Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2007
Pub. count:31
Number of co-authors:48


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Alain Rappaport:
Martin Brunecky:
Nathaniel R. Young II:



Productive colleagues

Randy Pausch's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Scott E. Hudson:113
Jodi Forlizzi:90

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Randy Pausch


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Pausch was born in Baltimore, Maryland, and grew up in Columbia, Maryland. After graduating from Oakland Mills High School in Columbia, Pausch received his bachelor's degree in computer science from Brown University in May 1982 and his Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University in August 1988. While completing his doctoral studies, Pausch was briefly employed at Xerox Palo Alto Research Center and Adobe Systems.Pausch was an assistant and associate professor in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Virginia's School of Engineering and Applied Science from 1988 until 1997. While there, he completed sabbaticals at Walt Disney Imagineering and Electronic Arts (EA). In 1997, Pausch became Associate Professor of Computer Science, Human-Computer Interaction and Design, at Carnegie Mellon University. He was a co-founder in 1998, along with Don Marinelli, of CMU's Entertainment Technology Center (ETC), and he started the Building Virtual Worlds course at CMU and taught it for 10 years. He consulted with Google on user interface design and also consulted with PARC, Imagineering, and Media Metrix. Pausch is also the founder of the Alice software project. He received the National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator Award and was a Lilly Foundation Teaching Fellow. Pausch was the author or co-author of five books and over 70 articles. Pausch received two awards from ACM in 2007 for his achievements in computing education: the Karl V. Karlstrom Outstanding Educator Award and the ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education Award for Outstanding Contributions to Computer Science Education. He was also inducted as a Fellow of the ACM in 2007. Pausch died of complications from pancreatic cancer on July 25, 2008.


Publications by Randy Pausch (bibliography)

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Kelleher, Caitlin, Pausch, Randy and Kiesler, Sara (2007): Storytelling alice motivates middle school girls to learn computer programming. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1455-1464.

We describe Storytelling Alice, a programming environment that introduces middle school girls to computer programming as a means to the end of creating 3D animated stories. Storytelling Alice supports story creation by providing 1) a set of high-level animations, that support the use of social characters who can interact with one another, 2) a collection of 3D characters and scenery designed to spark story ideas, and 3) a tutorial that introduces users to writing Alice programs using story-based examples. In a study comparing girls' experiences learning to program using Storytelling Alice and a version of Alice without storytelling support (Generic Alice), we found that users of Storytelling Alice and Generic Alice were equally successful at learning basic programming constructs. Participants found Storytelling Alice and Generic Alice equally easy to use and entertaining. Users of Storytelling Alice were more motivated to program; they spent 42% more time programming, were more than 3 times as likely to sneak extra time to work on their programs, and expressed stronger interest in future use of Alice than users of Generic Alice.

© All rights reserved Kelleher et al. and/or ACM Press

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Pierce, Jeffrey S. and Pausch, Randy (2007): Generating 3D interaction techniques by identifying and breaking assumptions. In Virtual Reality, 11 (1) pp. 15-21.

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Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Scupelli, Peter and Pausch, Randy (2006): Physically large displays improve performance on spatial tasks. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 13 (1) pp. 71-99.

Large wall-sized displays are becoming prevalent. Although researchers have articulated qualitative benefits of group work on large displays, little work has been done to quantify the benefits for individual users. In this article we present four experiments comparing the performance of users working on a large projected wall display to that of users working on a standard desktop monitor. In these experiments, we held the visual angle constant by adjusting the viewing distance to each of the displays. Results from the first two experiments suggest that physically large displays, even when viewed at identical visual angles as smaller ones, help users perform better on mental rotation tasks. We show through the experiments how these results may be attributed, at least in part, to large displays immersing users within the problem space and biasing them into using more efficient cognitive strategies. In the latter two experiments, we extend these results, showing the presence of these effects with more complex tasks, such as 3D navigation and mental map formation and memory. Results further show that the effects of physical display size are independent of other factors that may induce immersion, such as interactivity and mental aids within the virtual environments. We conclude with a general discussion of the findings and possibilities for future work.

© All rights reserved Tan et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kelleher, Caitlin and Pausch, Randy (2006): Lessons Learned from Designing a Programming System to Support Middle School Girls Creating Animated Stories. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 165-172.

