Publication statistics

Pub. period:-2011
Pub. count:38
Number of co-authors:53


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Productive colleagues

Matthew Chalmers's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Steve Benford:121
Catherine Plaisant:78
Anthony Steed:68

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Matthew Chalmers


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Matthew Chalmers is a Reader in Computer Science, and a researcher in human computer interaction (HCI), ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) and information visualisation. Half of his career has been in industrial research labs, extending back over 20 years to work at Xerox on the first ubicomp systems, Active Badges, and founding the visualisation group at UBS Ubilab. He borrows from philosophy, biology and other disciplines in order to feed into the design and theory of computer systems, especially mobile and ubiquitous computing. He leads the social/ubiquitous/mobile (SUM) group, combining theory, application design and infrastructure, e.g. establishing seamful design, in which limits and gaps in infrastructure are made into resources for users, and advancing mobile games as a vehicle for computer science research. Current grants include: A Population Approach to Ubicomp Systems Design , implementing a notion of software class as a varied and evolving population of instances; Contextual Software, pioneering mass participation' in the design of ubicomp software; Designing for the Social Sports Fan, a KTA fellowship working with Rangers FC and Turner Broadcasting Systems; and Smart Tourism p, involving research and technology transfer in ubicomp for Scottish tourism. e.g. with the Edinburgh festivals and the Glasgow museums.


Publications by Matthew Chalmers (bibliography)

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Maitland, Julie and Chalmers, Matthew (2011): Designing for peer involvement in weight management. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 315-324. Available online

The problems of obesity and overweight are commonly cited as the motivation behind recent efforts to develop technology that promotes physical activity. Prompted by the social nature of many of the emerging applications, this paper presents our investigation of the sociality of weight management as experienced by a broad demographic of individuals. Our findings highlight the broad scope of peer involvement, and provide insight into the context and mechanics of related interaction that may prove valuable in informing the next generation of peer-based weight management technology for use in everyday life.

© All rights reserved Maitland and Chalmers and/or their publisher

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Salovaara, Antti, Hook, Kristina, Cheverst, Keith, Twidale, Michael, Chalmers, Matthew and Sas, Corina (2011): Appropriation and creative use: linking user studies and design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 37-40. Available online

Appropriation refers to the ways that technologies are adapted and repurposed to new purposes of use by individuals, groups or communities. This workshop brings together researchers interested in appropriation from CSCW and design. Until now, these communities have been working separately, despite their converging interests. The workshop is based on roundtable discussions that bring the participants' qualitative observations and theoretical viewpoints in contact with practical design efforts that support user creativity and appropriation.

© All rights reserved Salovaara et al. and/or their publisher

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Morrison, Alistair, Brown, Owain, McMillan, Donald and Chalmers, Matthew (2011): Informed consent and users' attitudes to logging in large scale trials. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1501-1506. Available online

The HCI community has begun to use 'app store'-style software repositories as a distribution channel for research applications. A number of ethical challenges present themselves in this setting, not least that of gaining informed consent from potential participants before logging data on their use of the software. We note that standard 'terms and conditions' pages have proved unsuccessful in communicating relevant information to users, and explore further means of conveying researchers' intent and allowing opt-out mechanisms. We test the hypothesis that revealing collected information to users will affect their level of concern at being recorded and find that users are more concerned when presented with a personalised representation of recorded data, and consequently stop using the application sooner. Also described is a means of allowing between-groups experiments in such mass participation trials.

© All rights reserved Morrison et al. and/or their publisher

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Chalmers, Matthew, McMillan, Donald, Morrison, Alistair, Cramer, Henriette, Rost, Mattias and Mackay, Wendy (2011): Ethics, logs and videotape: ethics in large scale user trials and user generated content. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2421-2424. Available online

As new technologies are appropriated by researchers, the community must come to terms with the evolving ethical responsibilities we have towards participants. This workshop brings together researchers to discuss the ethical issues of running large-scale user trials, and to provide guidance for future research. Trials of the scale of 10s or 100s of thousands of participants offer great potential benefits in terms of attracting users from vastly different geographical and social contexts, but raise significant ethical challenges. The inability to ensure user understanding of the information required to provide informed consent and problems involved in making users aware of the implications of the information being collected all beg the question: how can researchers ethically take advantage of the opportunities these new technologies afford?

