Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2007
Pub. count:45
Number of co-authors:83


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Lidewij L. van Duren:
Will A. C. Spijkers:
Wilfried Korfmacher:



Productive colleagues

Norbert A. Streitz's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Hiroshi Ishii:111
Hans-Werner Geller..:73
Thomas P. Moran:66

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Norbert A. Streitz

Ph.D. in physics, Ph.D. in Psychology/Cognitive Science

Picture of Norbert A. Streitz.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Norbert Streitz"

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Current place of employment:
Smart Future Initiative / formerly: Fraunhofer IPSI

Dr. Dr. Norbert Streitz (Ph.D. in physics, Ph.D. in psychology) is a Senior Scientist and Strategic Advisor with more than 30 years of experience in information and communication technology. He is the founder and scientific director of the Smart Future Initiative (SFI) which was launched in January 2009. From 1987 - 2008, he was at the Fraunhofer Institute IPSI (previously GMD-IPSI) in Darmstadt, Germany, where he held different positions as Division Manager and Deputy Director. At IPSI, he initiated and managed research efforts in multiple areas (see Research Topics). A prominent example is the research division "AMBIENTE" - Smart Environments of the Future" founded by him in 1997. He also taught at the Department of Computer Science of the Technical University Darmstadt for more than 15 years. Before joining IPSI in Darmstadt, he was an Assistant Professor at the Technical University Aachen (RWTH), Germany, teaching and doing research in cognitive science and human-computer interaction and founding the ACCEPT-Group (AaChen Cognitive Ergonomics ProjecT). This was preceded by his work in theoretical physics at the University of Kiel, Germany, Furthermore, he was a post-doc research fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, USA, a visiting scholar at Xerox PARC, USA, and at the Intelligent Systems Lab of MITI, Tsukuba Science City, Japan. Publications and Talks Norbert Streitz has published/edited 17 books and authored/ co-authored more than 115 papers presented at the relevant national and international conferences or in journals in his areas of interest (for details see here). He serves regularly on the program committees of these conferences and on several editorial boards, e.g, JAISE (Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Smart Environments) and previously ACM TOCHI (ACM Transactions on Computer-Human-Interaction). He was also appointed as a member of juries for design and software competitions and is member of Advisory Boards. He is regularly asked to present keynote speeches, invited talks and tutorials at scientific as well as commercial events in Europe, USA, South America, Malaysia, Singapore, Hongkong, China, Korea and Japan. Research Topics His research activities cover a wide range of areas*: Human-Computer Interaction, Hypertext/Hypermedia and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence, Interaction and Experience Design in the context of Hybrid (real and virtual) Worlds and more recently Smart Cities. Norbert Streitz launched one of the first prominent research efforts in hypertext and hypermedia in Germany (since 1987) resulting in the SEPIA-system which was developed together with his WIBAS-Group. This was followed by work in CSCW (since 1992) resulting in the DOLPHIN electronic meeting room system. Since 1997, he and his AMBIENTE-Team became well-known for the development of Roomware, the integration of walls and furniture with information technology and for the design of Smart Artefacts in ambient environments. The roomware components were developed in close cooperation with industry and won several design prices. Some of them, e.g., the InteracTable, are available as commercial products via the spin-off company foresee. The Roomware components were the first steps towards the design of Cooperative Buildings proposed and published by Norbert Streitz already in 1998. Since 2007, he is working on Smart Hybrid Cities where the guiding objective is the ambition to develop a Humane City. (* This list does not cover his research as a physicist working on general relativity theory, differential geometry and elementary particle physics and his initial research as a psychologist working in cognitive science focusing on memory and perception, dual task performance, problem solving and knowledge representations.) Working Groups and Committees Norbert Streitz is the chair of the Working Group on "Ambient Computing and and Communication Environments" which is part of the EU-funded InterLink Coordinated Action. He is also the co-chair of the ERCIM Working Group "Smart Environments and Systems for Ambient Intelligence (SESAMI)". He was the Chair of the Steering Group of the EU-funded proactive initiative "The Disappearing Computer", a cluster of 17 projects, and the co-chair of CONVIVIO: the EU-funded Network of Excellence on People-Centred Design of Interactive Systems. He was and still is active in various special interest groups (some of them were initiated and chaired by him) on Software-Ergonomics, Human-Computer Interaction, Hypertext/Hypermedia, Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, Work and Organisation Psychology in different scientific organizations, e.g., - GI (Gesellschaft fr Informatik), - DGP (Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Psychologie), - ACM (Association for Computing Machinery), - EACE (European Association for Cognitive Ergonomics).


