Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2010
Pub. count:49
Number of co-authors:73


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Elina Eriksson:
Per Lundgren:
Hans Andersson:



Productive colleagues

Jan Gulliksen's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Philippe A. Palanq..:66
David Benyon:46
Austin Henderson:39

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Publications by Jan Gulliksen (bibliography)

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Bernhaupt, Regina, Forbig, Peter, Gulliksen, Jan and Lrusdttir, Marta (eds.) Human-Centred Software Engineering Third International Conference, HCSE 2010 October 14-15, 2010, Reykjavik, Iceland.

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Bernhaupt, Regina, Forbrig, Peter, Gulliksen, Jan and Lrusdttir, Marta (eds.) HUMAN-CENTRED SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 2010.

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Gulliksen, Jan, Axelson, Hans von, Persson, Hans and Goransson, Bengt (2010): Accessibility and public policy in Sweden. In Interactions, 17 (3) pp. 26-29. Available online

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Walldius, ke, Sundblad, Yngve, Bengtsson, Lars, Sandblad, Bengt and Gulliksen, Jan (2009): User certification of workplace software: assessing both artefact and usage. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 28 (2) pp. 101-120. Available online

This article summarises activities and results from the quality assessment project 'Quality Assurance of IT Support at Work' (ITQ) which has been performed by Swedish researchers in close cooperation with trade unions 1999-2005. The ITQ project is part of a network, UsersAward, which works for the goal to develop and implement a strategy for good software products on the work floor. A main result of the ITQ project is the first version of a software certification programme, User Certified 2002, which is described in some detail. The underlying theoretical arguments for its design and the performed pilot projects which have informed its implementation are also presented. The outcome of performed certifications is discussed in terms of stakeholder response; in terms of whether to certify artefact, processes, or both; and in terms of the relationship between software certification, standardisation, and public procurement agreements. One conclusion from the project is that a viable software certification programme has to cover the software's built-in features, its deployment process, and its actual situated usage. A second conclusion is that the buying organisation has to implement integrative processes in which its organisational development and its implementation of IT systems are coordinated. Conclusions are also drawn with respect to the set of organisational patterns underlying the UsersAward initiative -- certifications, user panels, user surveys, user conferences and a yearly IT Prize contest. Finally, implications and plans for the future, especially international research and union cooperation activities, and further development of the certification process are described.

© All rights reserved Walldius et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Gross, Tom, Gulliksen, Jan, Kotze, Paula, Oestreicher, Lars, Palanque, Philippe A., Prates, Raquel Oliveira and Winckler, Marco (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2009, 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24-28, 2009, Proceedings, Part II 2009.

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Eriksson, Elina, Gulliksen, Jan and Cajander, sa (2008): Introducing usability roles in public authorities. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 113-122. Available online

One of the most common ways of introducing usability into development work in a public authority is by employing a usability professional. But how successful is this strategy when it comes to increasing focus on usability in the organization and how successful have these usability professionals been in introducing usability activities into the development work in their organizations? This paper is based on five case studies on the introduction of usability professionals in public authorities in Sweden. These different ways of introducing usability are discussed and analyzed. Based on this data we draw conclusions about what to consider in order to achieve a successful introduction of usability. Interviews with nine usability professionals were conducted all of which were recorded, analyzed and condensed into the case studies presented. One lesson learned from the case studies is the importance of a formal title as it shapes interpretations of what usability is about. Another issue discussed is the usefulness of a formal job description, and personal characteristics of the person working with usability. Based on the case studies we draw the conclusion that a senior usability professional is to be preferred since introduction of usability often implies organizational change as well as conflicts and discussions at a management level. Another conclusion that can be drawn from the studies is that usability work is more successful in the short perspective if it contributes directly to the design and program code instead of focusing on strategic levels such as policy, evaluation of existing systems and method development.

© All rights reserved Eriksson et al. and/or their publisher

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Svanaes, Dag and Gulliksen, Jan (2008): Understanding the context of design: towards tactical user centered design. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 353-362. Available online

It is widely recognized that system usability requires active involvement of end-users in all phases of software development, and there is currently a broad consensus among researchers and practitioners in the field as to what constitutes a good user-centered design process. Despite this, many systems development projects still fail when it comes to addressing usability issues and appropriately involving users in the design process. We find that a project's boundary conditions are becoming increasingly important for the potential impact of user-centered design activities, and hence the success of the end result of the project. We propose and define "context of design" as a concept to embrace the socio-technical system in which user-centered design takes place. The context of design includes, but is not limited to, the internal structure of the developer and the client organizations, contractual and tender issues, software engineering tools, and stakeholder agendas and relations. We illustrate the reasoning with various cases in which user-centered design has been constrained by factors in the context of design. We recommend that user-centered-design projects give priority to an early identification of factors in the context of design that pose risks to end-product usability. By analyzing the context of design for each project, we may be able to better tailor user-centered design activities to reach the goal of building a more usable end-result.