© All rights reserved Chalmers et al. and/or their publisher

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Maitland, Julie and Chalmers, Matthew (2010): Self-monitoring, self-awareness, and self-determination in cardiac rehabilitation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1213-1222. Available online

The application of self-monitoring technologies to the problem of promoting health-related behavioural change has been an active area of research for many years. This paper reports on our investigations into health-related behavioural change within the context of a cardiac rehabilitation programme, and considers the role that self-monitoring currently plays and may play in the future. We carried out semi-structured interviews with nineteen cardiac rehabilitation participants. Our main findings relate to distinctions between implicit and conscious change, tensions between cardiac rehabilitation and everyday life, the importance of self-awareness and self-determination, and an overall reluctance towards unnecessary self-monitoring. In view of these findings, we then offer suggestions as to how self-monitoring technologies can be designed to suit this particular context of use.

© All rights reserved Maitland and Chalmers and/or their publisher

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Bell, Marek, Reeves, Stuart, Brown, Barry, Sherwood, Scott, MacMillan, Donny, Ferguson, John and Chalmers, Matthew (2009): EyeSpy: supporting navigation through play. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 123-132. Available online

This paper demonstrates how useful content can be generated as a by-product of an enjoyable mobile multiplayer game. In EyeSpy, players tag geographic locations with photos or text. By locating the places in which other players' tags were created and 'confirming' them, players earn points for themselves and verify the tags' locations. As a side effect of game-play, EyeSpy produces a collection of recognisable and findable geographic details, in the form of photographs and text tags, that can be repurposed to support navigation tasks. Two user trials of the game successfully produced an archive of geo-located photographs and tags, and in a follow-up experiment we compared performance in a navigation task using photographs from the game, with geo-referenced photos collected from the Flickr website. Our experiences with EyeSpy support reflection upon the design challenges presented by 'human computation' and the production of usable by-products through mobile game-play.

© All rights reserved Bell et al. and/or ACM Press

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Sherwood, Scott, Reeves, Stuart, Maitland, Julie, Morrison, Alistair and Chalmers, Matthew (2009): Adapting Evaluation to Study Behaviour in Context. In International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 37-55. Available online

We present a reflection on a series of studies of ubiquitous computing systems in which the process of evaluation evolved over time to account for the increasing difficulties inherent in assessing systems 'in the wild'. Ubiquitous systems are typically designed to be embedded in users' everyday lives; however, without knowing the ways in which people will appropriate the systems for use, it is often infeasible to identify a predetermined set of evaluation criteria that will capture the process of integration and appropriation. Based on our experiences, which became successively more distributed in time and space, we suggest that evaluation should become adaptive in order to more effectively study the emergent uses of ubiquitous computing systems over time.

© All rights reserved Sherwood et al. and/or their publisher

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Barkhuus, Louise, Brown, Barry, Bell, Marek, Sherwood, Scott, Hall, Malcolm and Chalmers, Matthew (2008): From awareness to repartee: sharing location within social groups. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 497-506. Available online

This paper investigates emergent practices around 'microblogging', changing and sharing status within a social group. We present results from a trial of 'Connecto', a phone based status and location sharing application that allows a group to 'tag' areas and have individuals' locations shared automatically on a mobile phone. In use the system moved beyond being an awareness tool to a way of continuing the ongoing 'story' of conversations within the group. Through sharing status and location the system supported each groups' ongoing repartee -- a site for social exchange, enjoyment and friendship.

© All rights reserved Barkhuus et al. and/or ACM Press

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Maitland, Julie and Chalmers, Matthew (2008): Finding a balance: social support v. privacy during weight-management. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3015-3020. Available online

This work investigates current attitudes towards the involvement of others during weight-management (WM). It is prompted by ongoing attempts to harness social influence within system design so as to promote an increase in physical activity, with obesity often cited as a motivation. Through in-depth interviews, we have found that the complexities of sharing information in existing WM practices are not reflected in current system designs. Initial findings highlight the design tension raised by the need for social support as well as privacy. Preliminary design concepts of selective disclosure and relative comparison are offered to developers of sociocentric systems supporting WM-specific behavioural change.