Publications by Norbert A. Streitz (bibliography)

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Streitz, Norbert A., Kameas, Achilles and Mavrommati, Irene (eds.) (2007): The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments. Heidelberg, Germany, Springer Publishers, LNCS 4500,

"The-computer-as-we-know-it" will have no role in our future everyday lives. This is the position taken in this book which elaborates how it will be replaced by a new generation of technologies, moving computing off the desktop and ultimately integrating it with real world objects and everyday environments. Computing becomes thus an inseparable part of our everyday activities while simultaneously disappearing into the background. It becomes a ubiquitous utility taking on a role similar to electricity an enabling but invisible and pervasive medium revealing its functionality on request in an unobtrusive way and supporting peoples everyday activities. As members of the Steering Group of the EU-funded "Disappearing Computer" research initiative, the editors of this book successfully assembled a collection of 13 elaborate chapters and three forewords that address the issues and challenges in this area. All authors are prominent researchers who set out investigating, developing and deploying future, people-centered smart environments. This book provides a unique combination of concepts, methods and prototypes of ubiquitous and pervasive computing reflecting the current interest in smart environments and ambient intelligence.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or Springer Publishers, LNCS 4500,

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Streitz, Norbert A. (2007): The Disappearing Computer: User-Centered Interaction Design for Smart Artefacts. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F. and Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 1-2.

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Streitz, Norbert A. (2006): From Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Environment Interaction: Ambient Intelligence and the Disappearing Computer. In: Proceedings of the 9th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All 2006. pp. 3-13.

In this keynote, I argue for a transition from designing Human-Computer Interaction to Human-Environment Interaction. This is done in the context of ambient intelligence and the disappearing computer, and the resulting challenges for designing interaction in future smart environments. Our approach is based on exploiting the affordances of real objects by augmenting their physical properties with the potential of computer-based support. Combining the best of both worlds requires an integration of real and virtual worlds resulting in hybrid worlds. In this approach, the computer "disappears" and is almost "invisible", but its functionality is ubiquitously available and provides new forms of interaction. The general comments are illustrated with examples from different projects.

© All rights reserved Streitz and/or Springer Verlag

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Streitz, Norbert A., Magerkurth, Carsten, Prante, Thorsten and Rocker, Carsten (2005): From information design to experience design: smart artefacts and the disappearing computer. In Interactions, 12 (4) pp. 21-25.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Rocker, Carsten, Prante, Thorsten, Alphen, Daniel van, Stenzel, Richard and Magerkurth, Carsten (2005): Designing Smart Artifacts for Smart Environments. In IEEE Computer, 38 (3) pp. 41-49.

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Russell, Daniel M., Streitz, Norbert A. and Winograd, Terry (2005): Building disappearing computers. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (3) pp. 42-48.

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Streitz, Norbert A. and Nixon, Paddy (2005): Introduction. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (3) pp. 32-35.

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Magerkurth, Carsten, Memisoglu, Maral, Engelke, Timo and Streitz, Norbert A. (2004): Towards the next generation of tabletop gaming experiences. In: Graphics Interface 2004 May 17-19, 2004, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 73-80.

In this paper we present a novel hardware and software platform (STARS) to realize computer augmented tabletop games that unify the strengths of traditional board games and computer games. STARS game applications preserve the social situation of traditional board games and provide a tangible interface with physical playing pieces to facilitate natural interaction. The virtual game components offer exciting new opportunities for game design and provide richer gaming experiences impossible to realize with traditional media. This paper describes STARS in terms of the hardware setup and the software platform used to develop and play STARS games. The interaction design within STARS is discussed and sample games are presented with regard to their contributions to enhancing user experience. Finally, real-world experiences with the platform are reported.

