Color Symbolism

Your constantly-updated definition of Color Symbolism and collection of videos and articles

What is Color Symbolism?

Color symbolism is the subjective meaning humans attach to various colors. People respond to color in three ways—biologically (e.g., red = fear), culturally (e.g., red = wellbeing in many Eastern societies) and personally from experience. Designers use color symbolism in (e.g.) logos to gain users’ trust and attention.

“Depending on context, colour can convey meaning often more effectively than words.”

— Zena O’Connor, Ph.D. in human responses to color, who established Design Research Associates

See why color symbolism matters greatly in design.

Show Hide video transcript
  1. Transcript loading…

Color’s Compelling Mystery

Color is a powerful tool for evoking emotions, expressing thoughts and communicating with—and persuading—your users, but its symbolism is subjective and depends on the context. How humans react to color is complex, stemming from our:

  • Biological response: For example, the color red can inspire fear and sexual desire, while blue light can help psychologically.

  • Cultural response: Different cultures value certain colors differently. Western societies typically esteem blue well above yellow; Eastern ones tend to prize yellow and see red without alarming or erotic overtones.

  • Personal associations with color: Our experiences can color our view of certain colors—e.g., someone’s childhood skiing accident might permanently scar their appreciation of white.

When designing, you can conjure a multitude of meanings through your color choices. Brand logos and colors need to resonate with the target audiences. So, industry and global market location are among the factors designers consider for leveraging color symbolism according to widely accepted associations, notably these:

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color red

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Red = Love, Passion, Strength, Power, Danger, Excitement, Energy

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color orange

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Orange = Warmth, Creativity, Adventure, Freshness, Happiness, Attraction, Success 

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color orange

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Yellow = Optimism, Cheer, Happiness, Warmth, Caution, Energy, Intellect

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color green

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Green = Nature, Growth, Wealth, Luck, Envy, Freshness, Quality

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color blue

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Blue = Trust, Calm, Sadness, Peace, Loyalty, Depth, Authenticity

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color purple

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Purple = Royalty, Nobility, Wisdom, Luxury, Imagination, Mystery, Spirituality

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color white

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • White = Purity, Simplicity, Innocence, Peace, Cleanliness, Emptiness, Goodness

Illustration depicting key words symbolized by the color white

© Daniel Skrok and Interaction Design Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Black = Sophistication, Formality, Sorrow, Boldness, Elegance, Death, Mystery

Image depicting a STOP sign on a country road.

© Pixabay and Pexels, CC BY-SA 3.0

How to Choose Colors for Your Users

Remember, context is key. And, while most “facts” about color psychology lack scientific basis, a deeper look at the palette can reveal some essential insights:

  • Red – Scarlet and crimson are among the variations that make red sexy and dangerous to Western eyes. Red may be bloody and arresting in the form of revolutionary rage and wounded bank balances, but red’s far less dramatic to Eastern eyes.

  • Orange – Linked with creativity and happiness, orange declares national and religious identity and defines athletic applications. Like red, it can grab attention (e.g., prisoner jumpsuits). Consider it for youthful, energetic brands as opposed to luxury, traditional or serious ones.

  • Yellow – The color of the Sun highlights with eye-catching warmth. Yellow can represent happiness, warmth, alarm, sickness, cowardice; take your pick. Some shades can look cheap, though, so it’s a noteworthy example of the need to research users’/customers’ reactions.

  • Green – It’s the color of Mother Nature and her life-sustaining bounty, with connotations of recycling and healthy finances. Green also means “proceed”; but there’s also inexperience and envy. The shade matters. Brighter, lighter greens indicate growth, vitality and renewal; darker, richer greens represent prestige, wealth and abundance.

  • Blue – People find blue trustworthy, assuring, calming and masculine. It’s a tranquil sea and peaceful wonder at the sky; but then it can “mood-swing” to depression. You can bank on blue for designing financial and corporate dependability, although the right shade is vital.

  • Purple – Long associated with royalty, purple connotes luxury and indulgence. But its majesty doesn’t always translate to design; for example, only women favor it as a top-tier color. Purple is uncommon in branding.

  • White – Cleanliness, goodness, innocence and simplicity are all associated with white. It’s as pure as a fresh snowfall, yet it signifies mourning in the East and means surrender internationally. Although innately positive, white lacks a dynamic personality, so it’s best left for brands that are indeed pure, simple and transparent.

  • Black – Black means serious business, with overtones of severity and mystery, of death and grief. However, its inherent darkness doesn’t always convey negativity. It’s also a positive bank balance and smart, attractive clothing. It’s best to consider contrasting it with a bright color: gold for luxury or white for a bold, simple statement. Also, its texture and glossiness can influence your brand’s message.

Lastly, the colors you choose need to match your users and their sensibilities, not your personal preferences.

A notable example of the application of color symbolism is the icons for The Global Goals. This project, undertaken by designer Jakob Trollbäck, head of Trollbäck + Company, made the old Sustainable Development Goals for eliminating world hunger, etc., more universally resonating. The highly symbolic designs and palette carefully consider cross-cultural relevance and serve as part of the hopeful language to inspire everyone, everywhere to act for improvements and equality in the lives of people across the planet.