© All rights reserved Maitland and Chalmers and/or ACM Press

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Kindberg, Tim, Chalmers, Matthew and Paulos, Eric (2007): Guest Editors' Introduction: Urban Computing. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 6 (3) pp. 18-20. Available online

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Morrison, Alistair, Tennent, Paul, Williamson, John and Chalmers, Matthew (2007): Using Location, Bearing and Motion Data to Filter Video and System Logs. In: LaMarca, Anthony, Langheinrich, Marc and Truong, Khai N. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2007 - Pervasive Computing 5th International Conference May 13-16, 2007, Toronto, Canada. pp. 109-126. Available online

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Bell, Marek, Chalmers, Matthew, Barkhuus, Louise, Hall, Malcolm, Sherwood, Scott, Tennent, Paul, Brown, Barry, Rowland, Duncan and Benford, Steve (2006): Interweaving mobile games with everyday life. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 417-426. Available online

We introduce a location-based game called Feeding Yoshi that provides an example of seamful design, in which key characteristics of its underlying technologies-the coverage and security characteristics of WiFi-are exposed as a core element of gameplay. Feeding Yoshi is also a long-term, wide-area game, being played over a week between three different cities during an initial user study. The study, drawing on participant diaries and interviews, supported by observation and analysis of system logs, reveals players' reactions to the game. We see the different ways in which they embedded play into the patterns of their daily lives, augmenting existing practices and creating new ones, and observe the impact of varying location on both the ease and feel of play. We identify potential design extensions to Feeding Yoshi and conclude that seamful design provides a route to creating engaging experiences that are well adapted to their underlying technologies.

© All rights reserved Bell et al. and/or ACM Press

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Crabtree, Andy, Benford, Steve, Greenhalgh, Chris, Tennent, Paul, Chalmers, Matthew and Brown, Barry (2006): Supporting ethnographic studies of ubiquitous computing in the wild. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 60-69. Available online

Ethnography has become a staple feature of IT research over the last twenty years, shaping our understanding of the social character of computing systems and informing their design in a wide variety of settings. The emergence of ubiquitous computing raises new challenges for ethnography however, distributing interaction across a burgeoning array of small, mobile devices and online environments which exploit invisible sensing systems. Understanding interaction requires ethnographers to reconcile interactions that are, for example, distributed across devices on the street with online interactions in order to assemble coherent understandings of the social character and purchase of ubiquitous computing systems. We draw upon four recent studies to show how ethnographers are replaying system recordings of interaction alongside existing resources such as video recordings to do this and identify key challenges that need to be met to support ethnographic study of ubiquitous computing in the wild.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bell, Marek, Hall, Malcolm, Chalmers, Matthew, Gray, Philip D. and Brown, Barry (2006): Domino: Exploring Mobile Collaborative Software Adaptation. In: Fishkin, Kenneth P., Schiele, Bernt, Nixon, Paddy and Quigley, Aaron J. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2006 - Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference May 7-10, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 153-168. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (2005): Book Review: Where the Action Is: The Foundations of Embodied Interaction, Paul Dourish, MIT Press, Cambridge, 2001, 256 pp. ISBN 0-262-04196-0. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 14 (1) pp. 69-77. Available online

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Tennent, Paul, Hall, Malcolm, Brown, Barry, Chalmers, Matthew and Sherwood, Scott (2005): Three applications for mobile epidemic algorithms. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 223-226. Available online

This paper presents a framework for the pervasive sharing of data using wireless networks. 'FarCry' uses the mobility of users to carry files between separated networks. Through a mix of ad-hoc and infrastructure-based wireless networking, files are transferred between users without their direct involvement. As users move to different locations, files are then transmitted on to other users, spreading and sharing information. We examine three applications of this framework. Each of these exploits the physically proximate nature of social gatherings. As people group together in, for example, business meetings and cafes, this can be taken as an indication of similar interests, e.g. in the same presentation or in a type of music. MediaNet affords sharing of media files between strangers or friends, MeetingNet shares business documents in meetings, and NewsNet shares RSS feeds between mobile users. NewsNet also develops the use of preemptive caching: collecting information from others not for oneself, but for the predicted later sharing with others. We offer observations on developing this system for a mobile, multi-user, multi-device environment.

