Number of co-authors:49
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Calvin Lough:Michael Lippold:Tadeusz Stach:
Regan L. Mandryk's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Carl Gutwin:116Mary Czerwinski:80Adrian David Cheok:75
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Publications by Regan L. Mandryk (bibliography)
Nacke, Lennart, McEwan, Gregor, Gutwin, Carl and Mandryk, Regan L. (2012): "I'm just here to play games": social dynamics and sociality in an online game site. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 549-558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2145204.2145289
There are many web sites that allow people to play board or card games against other human players. These sites offer tools and opportunities for social interaction, but little is known about how people really interact on these sites. To learn more about social dynamics on game sites, we analysed three months of log files from a large site to explore three themes: permanence (whether people formed a long-term association with the site); social interaction (in terms of shared activity and verbal communication); and formation of ties (whether people made contacts with others). Our analyses showed that while the site seems very social when we consider gameplay, the population was highly transient, and people talked very little. To explain these behaviours, we suggest that games and game-based activity should be considered as a legitimate form of human interaction. Our analysis provides new information and new ways of thinking about how game environments can be designed to support many kinds of sociability.
© All rights reserved Nacke et al. and/or ACM Press
Mandryk, Regan L., Kalyn, Michael, Dang, Yichen, Doucette, Andre, Taylor, Brett and Dielschneider, Shane (2012): Turning off-the-shelf games into biofeedback games. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 199-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2384916.2384952
Biofeedback games help users maintain specific mental or physical states and are useful to help people with cognitive impairments learn to self-regulate their brain function. However, biofeedback games are expensive and difficult to create and are not sufficiently appealing to hold a user's interest over the long term. We present two systems that turn off-the-shelf games into biofeedback games. Our desktop approach uses visual feedback via texture-based graphical overlays that vary in their obfuscation of an underlying game based on the user's physiological state. Our mobile approach presents multi-modal feedback (audio or vibration) of a user's physiological state on an iPhone.
© All rights reserved Mandryk et al. and/or ACM Press
Taylor, Brett and Mandryk, Regan L. (2012): Creating and interpreting abstract visualizations of emotion. In: Proceedings of the 2012 Conference on Graphics Interface 2012. pp. 61-68. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2305287
People use non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, body language, and tonal variations in speech, to help communicate emotion; however, these cues are not always available in computer-supported environments. Without emotional cues, we can have difficulty communicating and relating to others. In this paper, we develop and evaluate a system for creating abstract visualizations of emotion using arousal and valence. Through two user studies, we show that without prior training, people can naturally understand the represented emotion conveyed by the visualization.
© All rights reserved Taylor and Mandryk and/or their publisher
Epp, Clayton, Lippold, Michael and Mandryk, Regan L. (2011): Identifying emotional states using keystroke dynamics. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 715-724. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979046
The ability to recognize emotions is an important part of building intelligent computers. Emotionally-aware systems would have a rich context from which to make appropriate decisions about how to interact with the user or adapt their system response. There are two main problems with current system approaches for identifying emotions that limit their applicability: they can be invasive and can require costly equipment. Our solution is to determine user emotion by analyzing the rhythm of their typing patterns on a standard keyboard. We conducted a field study where we collected participants' keystrokes and their emotional states via self-reports. From this data, we extracted keystroke features, and created classifiers for 15 emotional states. Our top results include 2-level classifiers for confidence, hesitance, nervousness, relaxation, sadness, and tiredness with accuracies ranging from 77
© All rights reserved Epp et al. and/or their publisher
Mandryk, Regan L. and Lough, Calvin (2011): The effects of intended use on target acquisition. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1649-1652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979182
Fitts's Law has been used extensively in HCI to describe 2D targeting; however, the controlled tasks generally used neglect aspects of real-world pointing, including how the intended use of a target affects its acquisition. We studied aiming to a target in four tasks requiring varying precision after acquisition. Our results present the first evidence that the intended use of a target affects its acquisition in terms of movement time and motion kinematics for computer aiming. Important for researchers who model 2D targeting, our results also have particular impact for HCI research that uses motion kinematics.
© All rights reserved Mandryk and Lough and/or their publisher
Bateman, Scott, Mandryk, Regan L., Stach, Tadeusz and Gutwin, Carl (2011): Target assistance for subtly balancing competitive play. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2355-2364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979287
In games where skills such as targeting are critical to winning, it is difficult for players with different skill levels to have a competitive and engaging experience. Although several mechanisms for accommodating different skill levels have been proposed, traditional approaches can be too obvious and can change the nature of the game. For games involving aiming, we propose the use of target assistance techniques (such as area cursors, target gravity, and sticky targets) to accommodate skill imbalances. We compared three techniques in a study, and found that area cursors and target gravity significantly reduced score differential in a shooting-gallery game. Further, less skilled players reported having more fun when the techniques helped them be more competitive, and even after they learned assistance was given, felt that this form of balancing was good for group gameplay. Our results show that target assistance techniques can make target-based games more competitive for shared play.