Image depicting The 17 Global Goals for sustainable development

© Jakob Trollbäck and The Global Goals, Fair-use

Learn More about Color Symbolism

Take our Visual Design course.

Find some great tips and examples here.

This Canva piece insightfully explores color symbolism.

For further insights, read this.

Questions related to Color Symbolism

What is color symbolism in art?

Colors are the most vital aspects of visual art and can often be more effective than words. Color symbolism in art means the usage of color as a symbol. Artists aim to draw attention, evoke specific emotions, or convey symbolic meanings by strategically using color and color modes. Different cultures and societies have cultural associations and symbolic significance to colors. Artists leverage these associations to enhance the depth and impact of their artwork. 

What does each color symbolize?

Here are some common meanings of different colors in many Western cultures:

  • 🔴Red: Passion, Love, Anger

  • 🔵Blue: Calm, Strength, Trust

  • 🟡Yellow: Happiness, Hope, Deceit

  • 🟢Green: New Beginnings, Abundance, Peace

  • 🟠Orange: Energy, Happiness, Vitality

  • 🟣Purple: Creativity, Royalty, Wealth

  • ⚫Black: Mystery, Elegance, Power

  • ⚪White: Purity, Cleanliness, Virtue

  • 🟤Brown: Warmth, Wholesomeness, Dependability

This video explains why we see and react to colors like we do. It shows how color affects our understanding and choices, making it easier to navigate the world.

Show Hide video transcript
  1. Transcript loading…

What does the color white symbolize?

In many cultures, white symbolizes purity, cleanliness, or innocence. In addition, the color white often embodies several other personalities and concepts. Since color meanings vary from culture to culture, white can have positive and negative connotations. For some, white can convey new beginnings, freshness, or simplicity. For others, white can seem too cold, sterile, and isolated. 

Understand Color Symbolism in this article to discover all the personality traits of white and other colors. 

What does the color blue symbolize?

As explained in Color Symbolism, people find blue trustworthy, assuring, calming, and masculine. It is the color of the ocean and the sky. Hence, they associate it with open spaces, freedom, intuition, imagination, inspiration, and sensitivity. However, the meaning of blue varies depending on the shade and hue. For instance, light blues are calming and relaxed. Dark blues like navy represent strength and reliability. Bright blues can be energizing and refreshing. Understand the transitory nature of color and how our perceptions of color can shift under different lighting conditions and surroundings in this video.

Show Hide video transcript
  1. Transcript loading…

What does the color black symbolize?

The symbolism of black color runs far and wide. In some cultures, it associates itself with darkness, heaviness, depression, death, mourning, and evil magic. In others, it can also symbolize elegance, wealth, and power. Black is also called “A color of many sentiments” due to the contrasting feelings it elicits. 

Another fact about this color is that people often misunderstand black and associate it with sadness. However, far more than a depressing color, black is also powerful, striking, and a source of protection.

What does the color green symbolize?

Green is a calming color. It has strong associations with nature and brings trees, forests, and lush grass to mind. Like all colors, different shades and hues of green have different meanings and evoke different emotions.

Bright Green: Rebirth, Spring

Yellowish Green: Illness, Envy, Decay

Aqua: Cleanliness, Freshness, Water

Pale Green: Peace

Olive Green: Tranquility, Earthiness, Elegance

Dark Green: Fertility, Greed, Money, Drive

What does red color symbolize?

The most common feelings that red can stimulate are danger, excitement, aggression, dominance, and passion. Red is the warmest and most contradictory color associated with positive and negative emotions. It has more opposing emotional associations than any other color. 

Red has contrasting meanings around the world. In the West, red evokes excitement, danger, urgency, and love. When combined with green, the color scheme becomes festive. In China, India, and other Asian countries, it symbolizes happiness and good fortune. 

What are the four psychological Colors?

The four primary colors in color theory are: red, yellow, blue, and green. 

  • 🔴Red is an intense color associated with physical aptitude.

  • 🟡Yellow is a potent emotional stimulator that inspires positive thinking and confidence.

  • 🔵Blue is a calming color that inspires clarity of thought and serenity.

  • 🟢Green facilitates the harmony between the other chromes: red, yellow, and blue.

Always remember colors are subjective and use them in the right context. The article Use Color to Prevent Confusion and Help Your Users will help you learn the meaning of color and the importance of context.

Which color symbolizes love?

Red, also called the color of love, represents love and passion. There are several reasons for this symbolism. The color red connects with the heart. A bright red icon ❤️ symbolizes the heart. This link contributes to red being a powerful symbol of love. In addition, the Greeks and Hebrews saw red as a sign of love. Lastly, because of its link with desire and passion, red is the color of love.

Where to learn more about color symbolism?