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Kelleher, Caitlin and Pausch, Randy (2005): Stencils-based tutorials: design and evaluation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 541-550.

Users of traditional tutorials and help systems often have difficulty finding the components described or pictured in the procedural instructions. Users also unintentionally miss steps, and perform actions that the documentation's authors did not intend, moving the application into an unknown state. We introduce Stencils, an interaction technique for presenting tutorials that uses translucent colored stencils containing holes that direct the user's attention to the correct interface component and prevent the user from interacting with other components. Sticky notes on the stencil's surface provide necessary tutorial material in the context of the application. In a user study comparing a Stencils-based and paper-based version of the same tutorial in Alice, a complex software application designed to teach introductory computer programming, we found that users of a Stencils-based tutorial were able complete the tutorial 26% faster, with fewer errors, and less reliance on human assistance. Users of the Stencils-based and paper-based tutorials attained statistically similar levels of learning.

© All rights reserved Kelleher and Pausch and/or ACM Press

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Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Scupelli, Peter and Pausch, Randy (2004): Physically large displays improve path integration in 3D virtual navigation tasks. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 439-446.

Previous results have shown that users perform better on spatial orientation tasks involving static 2D scenes when working on physically large displays as compared to small ones. This was found to be true even when the displays presented the same images at equivalent visual angles. Further investigation has suggested that large displays may provide a greater sense of presence, which biases users into adopting more efficient strategies to perform tasks. In this work, we extend those findings, demonstrating that users are more effective at performing 3D virtual navigation tasks on large displays. We also show that even though interacting with the environment affects performance, effects induced by interactivity are independent of those induced by physical display size. Together, these findings allow us to derive guidelines for the design and presentation of interactive 3D environments on physically large displays.

© All rights reserved Tan et al. and/or ACM Press

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Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Scupelli, Peter and Pausch, Randy (2003): With similar visual angles, larger displays improve spatial performance. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 217-224.

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Pierce, Jeffrey S. and Pausch, Randy (2002): Comparing voodoo dolls and HOMER: exploring the importance of feedback in virtual environments. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 105-112.

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Fass, Adam, Forlizzi, Jodi and Pausch, Randy (2002): MessyDesk and MessyBoard: two designs inspired by the goal of improving human memory. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 303-311.

MessyDesk is a replacement desktop that invites free-form decoration. MessyBoard is a large, projected, shared bulletin board that is decorated collaboratively by a small group of users. We built these programs with the goal of helping people remember more of the content that they access through a computer. Our approach is to embed content within distinct contexts. For instance, a computer with multiple projection screens could surround the user with panoramic vistas that correspond to projects that the user is working on. Since few people are willing to create their own context, we created MessyDesk and MessyBoard in order to entice people to decorate. Though we have not yet evaluated the impact of either program on users' memories, we have observed people using these programs over a several week period. From anecdotal evidence, we believe that MessyDesk may be a good tool for decoration and information management. MessyBoard became popular when we projected the board on the wall in our lab. We have seen that different research groups use it differently. One group uses it mostly for jokes and games, and another group uses it for long design discussions. It is good for scheduling, and supports factual as well as emotional communication among group members.

© All rights reserved Fass et al. and/or ACM Press

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Maynes-Aminzade, Dan, Pausch, Randy and Seitz, Steven M. (2002): Techniques for Interactive Audience Participation. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 15-20.

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Maynes-Aminzade, Dan, Pausch, Randy and Seitz, Steve (2002): Techniques for Interactive Audience Participation. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2002. p. 15.

At SIGGRAPH in 1991, Loren and Rachel Carpenter unveiled an interactive entertainment system that allowed members of a large audience to control an onscreen game using red and green reflective paddles. In the spirit of this approach, we present a new set of techniques that enable members of an audience to participate, either cooperatively or competitively, in shared entertainment experiences. Our techniques allow audiences with hundreds of people to control onscreen activity by (1) leaning left and right in their seats, (2) batting a beach ball while its shadow is used as a pointing device, and (3) pointing laser pointers at the screen. All of these techniques can be implemented with inexpensive, off the shelf hardware. We have tested these techniques with a variety of audiences; in this paper we describe both the computer vision based implementation and the lessons we learned about designing effective content for interactive audience participation.