© All rights reserved Bateman et al. and/or their publisher
Fairclough, Stephen H., Gilleade, Kiel, Nacke, Lennart E. and Mandryk, Regan L. (2011): Brain and body interfaces: designing for meaningful interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 65-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979591
The brain and body provide a wealth of information about the physiological, cognitive and emotional state of the user. There is increased opportunity to use these data in computerised systems as forms of input control. As entry level physiological sensors become more widespread, physiological interfaces are liable to become more pervasive in our society (e.g., through mobile phones). While these signals offer new and exciting mechanisms for the control of interactive systems, the issue of whether these physiological interfaces are appropriate for application and offer the user a meaningful level of interaction remains relatively unexplored. This workshop sets out to bring together researchers working in the field of psychophysiological interaction to discuss the issue of how to design physiological interactions that are meaningful for users.
© All rights reserved Fairclough et al. and/or their publisher
Xiao, Robert, Nacenta, Miguel A., Mandryk, Regan L., Cockburn, Andy and Gutwin, Carl (2011): Ubiquitous cursor: a comparison of direct and indirect pointing feedback in multi-display environments. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 135-142.
Multi-display environments (MDEs) connect several displays into a single digital workspace. One of the main problems to be solved in an MDE's design is how to enable movement of objects from one display to another. When the real-world space between displays is modeled as part of the workspace (i.e., Mouse Ether), it becomes difficult for users to keep track of their cursors during a transition between displays. To address this problem, we developed the Ubiquitous Cursor system, which uses a projector and a hemispherical mirror to completely cover the interior of a room with usable low-resolution pixels. Ubiquitous Cursor allows us to provide direct feedback about the location of the cursor between displays. To assess the effectiveness of this direct-feedback approach, we carried out a study that compared Ubiquitous Cursor with two other standard approaches: Halos, which provide indirect feedback about the cursor's location; and Stitching, which warps the cursor between displays, similar to the way that current operating systems address multiple monitors. Our study tested simple cross-display pointing tasks in an MDE; the results showed that Ubiquitous Cursor was significantly faster than both other approaches. Our work shows the feasibility and the value of providing direct feedback for cross-display movement, and adds to our understanding of the principles underlying targeting performance in MDEs.
© All rights reserved Xiao et al. and/or their publisher
Bateman, Scott, Doucette, Andre, Xiao, Robert, Gutwin, Carl, Mandryk, Regan L. and Cockburn, Andy (2011): Effects of view, input device, and track width on video game driving. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Graphics Interface 2011. pp. 207-214.
Steering and driving tasks -- where the user controls a vehicle or other object along a path -- are common in many simulations and games. Racing video games have provided users with different views of the visual environment -- e.g., overhead, first-person, and third-person views. Although research has been done in understanding how people perform using a first-person view in virtual reality and driving simulators, little empirical work has been done to understand the factors that affect performance in video games. To establish a foundation for thinking about view in the design of driving games and simulations, we carried out three studies that explored the effects of different view types on driving performance. We also considered how view interacts with difficulty and input device. We found that although there were significant effects of view on performance, these were not in line with conventional wisdom about view. Our explorations provide designers with new empirical knowledge about view and performance, but also raise a number of new research questions about the principles underlying view differences.
© All rights reserved Bateman et al. and/or their publisher
Flatla, David R., Gutwin, Carl, Nacke, Lennart E., Bateman, Scott and Mandryk, Regan L. (2011): Calibration games: making calibration tasks enjoyable by adding motivating game elements. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 403-412. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2047196.2047248
Interactive systems often require calibration to ensure that input and output are optimally configured. Without calibration, user performance can degrade (e.g., if an input device is not adjusted for the user's abilities), errors can increase (e.g., if color spaces are not matched), and some interactions may not be possible (e.g., use of an eye tracker). The value of calibration is often lost, however, because many calibration processes are tedious and unenjoyable, and many users avoid them altogether. To address this problem, we propose calibration games that gather calibration data in an engaging and entertaining manner. To facilitate the creation of calibration games, we present design guidelines that map common types of calibration to core tasks, and then to well-known game mechanics. To evaluate the approach, we developed three calibration games and compared them to standard procedures. Users found the game versions significantly more enjoyable than regular calibration procedures, without compromising the quality of the data. Calibration games are a novel way to motivate users to carry out calibrations, thereby improving the performance and accuracy of many human-computer systems.