This course on Visual Design: The Ultimate Guide can help you strengthen your foundations of visual design. You’ll learn to use the right colors, type, visual design elements, and all the secrets to create a good design. You’ll also learn the significance of visual design, understand the impact of history on the present, and uncover practical ways to enhance your own work. You can also watch this brief video to learn “What is Color?”

Show Hide video transcript
  1. Transcript loading…

Answer a Short Quiz to Earn a Gift

Question 1

What best describes color symbolism?

1 point towards your gift

Question 2

How do designers use color symbolism effectively when they create logos?

1 point towards your gift

Question 3

What impact does color symbolism have on user perception in product design?

1 point towards your gift

Question 4

Which factor does NOT influence the symbolism of a color?

1 point towards your gift

Question 5

In marketing, why would a company choose blue for its branding?

1 point towards your gift

Better luck next time!

0 out of 5 questions answered correctly

Do you want to improve your UX / UI Design skills? Join us now

Congratulations! You did amazing

5 out of 5 questions answered correctly

You earned your gift with a perfect score! Let us send it to you.

Letter from IxDF

Check Your Inbox

We’ve emailed your gift to

Do you want to improve your UX / UI Design skills? Join us now

Literature on Color Symbolism

Here’s the entire UX literature on Color Symbolism by the Interaction Design Foundation, collated in one place:

Learn more about Color Symbolism

Take a deep dive into Color Symbolism with our course Visual Design: The Ultimate Guide .

In this course, you will gain a holistic understanding of visual design and increase your knowledge of visual principles, color theory, typography, grid systems and history. You’ll also learn why visual design is so important, how history influences the present, and practical applications to improve your own work. These insights will help you to achieve the best possible user experience.

In the first lesson, you’ll learn the difference between visual design elements and visual design principles. You’ll also learn how to effectively use visual design elements and principles by deconstructing several well-known designs. 

In the second lesson, you’ll learn about the science and importance of color. You’ll gain a better understanding of color modes, color schemes and color systems. You’ll also learn how to confidently use color by understanding its cultural symbolism and context of use. 

In the third lesson, you’ll learn best practices for designing with type and how to effectively use type for communication. We’ll provide you with a basic understanding of the anatomy of type, type classifications, type styles and typographic terms. You’ll also learn practical tips for selecting a typeface, when to mix typefaces and how to talk type with fellow designers. 

In the final lesson, you’ll learn about grid systems and their importance in providing structure within design. You’ll also learn about the types of grid systems and how to effectively use grids to improve your work.

You’ll be taught by some of the world’s leading experts. The experts we’ve handpicked for you are the Vignelli Distinguished Professor of Design Emeritus at RIT R. Roger Remington, author of “American Modernism: Graphic Design, 1920 to 1960”; Co-founder of The Book Doctors Arielle Eckstut and leading color consultant Joann Eckstut, co-authors of “What Is Color?” and “The Secret Language of Color”; Award-winning designer and educator Mia Cinelli, TEDx speaker of “The Power of Typography”; Betty Cooke and William O. Steinmetz Design Chair at MICA Ellen Lupton, author of “Thinking with Type”; Chair of the Graphic + Interactive communication department at the Ringling School of Art and Design Kimberly Elam, author of "Grid Systems: Principles of Organizing Type.”

Throughout the course, we’ll supply you with lots of templates and step-by-step guides so you can go right out and use what you learn in your everyday practice.

In the “Build Your Portfolio Project: Redesign,” you’ll find a series of fun exercises that build upon one another and cover the visual design topics discussed. If you want to complete these optional exercises, you will get hands-on experience with the methods you learn and in the process you’ll create a case study for your portfolio which you can show your future employer or freelance customers.

You can also learn with your fellow course-takers and use the discussion forums to get feedback and inspire other people who are learning alongside you. You and your fellow course-takers have a huge knowledge and experience base between you, so we think you should take advantage of it whenever possible.

You earn a verifiable and industry-trusted Course Certificate once you’ve completed the course. You can highlight it on your resume, your LinkedIn profile or your website.

All open-source articles on Color Symbolism

Please check the value and try again.

Open Access—Link to us!

We believe in Open Access and the democratization of knowledge. Unfortunately, world-class educational materials such as this page are normally hidden behind paywalls or in expensive textbooks.

If you want this to change, , link to us, or join us to help us democratize design knowledge!

Share Knowledge, Get Respect!

Share on:

or copy link

Cite according to academic standards

Simply copy and paste the text below into your bibliographic reference list, onto your blog, or anywhere else. You can also just hyperlink to this page.

Interaction Design Foundation - IxDF. (2021, November 4). What is Color Symbolism?. Interaction Design Foundation - IxDF.

New to UX Design? We’re Giving You a Free ebook!

The Basics of User Experience Design

Download our free ebook The Basics of User Experience Design to learn about core concepts of UX design.

In 9 chapters, we’ll cover: conducting user interviews, design thinking, interaction design, mobile UX design, usability, UX research, and many more!

A valid email address is required.
316,719 designers enjoy our newsletter—sure you don’t want to receive it?