Paul Milgram

Ph.D

Personal Homepage
http://etclab.mie.utoronto.ca/people/Paul.html
Employer
University of Toronto (http://www.utoronto.com/)
Email
milgram@mie.utoronto.ca

Paul Milgram is a Professor in the Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department at the University of Toronto, where he specialises in Human Factors. He is also cross-appointed to the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering. He teaches courses in engineering psychology and research methods in human factors. His research focus is on display, control, and navigation issues in 3D (mixed reality) environments, with application areas encompassing surgery, telerobotics, air traffic control and automobile driving.



Before joining UofT in 1986, Paul Milgram worked for 4 years as a senior human factors research engineer at the National Aerospace Laboratory, in Amsterdam. Prior to that, he was a post-doctoral researcher for 2 years at the TNO Institute for Perception, in Soesterberg, Netherlands. He has spent four research leaves abroad: at ATR in Kyoto, Japan (1993-94), at the Centre d´Etudes de la Navigation Aérienne (CENA), in Toulouse, France (1999-2000), at the Universitat Politécnica de Catalunya in Barcelona (2004), and at the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT) in Genoa (2010), followed by the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT Madras) in Chennai, India (2011), where he carried out research respectively on mixed reality, air traffic control, augmented reality driving simulation and AR displays.


In the 1980's, Paul Milgram developed the PLATO visual occlusion spectacles, and his company, Translucent Technologies, currently provides these worldwide, for research on, among other things, automobile interface design, visual perception, psycho-motor coordination, sports medicine, neurological disorders, and cognitive sciences.

Publication Statistics

Publication period start
1989
Publication period end
2011
Number of co-authors
19

Co-authors
Number of publications with favourite co-authors

Productive Colleagues
Most productive colleagues in number of publications

Publications

Chen, Huei-Yen Winnie, Milgram, Paul (2011): Determining Fixed Glance Duration for Visual Occlusion Research. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 55th Annual Meeting , 2011, . pp. 1904-1908. http://pro.sagepub.com/content/55/1/1904

Li, Zhonghai, Milgram, Paul (2008): An empirical investigation of a dynamic brake light concept for reduction of rear-end coll. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (3) pp. 158-172. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WGR-4N3GFRT-1/2/38a560dba649e712a20a0865a73e9dc1

Cao, Caroline G. L., Milgram, Paul (2007): Direction and Location Are Not Sufficient for Navigating in Nonrigid Environments: An Empi. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 16 (6) pp. 584-602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/pres.16.6.584

Masliah, Maurice R., Milgram, Paul (2000): Measuring the Allocation of Control in a 6 Degree-of-Freedom Docking Experiment. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio, Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 25-32. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/332040/p25-masliah/p25-masliah.pdf

Zhai, Shumin, Milgram, Paul (1998): Quantifying Coordination in Multiple DOF Movement and its Application to Evaluating 6 DOF . In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle, Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 320-327. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/274644/p320-zhai/p320-zhai.pdf

Zhai, Shumin, Buxton, Bill, Milgram, Paul (1996): The Partial-Occlusion Effect: Utilizing Semitransparency in 3D Human-Computer Interaction. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (3) pp. 254-284. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p254-zhai/p254-zhai.pdf

Zhai, Shumin, Milgram, Paul, Buxton, Bill (1996): The Influence of Muscle Groups on Performance of Multiple Degree-of-Freedom Input. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D., Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 308-315. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi96/proceedings/papers/Zhai/sz_txt.htm

Xiao, Y., Milgram, Paul, Doyle, D. J. (1995): Medical Case Rounds: A Medium for Training and Studying Real-Life Decision Making. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting , 1995, . pp. 1330-1334.

Zhai, Shumin, Milgram, Paul (1994): Asymmetrical Spatial Accuracy in 3D Tracking. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting , 1994, . pp. 245-249.

Utsumi, Akira, Milgram, Paul, Takemura, Haruo, Kishino, Fumio (1994): Investigation of Errors in Perception of Stereoscopically Presented Virtual Object Locatio. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting , 1994, . pp. 250-254.

Zhai, Shumin, Buxton, Bill, Milgram, Paul (1994): The "Silk Cursor": Investigating Transparency for 3D Target Acquisition. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan, Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 459-464. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/191666/p459-zhai/p459-zhai.pdf

Drascic, David, Grodski, Julius J., Milgram, Paul, Ruffo, Ken, Wong, Peter, Zhai, Shumin (1993): ARGOS: A Display System for Augmenting Reality. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik, White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 521. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/169059/p521-drascic/p521-drascic.pdf

Xiao, Yan, Milgram, Paul, Doyle, D. John (1993): Two Classes of Problem Solving Situations in Managing Complex Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting , 1993, . pp. 529-533.

Zhai, Shumin, Milgram, Paul (1993): Human Performance Evaluation of Manipulation Schemes in Virtual Environments. In: VR 1993 , 1993, . pp. 155-161.

Xiao, Yan, Milgram, Paul, Doyle, D. John (1992): Incident Evolution and Task Demands: An Analysis and a Field Study of \'Going Sour\' Incid. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting , 1992, . pp. 1279-1283.

Liao, Jianqiao, Milgram, Paul (1991): On Validating Human Performance Simulation Models. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting , 1991, . pp. 1260-1264.

Sollenberger, Randy L., Milgram, Paul (1991): A Comparative Study of Rotational and Stereoscopic Computer Graphic Depth Cues. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting , 1991, . pp. 1452-1456.

Milgram, Paul, Drascic, David, Grodski, Julius J. (1991): Enhancement of 3-D Video Displays by Means of Superimposed Stereo-Graphics. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting , 1991, . pp. 1457-1461.

Milgram, Paul, Drascic, David, Grodski, Julius J. (1990): A Virtual Stereographic Pointer for a Real Three Dimensional Video World. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 695-700.

Sollenberger, Randy L., Milgram, Paul (1989): Stereoscopic Computer Graphics for Neurosurgery. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 1989, . pp. 294-301.