© All rights reserved Tennent et al. and/or ACM Press

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Tennent, Paul, Hall, Malcolm, Brown, Barry, Chalmers, Matthew and Sherwood, Scott (2005): Three applications for mobile epidemic algorithms. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 223-226. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew, Bell, Marek, Brown, Barry, Hall, Malcolm, Sherwood, Scott and Tennent, Paul (2005): Gaming on the edge: using seams in ubicomp games. In: Lee, Newton (ed.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2005 June 15-15, 2005, Valencia, Spain. pp. 306-309. Available online

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Barkhuus, Louise, Chalmers, Matthew, Tennent, Paul, Hall, Malcolm, Bell, Marek, Sherwood, Scott and Brown, Barry (2005): Picking Pockets on the Lawn: The Development of Tactics and Strategies in a Mobile Game. In: Beigl, Michael, Intille, Stephen S., Rekimoto, Jun and Tokuda, Hideyuki (eds.) UbiComp 2005 Ubiquitous Computing - 7th International Conference September 11-14, 2005, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 358-374. Available online

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Ross, Greg, Morrison, Alistair and Chalmers, Matthew (2005): Visualisation Techniques for Users and Designers of Layout Algorithms. In: IV 2005 - 9th International Conference on Information Visualisation 6-8 July, 2005, London, UK. pp. 579-586. Available online

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Borriello, Gaetano, Chalmers, Matthew, LaMarca, Anthony and Nixon, Paddy (2005): Delivering real-world ubiquitous location systems. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (3) pp. 36-41. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (2004): A Historical View of Context. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (3) pp. 223-247. Available online

This paper examines a number of the approaches, origins and ideals of context-aware systems design, looking particularly at the way that history influences what we do in our ongoing activity. As a number of sociologists and philosophers have pointed out, past social interaction, as well as past use of the heterogeneous mix of media, tools and artifacts that we use in our everyday activity, influence our ongoing interaction with the people and media at hand. We suggest that ones experience and history is thus part of ones current context, with patterns of use temporally and subjectively combining and interconnecting different media as well as different modes of use of those media. One such mode of use is transparent use, put forward by Weiser as ubicomps design ideal. One theoretical finding is that this design ideal is unachievable or incomplete because transparent and more focused analytical use are interdependent, affecting and feeding into each other through ones experience and history. Using these theoretical points, we discuss a number of context-aware system designs that make good use of history in supporting ongoing user activity.

© All rights reserved Chalmers and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

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Steed, Anthony, MacColl, Ian, Randell, Cliff, Brown, Barry, Chalmers, Matthew and Greenhalgh, Chris (2004): Models of Space in a Mixed-Reality System. In: IV 2004 - 8th International Conference on Information Visualisation 14-16 July, 2004, London, UK. pp. 768-777. Available online

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Brown, Barry, MacColl, Ian, Chalmers, Matthew, Galani, Areti, Randell, Cliff and Steed, Anthony (2003): Lessons from the lighthouse: collaboration in a shared mixed reality system. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 577-584.

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Morrison, Alistair and Chalmers, Matthew (2003): Improving Hybrid MDS with Pivot-Based Searching. In: InfoVis 2003 - 9th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 20-21 October, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. . Available online

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Ross, Greg and Chalmers, Matthew (2003): A Visual Workspace for Hybrid Multidimensional Scaling Algorithms. In: InfoVis 2003 - 9th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 20-21 October, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. . Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (2002): Awareness, Representation and Interpretation. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 11 (3) pp. 389-409.

This paper discusses how representation and interpretation affect the degree and character of awareness afforded by computer systems: awareness of people and of information artifacts. Our discussion ranges from system design to theoretical concepts, and we focus on consistencies across this spectrum. We begin by briefly describing a prototype collaborative filtering system, Recer. This system tracks ongoing activity in the web browsers and text editors of a group of people, and offers recommendations of URLs and local program files that are specific to and adaptive with that activity, and that reflect patterns of earlier activity within the community of use. We then take a more general look at collaborative filtering, and compare it with two other approaches to engendering awareness of useful artifacts: information retrieval and software patterns. We discuss how each implicitly or explicitly involves collaboration, formalisation and subjectivity in its core representations. We then explore the artifact-centred approach to awareness that Recer represents, and relate it to the activity-centred approach more familiar within CSCW. We use this comparison in discussing, in more theoretical terms, how representation and formalisation affects awareness, interpretation and use. Our intention is to explore and understand the choices that designers have for the core representations of information systems, and the consequences for awareness that follow for users. We wish to relate such practical design issues to the more theoretical discussion in CSCW around concepts such as common information spaces, the space-place distinction, and the status of formal constructs.