© All rights reserved Magerkurth et al. and/or their publisher

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Prante, Thorsten, Streitz, Norbert A. and Tandler, Peter (2004): Roomware: Computers Disappear and Interaction Evolves. In IEEE Computer, 37 (12) pp. 47-54.

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Mueller-Tomfelde, C., Streitz, Norbert A. and Steinmetz, Ralf (2003): Sounds@Work - Auditory Displays for Interaction in Cooperative and Hybrid Environments. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 751-755.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Rocker, C., Prante, T., Stenzel, R. and Alphen, D. van (2003): Situated Interaction with Ambient Information: Facilitating Awareness and Communication in Ubiquitous Work Environments. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 133-137.

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Streitz, Norbert A. (2003): Interaction Design for the Disappearing Computer. In: Aarts, Emile H. L., Collier, Ren, Loenen, Evert van and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) EUSAI 2003 - Ambient Intelligence - First European Symposium November 3-4, 2003, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. pp. 351-355.

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Prante, Thorsten, Magerkurth, Carsten and Streitz, Norbert A. (2002): Developing CSCW tools for idea finding -: empirical results and implications for design. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 106-115.

In this paper, we first describe a formative empirical study to inform the design of CSCW tools to support idea finding in co-located groups. Groups of students worked on creative problems with mapping and whiteboard tools in different work modes. Concluding from the results of the study, requirements are derived. A suite of tools that are informed by these requirements is presented along with typical scenarios of their usage. The suite consists of three software components covering a Mind-Mapping system (BeachMap), a novel interaction technique for successive bottom-up structuring of ideas (MagNets), and a PDA tool for asynchronous idea generation "on the road" (PalmBeach).

© All rights reserved Prante et al. and/or ACM Press

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Tandler, Peter, Prante, Thorsten, Muller-Tomfelde, Christian, Streitz, Norbert A. and Steinmetz, Ralf (2001): Connectables: dynamic coupling of displays for the flexible creation of shared workspaces. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 11-20.

We present the ConnecTable, a new mobile, networked and context-aware information appliance that provides affordances for pen-based individual and cooperative work as well as for the seamless transition between the two. In order to dynamically enlarge an interaction area for the purpose of shared use, a flexible coupling of displays has been realized that overcomes the restrictions of display sizes and borders. Two ConnecTable displays dynamically form a homogeneous display area when moved close to each other. The appropriate triggering signal comes from built-in sensors allowing users to temporally combine their individual displays to a larger shared one by a simple physical movement in space. Connected ConnecTables allow their users to work in parallel on an ad-hoc created shared workspace as well as exchanging information by simply shuffling objects from one display to the other. We discuss the user interface and related issues as well as the software architecture. We also present the physical realization of the ConnecTables.

© All rights reserved Tandler et al. and/or ACM Press

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Streitz, Norbert A. (2001): Augmented Reality and the Disappearing Computer. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 738-742.

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Streitz, Norbert A. (2001): Ubiquitous Computing and The Disappearing Computer - Research Agendas, Issues, and Strategies. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 184-186.

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Beigl, Michael, Gellersen, Hans-Werner and Streitz, Norbert A. (2001): Mensch-Computer-Interaktion in allgegenwrtigen Informationssystemen. In: Oberquelle, Horst, Oppermann, Reinhard and Krause, Jrgen (eds.) Mensch and Computer 2001 March 5-8, 2001, Bad Honnef, Germany. .

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Streitz, Norbert A., Geissler, Jorg, Holmer, Torsten, Konomi, Shin'ichi, Muller-Tomfelde, Christian, Reischl, Wolfgang, Rexroth, Petra, Seitz, Peter and Steinmetz, Ralf (1999): i-LAND: An Interactive Landscape for Creativity and Innovation. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 120-127.