© All rights reserved Maynes-Aminzade et al. and/or their publisher

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Myers, Brad, Hudson, Scott E. and Pausch, Randy (2000): Past, present, and future of user interface software tools. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 7 (1) pp. 3-28.

A user interface software tool helps developers design and implement the user interface. Research on past tools has had enormous impact on today's developersvirtually all applications today are built using some form of user interface tool. In this article, we consider cases of both success and failure in past user interface tools. From these cases we extract a set of themes which can serve as lessons for future work. Using these themes, past tools can be characterized by what aspects of the user interface they addressed, their threshold and ceiling, what path of least resistance they offer, how predictable they are to use, and whether they addressed a target that became irrelevant. We believe the lessons of these past themes are particularly important now, because increasingly rapid technological changes are likely to significantly change user interfaces. We are at the dawn of an era where user interfaces are about to break out of the desktop box where they have been stuck for the past 15 years. The next millenium will open with an increasing diversity of user interface on an increasing diversity of computerized devices. These devices include hand-held personal digital assistants (PDAs), cell phones, pages, computerized pens, computerized notepads, and various kinds of desk and wall size-computers, as well as devices in everyday objects (such as mounted on refridgerators, or even embedded in truck tires). The increased connectivity of computers, initially evidenced by the World Wide Web, but spreading also with technologies such as personal-area networks, will also have a profound effect on the user interface to computers. Another important force will be recognition-based user interfaces, especially speech, and camera-based vision systems. Other changes we see are an increasing need for 3D and end-user customization, programming, and scripting. All of these changes will require significant support from the underlying user interface software tools.

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Hinckley, Ken, Pausch, Randy, Proffitt, Dennis and Kassell, Neal F. (1998): Two-Handed Virtual Manipulation. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 5 (3) pp. 260-302.

We discuss a two-handed user interface designed to support three-dimensional neurosurgical visualization. By itself, this system is a "point design," an example of an advanced user interface technique. In this work, we argue that in order to understand why interaction techniques do or do not work, and to suggest possibilities for new techniques, it is important to move beyond point design and to introduce careful scientific measurement of human behavioral principles. In particular, we argue that the common-sense viewpoint that "two hands save time by working in parallel" may not always be an effective way to think about two-handed interface design because the hands do not necessarily work in parallel (there is a structure to two-handed manipulation) and because two hands do more than just save time over one hand (two hands provide the user with more information and can structure how the user thinks about a task). To support these claims, we present an interface design developed in collaboration with neurosurgeons which has undergone extensive informal usability testing, as well as a pair of formal experimental studies which investigate behavioral aspects of two-handed virtual object manipulation. Our hope is that this discussion will help others to apply the lessons learned in our neurosurgery application to future two-handed user interface designs.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hinckley, Ken, Pausch, Randy, Proffitt, Dennis, Patten, James and Kassell, Neal F. (1997): Cooperative Bimanual Action. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 27-34.

We present an experiment on cooperative bimanual action. Right-handed subjects manipulated a pair of physical objects, a tool and a target object, so that the tool would touch a target on the object (fig. 1). For this task, there is a marked specialization of the hands. Performance is best when the left hand orients the target object and the right hand manipulates the tool, but is significantly reduced when these roles are reversed. This suggests that the right hand operates relative to the frame-of-reference of the left hand. Furthermore, when physical constraints guide the tool placement, this fundamentally changes the type of motor control required. The task is tremendously simplified for both hands, and reversing roles of the hands is no longer an important factor. Thus, specialization of the roles of the hands is significant only for skilled manipulation.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hinckley, Ken, Tullio, Joe, Pausch, Randy, Proffitt, Dennis and Kassell, Neal F. (1997): Usability Analysis of 3D Rotation Techniques. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 1-10.

