Keith Waters

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Orange Research Labs, 175 Second Street Cambridge, USA (

Dr. Keith Waters received his Ph.D (1988) from Middlesex University, London and prior to joining Orange Keith was the Senior Technology Officer of LifeF/X developing commercial real-time facial animation.

Keith was a senior member of the research staff at the Cambridge Research Lab (CRL) from '89-'00 - formally Digital Equipment and later Compaq - where he worked on the commercialization of DECface and later FaceWorks. While at CRL he published many pioneering papers on facial animation particularly on muscle and skin dynamics for face animation as well as real-time visual text-to-speech.

Dr. Waters' Ph.D. research resulted in the development of muscle-based models for facial animation. To date Dr. Waters has published numerous technical papers on facial animation, including physically based models for animation and medical applications. Keith is co-author of Computer Facial Animation the definitive guide to facial animation the second edition published in 2008.

Currently, his specialty is usage and services focusing on multimodal access and mobile browsing. Keith has been involved with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for several years; most recently within the Device Independence Working Group, the Mobile Web Initiative and as the lead for Delivery Context Client Interfaces(DCCI) activity.

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Sproull, Lee, Subramani, Mani, Kiesler, Sara, Walker, Janet H., Waters, Keith (1996): When the Interface is a Face. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (2) pp. 97-124.

Parise, Salvatore, Kiesler, Sara, Sproull, Lee, Waters, Keith (1996): My Partner is a Real Dog: Cooperation with Social Agents. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S., Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 399-408.

Waters, Keith, Frisbie, J. (1995): A coordinated muscle model for speech animation. In: Graphics Interface 95 May 17-19, 1995, Quebec, Quebec, Canada. pp. 163-170.

Waters, Keith, Levergood, Thoms M. (1994): An Automatic Lip-Synchronization Algorithm for Synthetic Faces. In: ACM Multimedia 1994 , 1994, . pp. 149-156.

Lee, Yuencheng, Terzopoulos, Demetri, Waters, Keith (1993): Constructing physics--based facial models of individuals. In: Graphics Interface 93 May 19-21, 1993, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 1-8.

Carlbom, Ingrid, Hsu, William M., Klinker, Gudrun, Szeliski, Richard, Waters, Keith, Doyle, Michael, Gettys, Jim, Harris, Kirsten M., Levergood, Thoms M., Palmer, Ricky S., Palmer, Lawrence G., Picart, Marc, Terzopoulos, Demetri, Tonnesen, David, Vannier, Michael W., Wallace, Greg (1992): Modeling and Analysis of Empirical Data in Collaborative Environments. In Communications of the ACM, 35 (6) pp. 74-84.