We describe the i-LAND environment which constitutes an example of our vision of the workspaces of the future, in this case supporting cooperative work of dynamic teams with changing needs. i-LAND requires and provides new forms of human-computer interaction and new forms of computer-supported cooperative work. Its design is based on an integration of information and architectural spaces, implications of new work practices and an empirical requirements study informing our design. i-LAND consists of several 'roomware' components, i.e. computer-augmented objects integrating room elements with information technology. We present the current realization of i-LAND in terms of an interactive electronic wall, an interactive table, two computer-enhanced chairs, and two "bridges" for the Passage-mechanism. This is complemented by the description of the creativity support application and the technological infrastructure. The paper is accompanied by a video figure in the CHI'99 video program.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Streitz, Norbert A., Siegel, J., Hartkopf, V. and Konomi, S. (1999): Cooperative Buildings. Integrating Information, Organizations and Architecture. Springer

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Streitz, Norbert A., Hartkopf, Volker, Ishii, Hiroshi, Kaplan, Simon M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1998): Cooperative Buildings: Integrating Information, Organization, & Architecture. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 411-413.

Future work, cooperation, and organizations will be characterized by greater dynamics, flexibility and mobility. Realizing this goal has profound implications for information and communication technology as well as architecture because virtual and physical spaces have to be designed in an integrated fashion to provide equally flexible cooperative work environments. We will outline a challenging generation of new problems and issues which are likely to shape future CSCW and building research.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Streitz, Norbert A., Konomi, Shin'ichi and Burkhardt, Heinz Jrgen (eds.) Cooperative Buildings, Integrating Information, Organization, and Architecture, First International Workshop, CoBuild98, Darmstadt, Germany, February 1998, Proceedings 1998.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Rexroth, Petra and Holmer, Torsten (1997): Does `roomware' matter? Investigating the role of personal and public information devices and their combination in meeting room collaboration. In: Hughes, John F., Prinz, Wolfgang and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 7-11 September, 1997, Lancaster, UK. pp. 297-312.

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Boy, Guy Andr, Belin, Edouard, Streitz, Norbert A., Daniel, Brigitte, Hollender, Martin, Santos, Jose Dos and Maignien, Yannick (1997): Hypertext & Hypermedia in Organizational Memory Systems. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. p. 237.

Increasingly, organizations have to rely on a common knowledge base which embodies all the information that is relevant for operating an organization. Radical changes in the workplace and the rise of new organizational forms, together with the availability of powerful new infrastructural technology (e.g., Internet, Intranet) require a new approach to the design and use of information systems in organizations. What kind of hypertext/media technology available and necessary should support organizational memory systems? Panelists will examine the extent to which hypertext/media are appropriate for this task. Targets for organizational memories are, for example, strategic planning, project proposals and management, patents, product design cycle documentation, marketing strategies and in each case the underlying design decision rationales. Although large quantities of information exist in corporate databases, they are not readily accessible, not in an adequate format, often not up-to-date, not well organized for reuse, and not well integrated in the overall work process. This becomes even more of a problem when individuals and teams of an organization are distributed in different locations, work in different time zones, and are often (re)assigned to different tasks in new projects.

© All rights reserved Boy et al. and/or ACM Press

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Mark, Gloria, Haake, Jorg M. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1996): Hypermedia Structures and the Division of Labor in Meeting Room Collaboration. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 170-179.

The type of collaboration for a group, whether working in parallel or collectively, is a style for a group influenced by many factors, among them the technology that the group works with. In an empirical study using the DOLPHIN system, we focused on the effect that using hypermedia structures in an electronic meeting room had on collaborative style. We found that groups who created documents using hypermedia were: 1) more likely to divide up their labor and work in parallel, and 2) to have a slower frequency of switching between the task phases of planning and developing ideas. We present a model to explain this effect of hypermedia on task division which suggests the involvement of mechanical and semantic components. We also discuss how DOLPHIN supports awareness of others people's activities for a parallel collaborative style.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or ACM Press

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Streitz, Norbert A. and DeRose, Steven J. (1996): World-Wide Web Authoring and Collaboration. In: Hypertext 96 - Proceedings of the Seventh ACM Conference on Hypertext March 16-20, 1996, Washington, DC. p. 262.