We report results from a formal user study of interactive 3D rotation using the mouse-driven Virtual Sphere and Arcball techniques, as well as multidimensional input techniques based on magnetic orientation sensors. Multidimensional input is often assumed to allow users to work quickly, but at the cost of precision, due to the instability of the hand moving in the open air. We show that, at least for the orientation matching task used in this experiment, users can take advantage of the integrated degrees of freedom provided by multidimensional input without necessarily sacrificing precision: using multidimensional input, users completed the experimental task up to 36% faster without any statistically detectable loss of accuracy. We also report detailed observations of common usability problems when first encountering the techniques. Our observations suggest some design issues for 3D input devices. For example, the physical form-factors of the 3D input device significantly influenced user acceptance of otherwise identical input sensors. The device should afford some tactile cues, so the user can feel its orientation without looking at it. In the absence of such cues, some test users were unsure of how to use the device.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Pierce, Jeffrey S., Audia, Steve, Burnette, Tommy, Christiansen, Kevin, Cosgrove, Dennis, Conway, Matthew, Hinckley, Ken, Monkaitis, Kristen, Patten, James, Shochet, Joe, Staack, David, Stearns, Brian, Sturgill, Chris, Williams, George and Pausch, Randy (1997): Alice: Easy to Use Interactive 3D Graphics. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 77-78.

Alice is a rapid prototyping system used to create three dimensional graphics simulations like those seen in virtual reality applications. Alice uses an interpreted language called Python as its scripting language to implement user actions. This interactive development environment allows users to explore many more design options than is possible in a compiled language environment. The alpha version of Alice for Windows 95 is available for free over the internet, with the beta release scheduled for August.

© All rights reserved Pierce et al. and/or ACM Press

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Viega, John, Conway, Matthew, Williams, George and Pausch, Randy (1996): 3D Magic Lenses. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 51-58.

This work extends the metaphor of a see-through interface embodied in Magic Lenses to 3D environments. We present two new see-through visualization techniques: flat lenses in 3D and volumetric lenses. We discuss implementation concerns for platforms that have programmer accessible hardware clipping planes and show several examples of each visualization technique. We also examine composition of multiple lenses in 3D environments, which strengthens the flat lens metaphor, but may have no meaningful semantics in the case of volumetric lenses.

© All rights reserved Viega et al. and/or ACM Press

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Stoakley, Richard, Conway, Matthew and Pausch, Randy (1995): Virtual Reality on a WIM: Interactive Worlds in Miniature. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 265-272.

This paper explores a user interface technique which augments an immersive head tracked display with a hand-held miniature copy of the virtual environment. We call this interface technique the Worlds in Miniature (WIM) metaphor. In addition to the first-person perspective offered by a virtual reality system, a World in Miniature offers a second dynamic viewport onto the virtual environment. Objects may be directly manipulated either through the immersive viewport or through the three-dimensional viewport offered by the WIM. In addition to describing object manipulation, this paper explores ways in which Worlds in Miniature can act as a single unifying metaphor for such application independent interaction techniques as object selection, navigation, path planning, and visualization. The WIM metaphor offers multiple points of view and multiple scales at which the user can operate, without requiring explicit modes or commands. Informal user observation indicates that users adapt to the Worlds in Miniature metaphor quickly and that physical props are helpful in manipulating the WIM and other objects in the environment.

© All rights reserved Stoakley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Durbin, Jim, Gossweiler, Rich and Pausch, Randy (1995): Amortizing 3D Graphics Optimization Across Multiple Frames. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 13-19.

This paper describes a mechanism for improving rendering rates dynamically during runtime in an interactive three-dimensional graphics application. Well-known techniques such as transforming hierarchical geometry into a flat list and removing redundant graphics primitives are often performed off-line on static databases, or continuously every rendering frame. In addition, these optimizations are usually performed over the whole database. We observe that much of the database remains static for a fixed period of time, while other portions are modified continuously (e.g. the camera position), or are repeatedly modified during some finite interval (e.g. during user interaction). We have implemented a runtime optimization mechanism which is sensitive to repeated, local database changes. This mechanism employs timing strategies which optimize only when the cost of optimization will be amortized over a sufficient number of frames. Using this optimization scheme, we observe a rendering speedup of roughly 2.5 in existing applications. We discuss our initial implementation of this mechanism, the improved timing mechanisms, the issues and assumptions we made, and future improvements.

© All rights reserved Durbin et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hinckley, Ken, Pausch, Randy, Goble, John C. and Kassell, Neal F. (1994): Passive Real-World Interface Props for Neurosurgical Visualization. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 452-458.