© All rights reserved Flatla et al. and/or ACM Press
Bateman, Scott, Mandryk, Regan L., Gutwin, Carl, Genest, Aaron, McDine, David and Brooks, Christopher (2010): Useful junk?: the effects of visual embellishment on comprehension and memorability of charts. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2573-2582. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753716
Guidelines for designing information charts (such as bar charts) often state that the presentation should reduce or remove 'chart junk' -- visual embellishments that are not essential to understanding the data. In contrast, some popular chart designers wrap the presented data in detailed and elaborate imagery, raising the questions of whether this imagery is really as detrimental to understanding as has been proposed, and whether the visual embellishment may have other benefits. To investigate these issues, we conducted an experiment that compared embellished charts with plain ones, and measured both interpretation accuracy and long-term recall. We found that people's accuracy in describing the embellished charts was no worse than for plain charts, and that their recall after a two-to-three-week gap was significantly better. Although we are cautious about recommending that all charts be produced in this style, our results question some of the premises of the minimalist approach to chart design.
© All rights reserved Bateman et al. and/or their publisher
Doucette, Andre, Gutwin, Carl and Mandryk, Regan L. (2010): A comparison of techniques for in-place toolbars. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on Graphics Interface 2010. pp. 35-38. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/4713060.1839221
Selections are often carried out using toolbars that are located far away from the location of the cursor. To reduce the time to make these selections, researchers have proposed in-place toolbars such as Toolglasses or popup palettes. Even though in-place toolbars have been known for a long time, there are factors influencing their performance that have not been investigated. To explore the subtleties of different designs for in-place toolbars, we implemented and compared three approaches: warping the cursor to the toolbar, having the toolbar pop up over the cursor, and showing the toolbar on the trackpad itself to allow direct touch. Our study showed that all three new techniques were faster than traditional static toolbars, but also uncovered important differences between the three in-place versions. Participants spent significantly less time in the direct-touch trackpad, and warping the cursor's location caused a time-consuming attentional shift. These results provide a better understanding of how small changes to in-place toolbar techniques can affect performance.
© All rights reserved Doucette et al. and/or their publisher
Pinelle, David, Barjawi, Mutasem, Nacenta, Miguel A. and Mandryk, Regan L. (2009): An Evaluation of Coordination Techniques for Protecting Objects and Territories in Tabletop Groupware. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems CHI 2009 2009, Boston, MA, USA. pp. 2129-2138. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1518701.1519025
Nacenta, Miguel A., Mandryk, Regan L. and Gutwin, Carl (2008): Targeting across displayless space. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 777-786. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1357054.1357178
Multi-monitor displays and multi-display environments are now common. Cross-display cursor movement, in which a user moves the pointer from one display to another, occurs frequently in these settings. There are several techniques for supporting this kind of movement, and these differ in the way that they deal with displayless space (the physical space between displays). Stitching is the method used by most operating systems; in this technique, the cursor jumps from the edge of one display directly into the next display. In contrast, Mouse Ether maps the motor space of the mouse exactly to the physical space of the displays, meaning that the cursor has to travel across displayless space until it reaches the next display. To determine which of these approaches is best for cross-display movement, we carried out a study comparing Stitching, Mouse Ether, and a variant of Mouse Ether with Halo for off-screen feedback. We found that Stitching is equivalent to or faster than any variant of Mouse Ether, and that Halo improves Ether's performance (but not enough to outperform Stitching). Results also indicate that the larger the gap between displays, the longer the targeting takes -- even for Stitching. These findings provide valuable guidance for practitioners and raise new interesting questions for research.
© All rights reserved Nacenta et al. and/or ACM Press
Mandryk, Regan L. and Gutwin, Carl (2008): Perceptibility and Utility of Sticky Targets. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Graphics Interface May 28-30, 2008, Windsor, Ontario, Canada. pp. 65-72.
Researchers have suggested that dynamically increasing control-to-display (CD) gain can assist in targeting, by increasing the effective width of targets in motor space, which makes targets feel sticky. Although this method has been shown to be effective, there are several unexplored issues that could affect its use in real-world interfaces. One of these is perceptibility: in particular, the difference between the perceptibility and the utility of the technique. If CD gain changes are highly noticeable even at levels that are not helpful, the technique could be seen as overly intrusive. If CD gain changes are more useful than noticeable, however, the technique could be applied more widely. To explore this issue, we carried out a study that tested both the utility and the perceptibility of CD gain in single-target selection tasks. We found that although even small amounts of gain reduction significantly improved targeting times, participants did not consistently notice the effect until the gain difference was much higher. Our results provide new understanding of how changes in CD gain are experienced by users, and provide initial evidence to suggest that sticky targets can benefit users without a high perceptual cost.