Despite its limitations, the WWW is the largest global hypertext laboratory that has ever existed. Hypertext researchers were previously limited to creating their own hypertext docu-islands. Links to other hypertexts were not easy to make, nor was it easy to disseminate individual hypertexts. Unlike the earlier generation of research systems, the WWW is a real world publishing medium on a large scale, and this is mostly due to its simple model. The presenters of this set of perspectives will discuss experiences using the WWW for hypertext research and publication. They also propose extensions to the WWW, based on their experiences creating WWW information and in the context of previous hypertext research.

© All rights reserved Streitz and and/or ACM Press

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Mark, Gloria, Haake, Jorg M. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1995): The Use of Hypermedia in Group Problem Solving: An Evaluation of the DOLPHIN Electronic Meeting Room Environment. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 197-213.

In this paper, we report on an empirical evaluation of selected aspects of DOLPHIN, a meeting room environment of computers networked with an electronic whiteboard. Our results show that in a face-to-face meeting, the use of DOLPHIN's hypermedia functionality changed the nature of the product and the way groups worked, compared to using only electronic whiteboard functionality. Groups organized their ideas into network, rather than pure hierarchical, structures. These were more deeply elaborated, contained more ideas, and had more relationships between the ideas. The problem solutions were also judged to be more original. Groups were more likely to use a top-down planning strategy, and to exhibit a different temporal work pattern. The results suggest that work groups can benefit from using hypermedia in problem solving.

© All rights reserved Mark et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

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Hser, Christoph, Reichenberger, Klaus, Rostek, Lothar and Streitz, Norbert A. (1995): Knowledge-base Editing and Visualization for Hypermedia Encyclopedias. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 49-51.

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Streitz, Norbert A. (1995): Designing Hypermedia: A Collaborative Activity. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (8) pp. 70-71.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Geissler, Jorg, Haake, Jorg M. and Hol, Jeroen (1994): DOLPHIN: Integrated Meeting Support Across Local and Remote Desktop Environments and LiveBoards. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 345-358.

This paper describes DOLPHIN, a fully group aware application designed to provide computer support for different types of meetings: face-to-face meetings with a large interactive electronic whiteboard with or without networked computers provided for the participants, extensions of these meetings with remote participants at their desktop computers connected via computer and audio/video networks, and/or participants in a second meeting room also provided with an electronic whiteboard as well as networked computers. DOLPHIN supports the creation and manipulation of informal structures (e.g., freehand drawings, handwritten scribbles), formal structures (e.g., hypermedia documents with typed nodes and links), their coexistence, and their transformation.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Haake, Jorg M., Neuwirth, Christine and Streitz, Norbert A. (1994): Coexistence and Transformation of Informal and Formal Structures: Requirements for More Flexible Hypermedia Systems. In: Proceedings of ECHT 94 the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technology Sept 18-23, 1994, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 1-12.

In this paper, we argue that some tasks (e.g., meeting support) require more flexible hypermedia systems and we describe a prototype hypermedia system, DOLPHIN, that implements more flexibility. As part of the argument, we present a theoretical design space for information structuring systems and locate existing hypertext systems within it. The dimensions of the space highlight a system's internal representation of structure and the user's actions in creating structure. Second, we describe an empirically derived range of activities connected to conducting group meetings, including the pre- and post-preparation phases, and argue that hypertext systems need to be more flexible in order to support this range of activities. Finally, we describe a hypermedia prototype, DOLPHIN, which implements this kind of flexible support for meetings. DOLPHIN supports different degrees of formality (e.g., handwriting and sketches as well as typed nodes and links are supported), coexistence of different structures (e.g., handwriting and sketches as well as typed nodes and links are supported), coexistence of different structures (e.g., handwriting and nodes can exist on the same page) and mutual transformations between them (e.g., handwriting can be turned into nodes and vice versa).

© All rights reserved Haake et al. and/or ACM Press

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Haake, Jorg M., Knopik, Thomas and Streitz, Norbert A. (1993): The SEPIA Hypermedia System as Part of the POLIKOM Telecooperation Scenario. In: Stotts, P. David and Furuta, Richard (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 93 Conference November 14-18, 1993, Seattle, Washington. pp. 235-237.