We claim that physical manipulation of familiar real-world objects in the user's real environment is an important technique for the design of three-dimensional user interfaces. These real-world passive interface props are manipulated by the user to specify spatial relationships between interface objects. By unobtrusively embedding free-space position and orientation trackers within the props, we enable the computer to passively observe a natural user dialog in the real world, rather than forcing the user to engage in a contrived dialog in the computer-generated world. We present neurosurgical planning as a driving application and demonstrate the utility of a head viewing prop, a cutting-plane selection prop, and a trajectory selection prop in this domain. Using passive props in this interface exploits the surgeon's existing skills, provides direct action-task correspondence, eliminates explicit modes for separate tools, facilitates natural two-handed interaction, and provides tactile and kinesthetic feedback for the user. Our informal evaluation sessions have shown that with a cursory introduction, neurosurgeons who have never seen the interface can understand and use it without training.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hinckley, Ken, Pausch, Randy, Goble, John C. and Kassell, Neal F. (1994): A Survey of Design Issues in Spatial Input. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 213-222.

We present a survey of design issues for developing effective free-space three-dimensional (3D) user interfaces. Our survey is based upon previous work in 3D interaction, our experience in developing free-space interfaces, and our informal observations of test users. We illustrate our design issues using examples drawn from instances of 3D interfaces. For example, our first issue suggests that users have difficulty understanding three-dimensional space. We offer a set of strategies which may help users to better perceive a 3D virtual environment, including the use of spatial references, relative gesture, two-handed interaction, multisensory feedback, physical constraints, and head tracking. We describe interfaces which employ these strategies. Our major contribution is the synthesis of many scattered results, observations, and examples into a common framework. This framework should serve as a guide to researchers or systems builders who may not be familiar with design issues in spatial input. Where appropriate, we also try to identify areas in free-space 3D interaction which we see as likely candidates for additional research. An extended and annotated version of the references list for this paper is available on-line through mosaic at address

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

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Chimera, Richard, Barr, Jeff, Brunecky, Martin, Pausch, Randy and Rappaport, Alain (1993): Platform Independent User Interface Builders: Where Are We Headed?. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 235-236.

This panel addresses one of the hottest topics in user interfaces in the 90's, that of building user interfaces that are platform independent. The possible topic space is quite voluminous, the scope of this panel is to discuss pure user interface issues and to leave business issues and most of the non-UI issues for another forum. Platform independence means that a user interface can be specified and created using a particular combination of hardware, operating system, and windowing environment; that single specification can then be recompiled without intervention (ideally) to run on an entirely heterogeneous combination/platform. This is a remarkable feat even considering alone the differences among windowing environments (Motif, Windows, Macintosh), operating systems (various Unix, DOS, Macintosh), or hardware (Sun, HP, DEC, IBM PC/compatible, Macintosh). Platform independent user interface builders can deliver increased productivity in a number of ways: * Learn one system for N platforms and implement only one set of source code for N platforms. * One set of source code makes maintenance simpler. * Reusability of objects and templates across platforms, which also may benefit consistency across platforms. Five years ago there was no viable system that supplied such platform independence. Today there are several dozen tools that provide to varying degrees support for platform independent user interfaces. There is also a surprisingly wide range of architectures these tools incorporate to deliver platform independence.

© All rights reserved Chimera et al. and/or ACM Press

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Jacob, Robert J. K., Leggett, John, Myers, Brad A. and Pausch, Randy (1993): Interaction Styles and Input/Output Devices. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 69-79.

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Pausch, Randy (1992): The Virginia User Interface Laboratory. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 63-64.

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Pausch, Randy, Vogtle, Laura and Conway, Matthew (1992): One Dimensional Motion Tailoring for the Disabled: A User Study. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 405-411.

The Tailor project allows physically disabled users to provide real-time analog input to computer applications. We use a Polhemus tracking device and create a custom tailored mapping from each user's best range and type of motion into the analog control signal. The application is a simple video game based on Pong, where the analog input controls the position of the player's paddle. A group of able-bodied subjects was able to correctly hit the ball with the paddle 77% of the time, and a comparison group of children with Cerebral Palsy performed at the 50% level. More than half the disabled users were able to perform at a higher level than the worst able-bodied user.

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Pausch, Randy, Conway, Matthew and DeLine, Robert (1992): Lessons Learned from SUIT, the Simple User Interface Toolkit. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (4) pp. 320-344.