© All rights reserved Mandryk and Gutwin and/or their publisher
Wallace, James R., Mandryk, Regan L. and Inkpen, Kori (2008): Comparing content and input redirection in MDEs. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 157-166. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460563.1460588
Designers of Multi-Display Environments (MDEs) often use input redirection to allow users to manipulate content on multiple displays with a single interaction device, but users seated at sub-optimal positions (i.e., not facing the display) may find interaction difficult or frustrating. In collaborative MDEs, users should be able to choose their preferred collaborative arrangement, rather than adjusting to the limitations of the technology. We compare content and input redirection from a variety of seating positions in an MDE. Results from our studies show that content redirection does not suffer from performance loss in sub-optimal seating positions, as opposed to input redirection, which does. Content redirection provides a method for all members of a group to interact with shared content regardless of their position relative to a shared display.
© All rights reserved Wallace et al. and/or ACM Press
Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Mandryk, Regan L., Inkpen, Kori, Kellar, Melanie, Hawkey, Kirstie and Czerwinski, Mary (2008): Using job-shop scheduling tasks for evaluating collocated collaboration. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 12 (3) pp. 255-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00779-007-0154-3
Stanley, Kevin G., Pinelle, David, Bandurka, Alan, McDine, David and Mandryk, Regan L. (2008): Integrating cumulative context into computer games. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play 2008. pp. 248-251. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1496984.1497036
In this paper, we describe a cumulative context computer game, where accumulated contextual information of the players' activity levels, obtained through mobile sensors, is used to modify game state. Our implementation used a statistic-based, real-time version of the classic game of chess, where the statistics of the pieces depended on the activity of the users and the environment in which they performed the activity. Users found the game engaging and fun, and almost all of the participants altered their behaviors to enhance their performance in the game. This work provides a platform for further research into meaningful integration of cumulative context in games.
© All rights reserved Stanley et al. and/or ACM Press
Mandryk, Regan L. and Atkins, M. Stella (2007): A fuzzy physiological approach for continuously modeling emotion during interaction with play technologies. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 65 (4) pp. 329-347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2006.11.011
The popularity of computer games has exploded in recent years, yet methods of evaluating user emotional state during play experiences lag far behind. There are few methods of assessing emotional state, and even fewer methods of quantifying emotion during play. This paper presents a novel method for continuously modeling emotion using physiological data. A fuzzy logic model transformed four physiological signals into arousal and valence. A second fuzzy logic model transformed arousal and valence into five emotional states relevant to computer game play: boredom, challenge, excitement, frustration, and fun. Modeled emotions compared favorably with a manual approach, and the means were also evaluated with subjective self-reports, exhibiting the same trends as reported emotions for fun, boredom, and excitement. This approach provides a method for quantifying emotional states continuously during a play experience.
© All rights reserved Mandryk and Atkins and/or Academic Press
Mandryk, Regan L., Atkins, M. Stella and Inkpen, Kori (2006): A continuous and objective evaluation of emotional experience with interactive play environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1027-1036. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1124772.1124926
Researchers are using emerging technologies to develop novel play environments, while established computer and console game markets continue to grow rapidly. Even so, evaluating the success of interactive play environments is still an open research challenge. Both subjective and objective techniques fall short due to limited evaluative bandwidth; there remains no corollary in play environments to task performance with productivity systems. This paper presents a method of modeling user emotional state, based on a user's physiology, for users interacting with play technologies. Modeled emotions are powerful because they capture usability and playability through metrics relevant to ludic experience; account for user emotion; are quantitative and objective; and are represented continuously over a session. Furthermore, our modeled emotions show the same trends as reported emotions for fun, boredom, and excitement; however, the modeled emotions revealed differences between three play conditions, while the differences between the subjective reports failed to reach significance.