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Russell, Daniel M., Landow, George P., Streitz, Norbert A., Moulthrop, Stuart and Bolter, Jay David (1993): Designing and Building Structure. In: Stotts, P. David and Furuta, Richard (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 93 Conference November 14-18, 1993, Seattle, Washington. .

Does a priori structure lead to well designed hypertexts? Or merely dull hypertexts? Moderator Daniel Russell begins with a comparative technical briefing, exploring structure-building in Storyspace, IDE, and MacWeb. A free-wheeling panel discussion follows, exploring shifting opinion on this vital issue.

© All rights reserved Russell et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bernstein, Mark, Marshall, Catherine C. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1993): Argumentation in Action. In: Stotts, P. David and Furuta, Richard (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 93 Conference November 14-18, 1993, Seattle, Washington. pp. 274-275.

Can explicit hypertext structure shed light on complicated arguments? Three hypertext systems -- Storyspace, Aquanet, and SEPIA -- will be used to explore and to represent issues from the Hypertext 93 panel, "Hypertext Fiction: Structure and Narrative." Through a realistic experiment in capturing a particularly challenging exchange of views, this panel seeks to illuminate different approaches to hypertext argumentation.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

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Malone, Thomas W. and Streitz, Norbert A. (1993): Guest Editorial. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (4) p. 319.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Haake, Jorg M., Hannemann, Jorg, Lemke, Andreas C., Schuler, Wolfgang, Schutt, Helge and Thuring, Manfred (1992): SEPIA: A Cooperative Hypermedia Authoring Environment. In: Lucarella, D., Nanard, Jocelyne, Nanard, Marc and Paolini, P. (eds.) Proceedings of ECHT 92 the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext November 30 - December 04, 1992, Milano, Italy. pp. 11-22.

In this paper, we report about the design, development, and implementation of the SEPIA cooperative hypermedia authoring environment. It provides results on the following aspects of SEPIA: persistent and shared data storage, hypermedia data model with composites, sophisticated and comprehensive authoring functionality, support for a new rhetoric and for cooperative work. We start by identifying the challenge of hypermedia authoring and production which serves as the driving force for our development. Using interacting problem spaces as the vehicle for modelling the dynamic aspects of authoring, we arrive at a set of requirements answered by the concept of "activity spaces". The design of coherent hyperdocuments is facilitated by our "construction kit". Furthermore, we describe the extensions and modifications necessary to support multiple authors with the cooperative version of SEPIA. The central issue of the paper is the system architecture and its implementation. We describe the basis for access to shared hyperdocuments, the activity space browsers, the integration of multimedia functionality (audio, graphics, pictures), and the integration of a video conferencing system.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Streitz, Norbert A. (1992): The Hypermedia Authoring Environment SEPIA. In: Lucarella, D., Nanard, Jocelyne, Nanard, Marc and Paolini, P. (eds.) Proceedings of ECHT 92 the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext November 30 - December 04, 1992, Milano, Italy. p. 290.

SEPIA supports groups of authors creating and revising hypermedia documents in a cooperative work context. SEPIA support the different tasks encountered when creating hyperdocuments and provides different modes of collaborative work, which allow authors to share a hyperdocument, to be aware of coauthors' actions, to share views on the hyperdocument, and to jointly edit hyperdocuments. SEPIA employs the CHS Cooperative Hypermedia Server implemented on top of the DBMS "Sybase".

© All rights reserved Streitz and/or ACM Press

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Eberleh, Edmund, Korfmacher, Wilfried and Streitz, Norbert A. (1992): Thinking or Acting? Mental Workload and Subjective Preferences for a Command Code and a Direct Manipulation Interaction Style. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (2) pp. 105-122.