In recent years, the computer science community has realized the advantages of GUIs (Graphical User Interfaces). Because high-quality GUIs are difficult to build, support tools such as UIMSs, UI Toolkits, and Interface Builders have been developed. Although these tools are powerful, they typically make two assumptions: first, that the programmer has some familiarity with the GUI model, and second, that he is willing to invest several weeks becoming proficient with the tool. These tools typically operate only on specific platforms, such as DOS, the Macintosh, or UNIX/X-windows. The existing tools are beyond the reach of most undergraduate computer science majors, or professional programmers who wish to quickly build GUIs without investing the time to become specialists in GUI design. For this class of users, we developed SUIT, the Simple User Interface Toolkit. SUIT is an attempt to distill the fundamental components of an interface builder and GUI toolkit, and to explain those concepts with the tool itself, all in a short period of time. We have measured that college juniors with no previous GUI programming experience can use SUIT productively after less than three hours. SUIT is a C subroutine library which provides an external control UIMS, an interactive layout editor, and a set of standard "widgets," such as sliders, buttons, and check boxes. SUIT-based applications run transparently across the Macintosh, DOS, and UNIX/X platforms. SUIT has been exported to hundreds of external sites on the internet. This paper describes SUIT's architecture, the design decisions we made during its development, and the lessons we learned from extensive observations of over 120 users.

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Pausch, Randy, Crea, Thomas and Conway, Matthew (1992): A Literature Survey for Virtual Environments: Military Flight Simulator Visual Systems and Simulator Sickness. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1 (3) pp. 344-363.

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Pausch, Randy (1991): Virtual Reality on Five Dollars a Day. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 265-270.

Virtual reality systems using head-mounted displays and glove input are gaining popularity but their cost prohibits widespread use. We have developed a system using an 80386 IBM-PC (TM), a Polhemus 3Space Isotrak (TM), two Reflection Technology Private Eye (TM) displays, and a Mattel Power Glove (TM). For less than $5,000, we have created an effective vehicle for developing interaction techniques in virtual reality. Our system displays monochrome wire frames of objects with a spatial resolution of 720 by 280, the highest resolution head-mounted system published to date. We have confirmed findings by other researchers that low-latency interaction is significantly more important than high-quality graphics or stereoscopy. We have also found it useful to display reference objects to our user, specifically a ground plane for reference and a vehicle containing the user.

© All rights reserved Pausch and/or ACM Press

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Pausch, Randy, Young II, Nathaniel R. and DeLine, Robert (1991): SUIT: The Pascal of User Interface Toolkits. In: Rhyne, James R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States, 1991, Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States. pp. 117-125.

User interface support software, such as UI toolkits, UIMSs, and interface builders, are currently too complex for undergraduates. Tools typically require a learning period of several weeks, which is impractical in a semester course. Most tools are also limited to a specific platform, usually either Macintosh, DOS, or UNIX/X. This is problematic for students who switch from DOS or Macintosh machines to UNIX machines as they move through the curriculum. The situation is similar to programming languages before the introduction of Pascal, which provided an easily ported, easily learned language for undergraduate instruction. SUIT (the Simple User Interface Toolkit), is a C subroutine library which provides an external control UIMS, an interactive layout editor, and a set of standard screen objects. SUIT applications run transparently across Macintosh, DOS, UNIX/X, and Silicon Graphics platforms. Through careful design and extensive user testing of the system and its documentation, we have been able to reduce learning time. We have formally measured that new users are productive with SUIT in less than three hours. SUIT currently has over one hundred students using it for undergraduate and graduate course work and for research projects.

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Pausch, Randy and Williams, Ronald D. (1990): Tailor: Creating Custom User Interfaces Based on Gesture. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 123-134.

Physical controls for most devices are either "one size fits all" or require custom hardware for each user. Cost often prohibits custom design, and each user must adapt to the standard device interface, typically with a loss of precision and efficiency. When user abilities vary widely, such as in the disabled community, devices often become unusable. Our goal is to create a system that will track user gestures and interpret them as control signals for devices. Existing gesture recognition research converts continuous body motion into discrete signals. Our approach is to map continuous motion into a set of analog device control signals. Our system will allow us to quickly tailor a device interface to each user's best physical range of motion. Our first application domain is a speech synthesizer for disabled users. We expect two major areas of applicability for non-disabled users: in telemanipulator interfaces, and as a design tool for creating biomechanically efficient interfaces.

© All rights reserved Pausch and Williams and/or ACM Press

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