Paper Prototyping

Your constantly-updated definition of Paper Prototyping and collection of topical content and literature

What is Paper Prototyping?

Paper prototyping is a process where design teams create paper representations of digital products to help them realize concepts and test designs. They draw sketches or adapt printed materials and use these low-fidelity screenshot samples to cheaply guide their designs and study users’ reactions from early in projects.

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See why paper prototyping is a small, yet invaluable investment.

“Paper prototyping is great for exploring design possibilities. You can try as many as you want, and if they don’t work for you it’s fine, just throw them in the bin and start over. It opens your eyes on things you haven’t thought of and gives you new design perspectives.”

— Chaymae Lougmani, CEO & Co-founder at

Paper Prototyping saves Money—and Designs

Paper prototyping is a core activity in design processes. You depict screenshots (in what you can call paper-shots) to help determine how your design/product should appear. Like other forms of low-fidelity prototyping—e.g., card sorting—paper prototyping is a cheap-and-easy way to help shape concepts. If you use it early on, you can prevent unwanted development costs.It’s useful in brainstorming, where your team searches how to address users’ problems best. As you proceed, you can do down-and-dirty or guerrilla testing to informally test ideas with users and course-correct as needed.

Pros and Cons of Paper Prototyping

Consider the strengths and limitations of paper prototyping:


Quick iteration

You can build overviews without getting bogged down in details. In minutes, you can see whether an idea works on paper.


Paper is inexpensive; so are printed prototyping materials/kits.


Everyone can make rough sketches of ideas. Stakeholders from outside the design team can join in.

Pieces serve as documentation

Later on, you’ll have annotated hard-copy evidence of what works and what doesn’t.


When team members get creative, they can bond. Everyone can get involved in drawing, cutting and pasting and forget role/department barriers.

Honest feedback

People comment more freely than if they must criticize polished prototypes (i.e., someone’s “baby”).

Useful throughout the design process

You can use paper prototyping to help stay flexible about revisions throughout development.


Lack of realism

Whatever you draw, you can’t completely mimic an interactive design. Also, users’ gut reactions will differ compared with the finished product.

Inappropriateness in some contexts

You can’t always translate users’ constraints onto paper, especially regarding accessibility. You may need a sophisticated high-fidelity prototype to capture the user experience.

Requires in-person testing

You have a smaller pool of test users and greater risk of missing insights.

Lack of user control

Without an interactive design, users must give blow-by-blow accounts of their actions and thoughts. Also, you can’t moderate from a distance. You must give directions about next steps, without leading users.

More work

You’ll make digital prototypes, anyway. These may suit your concept without the need for primitive prototypes.

Interpret results carefully

Users can’t get a real feel of the product. Positive feedback is a good indicator of how to proceed, not a guarantee.

How to use Paper Prototyping Best

You should enter with the right tools and mindset. So,

  1. Gather stationery – pens, pencils, markers, paper, card, Post-its, scissors, tape, glue, rulers and suitable stencils. About $10/£10/€10 is typically enough to cover this. You can use graph paper to help guide ideas. Colored paper is great for representing buttons.
  2. Get building Just go ahead and see where you go. As you get your ideas down on paper, you can think about them more concretely. Later, you can get insights about improving them.
  3. Make one sketch per screen.
  4. Move quickly – If you spend too long making your prototype, you’ll get attached to it. Don’t waste time erasing: You want to get ideas down rather than revise them and potentially miss insights from the raw version.
  5. Remember what to test – Build with that purpose in mind, but stay aware of other factors.
  6. Prototype for small screens first When you go mobile-first, you can prioritize your content better.
  7. Remember the users – As you’ll test your prototype against users’ behaviors and needs, consider their expectations as you build.

Remember, the earlier you use paper prototyping, the better.

Learn More about Paper Prototyping

Dive into our Design Thinking course to see all about paper prototyping:

This UX Planet blog has some helpful paper prototyping tips:

Discover a wealth of insights into paper prototyping from UX content strategist Jerry Cao:

Literature on Paper Prototyping

Here’s the entire UX literature on Paper Prototyping by the Interaction Design Foundation, collated in one place:

Learn more about Paper Prototyping

Take a deep dive into Paper Prototyping with our course User Experience: The Beginner’s Guide .

User experience, or UX, has been a buzzword since about 2005, and according to tech research firm Gartner, the focus on digital experience is no longer limited to digital-born companies anymore. Chances are, you’ve heard of the term, or even have it on your portfolio. But, like most of us, there’s also a good chance that you sometimes feel unsure of what the term “user experience” actually covers.

[User experience] is used by people to say, Im a user experience designer, I design websites, or I design apps. [] and they think the experience is that simple device, the website, or the app, or who knows what. No! Its everythingits the way you experience the world, its the way you experience your life, its the way you experience the service. Or, yeah, an app or a computer system. But its a system thats everything.

Don Norman, pioneer and inventor of the term user experience”, in an interview with NNGroup

As indicated by Don Norman, User Experience is an umbrella term that covers a number of different areas. When you work with user experience, it’s crucial to have a good understanding of what those areas are so that you know what tools are available to you.

Throughout this course, you will gain a thorough understanding of the various design principles that come together to create a user’s experience when using a product or service. As you proceed, you’ll learn the value user experience design brings to a project, and what areas you must consider when you want to design great user experiences. Because user experience is an evolving term, we can’t give you a definition of ‘user experience’ to end all discussions, but we will provide you with a solid understanding of the different aspects of user experience, so it becomes clear in your mind what is involved in creating great UX designs.

If you are new to the Interaction Design Foundation, this course is a great place to start because it brings together materials from many of our other courses. This provides you with both an excellent introduction to user experience and with a preview of the courses we have to offer to help you develop your future career. After each lesson, we will introduce you to the courses you can take if a specific topic has caught your attention. That way, you’ll find it easy to continue your learning journey.

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