© All rights reserved Chalmers and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

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Morrison, Alistair, Ross, Greg and Chalmers, Matthew (2002): A Hybrid Layout Algorithm for Sub-Quadratic Multidimensional Scaling. In: InfoVis 2002 - 2002 IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 27 October - 1 November, 2002, Boston, MA, USA. pp. 152-. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (2000): Interweaving objects, types and people. In: Designing Augmented Reality Environments 2000 2000. pp. 159-160. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (1999): Comparing Information Access Approaches. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 50 (12) p. 1108.

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Brodbeck, Dominique, Chalmers, Matthew, Lunzer, Aran and Cotture, Pamela (1997): Domesticating Bead: adapting an information visualization system to a financial institution. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 73-80. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew, Ingram, Rob and Pfranger, Christoph (1996): Adding Imageability Features to Information Displays. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 33-39. Available online

Techniques for improving the imageability of an existing data visualisation are described. The aim is to make the visualisation more easily explored, navigated and remembered. Starting from a rclatively sparse landscape-like representation of a set of objects, we selectively add to the visualisation static features such as clusters, and dynamic features such as view-specific sampling of object detail. Information on past usage is used in this process, making manifest an aspect of interaction which is often neglected. Issues arising from the use of such features in a shared virtual environment are discussed.

© All rights reserved Chalmers et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hascoet-Zizi, Mountaz, Plaisant, Catherine, Ahlberg, Christopher, Chalmers, Matthew, Korfhage, Robert R. and Rao, Ramana (1996): Where is Information Visualization Technology Going?. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 75-77. Available online

Over the past few years a lot of different information visualization techniques have been proposed. Being a relatively new and large field, the spectrum of emerging techniques has not clearly been identified. Another major consequence of the youthfulness of the field is that very few evaluation have been conducted so far. The aim of the panel will be to address these two points. First, panelist will characterize the spectrum of information visualization technology depending on tasks, users or data. Panelists will further discuss future trends in visualization technology by determining which are the most important features or challenges that information visualization systems should address. Second, the discussion will focus on how these systems are to be evaluated: through controlled experiments, system evaluation, long-time studies, verbal protocols, theoretical evaluations, or else?

© All rights reserved Hascoet-Zizi et al. and/or ACM Press

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Chalmers, Matthew (1996): A Linear Iteration Time Layout Algorithm for Visualising High-Dimensional Data. In: IEEE Visualization 1996 1996. pp. 127-132.

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Levialdi, Stefano, Badre, Albert N., Chalmers, Matthew, Copeland, P., Mussio, Piero and Solomon, C. (1994): The Interface of the Future. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1994 1994. pp. 200-205. Available online

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Chalmers, Matthew (1993): Visualisation of Complex Information. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 1993. pp. 38-50.

In information retrieval, sets of documents are stored and categorised in order to allow for search and retrieval. The complexity of the basic information is high, with representations involving thousands of dimensions. Traditional interaction techniques for such complex information therefore hide much of its complexity and structure, and offer access to it by means of isolated queries and word searches. Bead is a system which takes a complementary approach, as it builds and displays an approximate model of the document corpus in the form of a map or landscape constructed from the patterns of similarity and dissimilarity of the documents making up the corpus. In this paper, emphasis is given to the influences on and principles behind the design of the landscape model and the abandonment of a 'point cloud' model used in an earlier version of the system, rather than the more mathematical aspects of model construction.

© All rights reserved Chalmers and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information

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Chalmers, Matthew and Chitson, Paul (1992): Bead: Explorations in Information Visualization. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1992. pp. 330-337. Available online

We describe work on the visualization of bibliographic data and, to aid in this task, the application of numerical techniques for multidimensional scaling. Many areas of scientific research involve complex multivariate data. One example of this is Information Retrieval. Document comparisons may be done using a large number of variables. Such conditions do not favour the more well-known methods of visualization and graphical analysis, as it is rarely feasible to map each variable onto one aspect of even a three-dimensional, coloured and textured space. Bead is a prototype system for the graphically-based exploration of information. In this system, articles in a bibliography are represented by particles in 3-space. By using physically-based modelling techniques to take advantage of fast methods for the approximation of potential fields, we represent the relationships between articles by their relative spatial positions. Inter-particle forces tend to make similar articles move closer to one another and dissimilar ones move apart. The result is a 3D scene which can be used to visualize patterns in the high-D information space.

© All rights reserved Chalmers and Chitson and/or ACM Press

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Sherwood, Scott, Reeves, Stuart, Maitland, Julie, Morrison, Alistair and Chalmers, Matthew (): Adapting evaluation to study behaviour in context. In International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, .

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