Subjects practiced drawing a figure on a computer screen by means of two interaction styles: Command codes and direct manipulation. These two interaction styles demanded different cognitive resources of the user and different times to perform the task. After practice, subjects performed multiple trials in three experimental conditions: in a time-limit condition, with office noise, and in a neutral working condition. The drawing task was performed concurrently with one of three secondary tasks, each tapping different resources. In Experiment 1, subjects were divided into two equal size groups. Each group performed the task with only one of the two learned interaction styles. Secondary and primary task performance indicated no difference in workload between the two interaction styles. Only at the most demanding secondary task did the use of command codes result in higher workload. In Experiment 2, subjects performed the drawing task in each trial using their preferred interaction style. Consistent individual preferences for the interaction styles and a flexible use of the styles according to working conditions emerged with improved performance.

© All rights reserved Eberleh et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Streitz, Norbert A., Halasz, Frank, Ishii, Hiroshi, Malone, Thomas W., Neuwirth, Chris and Olson, Gary M. (1991): The Role of Hypertext for CSCW Applications. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 369-377.

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Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A. and Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France.

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Schutt, Helge and Streitz, Norbert A. (1990): HyperBase: A Hypermedia Engine Based on a Relational Database Management System. In: Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A. and Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France. pp. 95-108.

Hypertext systems are valuable tools for creating, (re-) structuring, and presenting information bases. Until now, little has been done with respect to the underlying data model and even less with respect to system support for such a model. This leads to a significant mismatch between sophisticated organizational structures at the user interface level and the actual storage of persistent objects in simple file systems. Therefore, we have developed a general data model for hypertext data and implemented that model with the help of a database system. Here we exploit the fairly complex functionality of a commercially available relational database management system to implement a general purpose hypermedia engine which we call HyperBase.

© All rights reserved Schutt and and/or Cambridge University Press

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Streitz, Norbert A., Walker, Janet H., Waterworth, John A., Wright, Patricia and Trigg, Randall H. (1990): What's Specific about User-Interfaces for Hypertext Systems?. In: Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A. and Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France. pp. 354-361.

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Argentesi, Flavio, Streitz, Norbert A., Hansen, R., Antoni, Giovanni Degli and Cicu, A. (1990): Strategic Issues in European Hypertext Research and Development. In: Rizk, Antoine, Streitz, Norbert A. and Andre, Jacques (eds.) ECHT 90 - European Conference on Hypertext November 27-30, 1990, Versailles, France. pp. 367-369.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Hannemann, Jorg and Thuring, Manfred (1989): From Ideas and Arguments to Hyperdocuments: Travelling through Activity Spaces. In: Halasz, Frank and Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 343-364.

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Baird, Pat, Egan, Dennis E., Kintsch, Walter, Smith, John and Streitz, Norbert A. (1989): Cognitive Aspects of Designing Hypertext Systems. In: Halasz, Frank and Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. p. 397.

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Streitz, Norbert A., Spijkers, Will A. C. and Duren, Lidewij L. van (1987): From Novice to Expert User: A Transfer of Learning Experiment on Different Interaction Modes. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 841-846.

In a transfer of learning experiment (40 subjects in a 4 group between subjects design) the question was investigated whether in text-editing prior experience with menu selection affected the subsequent learning of a control command language in comparison with learning the command language from the beginning. A 2x2 factorial design was used where the factors were presence vs. absence of prior experience and type of help device (menus vs. a help window belonging to the command language). Experienced users can reach a high speed using the control command language. But for novices, who do not yet have available the necessary knowledge, interaction speed is very slow. They are better off with menu selection, because this dialogue mode requires hardly any memorization of commands. However, if those users have no reason to remember anything, do they have to start from "scratch" when they want to use the command language. From the four groups of novices two groups gained prior experience with either menu selection or the control command language by editing several texts. The other two groups did not take part in the initial interaction. This was followed by the learning part, in which texts were edited using the command language only, but with menus or the help window as help devices. For all groups acquisition curves for a limited set of codes were assessed, and they were tested on their overview over the whole range of available commands. It appeared that novices using menu selection gain a better notion of the total range of commands than novices using a command language. Contrary to an often made assumption that prior experience with menu selection interferes with subsequent learning of control commands, we found no negative or positive transfer.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or North-Holland

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