http://acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/354401/p91-hinckley/p91-hinckley.pdf

Shavlik, Jude, Birnbaum, Lawrence, Swartout, William, Horvitz, Eric, Hayes-Roth, Barbara (1999): Bridging Science and Applications. In: Maybury, Mark T. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1999 January 5-8, 1999, Redondo Beach, California, USA. pp. 45-46. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/291080/p45-shavlik/p45-shavlik.pdf

Horvitz, Eric (1999): Principles of Mixed-Initiative User Interfaces. In: Altom, Mark W., Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 159-166. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/302979/p159-horvitz/p159-horvitz.pdf

Horvitz, Eric (1998): Continual Computation Policies for Utility-Directed Prefetching. In: Gardarin, Georges, French, James C., Pissinou, Niki (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 3-7, 1998, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. pp. 175-184. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/288627.288655

Marks, Joe, Birnbaum, Larry, Horvitz, Eric, Kurlander, David, Lieberman, Henry, Roth, Steve (1997): Compelling Intelligent User Interfaces: How Much AI?. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest, Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 173-175. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/uist/238218/p173-birnbaum/p173-birnbaum.pdf

Burnell, Lisa J., Horvitz, Eric (1995): Structure and Chance: Melding Logic and Probability for Software Debugging. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (3) pp. 31-41,57.