© All rights reserved Mandryk et al. and/or ACM Press
Mandryk, Regan L., Inkpen, Kori and Calvert, Tom W. (2006): Using psychophysiological techniques to measure user experience with entertainment technologies. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (2) pp. 141-158. http://www.journalsonline.tandf.co.uk/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0144-929X&volume=25&issue=2&spage=141
Emerging technologies offer exciting new ways of using entertainment technology to create fantastic play experiences and foster interactions between players. Evaluating entertainment technology is challenging because success isn't defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods of evaluating entertainment technology aren't sufficiently robust. This paper describes two experiments designed to test the efficacy of physiological measures as evaluators of user experience with entertainment technologies. We found evidence that there is a different physiological response in the body when playing against a computer versus playing against a friend. These physiological results are mirrored in the subjective reports provided by the participants. In addition, we provide guidelines for collecting physiological data for user experience analysis, which were informed by our empirical investigations. This research provides an initial step towards using physiological responses to objectively evaluate a user's experience with entertainment technology.
© All rights reserved Mandryk et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Ha, Vicki, Inkpen, Kori, Whalen, Tara and Mandryk, Regan L. (2006): Direct Intentions: The Effects of Input Devices on Collaboration around a Tabletop Display. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 177-184. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/TABLETOP.2006.10
Parker, Karen, Mandryk, Regan L. and Inkpen, Kori M. (2006): Integrating Point and Touch for Interaction with Digital Tabletop Displays. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (5) pp. 28-35. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MCG.2006.110
Parker, J. Karen, Mandryk, Regan L. and Inkpen, Kori (2005): TractorBeam: seamless integration of local and remote pointing for tabletop displays. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 33-40. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1089508.1089515
This paper presents a novel interaction technique for tabletop computer displays. When using a direct input device such as a stylus, reaching objects on the far side of a table is difficult. While remote pointing has been investigated for large wall displays, there has been no similar research into reaching distant objects on tabletop displays. Augmenting a stylus to allow remote pointing may facilitate this process. We conducted two user studies to evaluate remote pointing on tabletop displays. Results from our work demonstrate that remote pointing is faster than stylus touch input for large targets, slower for small distant targets, and comparable in all other cases. In addition, when given a choice, people utilized the pointing interaction technique more often than stylus touch. Based on these results we developed the TractorBeam, a hybrid point-touch input technique that allows users to seamlessly reach distant objects on tabletop displays.
© All rights reserved Parker et al. and/or their publisher
Mandryk, Regan L., Rodgers, Malcolm E. and Inkpen, Kori (2005): Sticky widgets: pseudo-haptic widget enhancements for multi-monitor displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1621-1624. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1056808.1056981
People use multiple monitors to increase their display surface and to facilitate multitasking. However, if windows are maximized to fill one screen, users may have difficulties accessing widgets and tools on the borders of the displays, accidentally crossing over to the other display. To assist users of multi monitor displays, we developed a pseudo-haptic approach to enhance boundary widgets. We compared our sticky widget to a standard widget for two multi monitor display configurations: two identical side-by-side monitors, and two separated monitors of different sizes. Our enhancement improved performance by significantly reducing errors for accessing a boundary widget, reducing the number of accidental crossovers to the wrong display and consequently decreasing selection time.
© All rights reserved Mandryk et al. and/or ACM Press
Magerkurth, Carsten, Cheok, Adrian David, Mandryk, Regan L. and Nilsen, Trond (2005): Pervasive games: bringing computer entertainment back to the real world. In Computers in Entertainment, 3 (3) p. 4. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1077246.1077257
Mandryk, Regan L. and Inkpen, Kori (2004): Physiological indicators for the evaluation of co-located collaborative play. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 102-111. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1031607.1031625
Emerging technologies offer new ways of using entertainment technology to foster interactions between players and connect people. Evaluating collaborative entertainment technology is challenging because success is not defined in terms of productivity and performance, but in terms of enjoyment and interaction. Current subjective methods are not sufficiently robust in this context. This paper describes an experiment designed to test the efficacy of physiological measures as evaluators of collaborative entertainment technologies. We found evidence that there is a different physiological response in the body when playing against a computer versus playing against a friend. These physiological results are mirrored in the subjective reports provided by the participants. We provide an initial step towards using physiological responses to objectively evaluate a user's experience with collaborative entertainment technology.
© All rights reserved Mandryk and Inkpen and/or ACM Press
Scott, Stacey D., Mandryk, Regan L. and Inkpen, Kori (2003): Understanding children's collaborative interactions in shared environments. In J. Comp. Assisted Learning, 19 (2) pp. 220-228. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0266-4909.2003.00022.x
Bjork, Staffan, Holopainen, Jussi, Ljungstrand, Peter and Mandryk, Regan L. (2002): Editorial: Special Issue on Ubiquitous Games. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (5) pp. 358-361. http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=1617-4917&volume=6&issue=5&spage=358
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