© All rights reserved Svanaes and Gulliksen and/or their publisher

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Gulliksen, Jan (ed.) Engineering Interactive Systems 2007 EHCI-HCSE-DSVIS March 2007, 2007, Salamanca, Spain.

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Smith, Andy, Joshi, Anirudha, Liu, Zhengjie, Bannon, Liam J., Gulliksen, Jan and Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani (2007): Embedding HCI in Developing Countries: Localizing Content, Institutionalizing Education and Practice. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 698-699. Available online

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Smith, Andy, Joshi, Anirudha, Liu, Zhengjie, Bannon, Liam J., Gulliksen, Jan and Li, Christina (2007): Institutionalizing HCI in Asia. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 85-99. Available online

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Cajander, Asa, Gulliksen, Jan and Boivie, Inger (2006): Management perspectives on usability in a public authority: a case study. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 38-47. Available online

In trying to understand the problem of poor usability in computer-supported work, this article looks at management and their perspective on usability in a public authority. What are their underlying basic values, assumptions and attitudes? Why do managers interpret usability as they do, and what are the consequences for the organization and for usability? The empirical basis is an interpretive case study where 19 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Results indicate that usability is interpreted differently, depending on the formal roles of informants. Furthermore, a majority of the informants express personal, but limited, responsibility for usability. Moreover, we found that basic values are based on an instrumental view of work where efficiency and economy are important constituents. We identified that even though users participate in IT development, they have no formal responsibility or authority. They have become IT workers in that they perform highly technical tasks such as integral testing.

© All rights reserved Cajander et al. and/or ACM Press

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Folstad, Asbjorn, Bark, Ida and Gulliksen, Jan (2006): How HCI-practitioners want to evaluate their own practice. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 417-420. Available online

How do individual HCI-practitioners evaluate their own work practice? And how would they like to evaluate it? Answers to these questions will give new knowledge on the state-of-the-practice in this area, and provide insight for researchers trying to improve practitioners' ability to evaluate their development project activities. The questions were investigated through questionnaire survey responses of 179 HCI-practitioners from the Nordic countries. It was found that the general maturity for evaluation of own practice were fairly high. However, the results indicate that HCI-practitioners tend not to evaluate their practice with regard to its impact on the development team and project leader; which may be counter productive to the downstream utility of HCI activities. Presentation of ongoing development of evaluation procedures, based on the results, will be included in the talk at NordiCHI 2006.

© All rights reserved Folstad et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gulliksen, Jan, Boivie, Inger and Goransson, Bengt (2006): Usability professionals -- current practices and future development. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (4) pp. 568-600. Available online

The usability concept has now received such a wide recognition in information technology (IT) development that working with usability can be regarded as a profession in its own right. In recent research projects, we have surveyed and studied usability work on an individual level in a number of Swedish development organisations, including success factors and obstacles. What we have seen relates to the individual usability professional and her background and experiences, the organisation in which she operates, the development process, communication and communication means, and finally the attitudes and basic values held by the people involved. In this paper, we compile and reflect on selected findings from different studies on usability work in practical systems development in a number of Swedish organisations. We discuss our findings from a practical point of view and relate them to the research of others within the international HCI community. Finally, we discuss some issues we consider important for the future development of the practice of usability that we believe is of interest to the international community of usability professionals.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Boivie, Inger, Gulliksen, Jan and Goransson, Bengt (2006): The lonesome cowboy: A study of the usability designer role in systems development. In Interacting with Computers, 18 (4) pp. 601-634. Available online

This paper reports on an evaluation of the usability designer role as applied in two Swedish systems development organisations. The role was initially defined by us, but evolved in these two organisations. We conducted interviews with usability designers, project managers and a user representative. Our main research question was whether or not the introduction of a usability designer has been successful in terms of changes in the systems development process and the impact the role has had on products, projects and organisations. To some extent, the role has met our expectations and intentions for instance, in helping the usability designers shift their focus towards design, and assume some kind of "users' advocate" role. But in other ways, the role "failed". The usability designers in our study are still facing the kind of problems and obstacles that usability professionals have always had to deal with.

© All rights reserved Boivie et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Gulliksen, Jan (2006): How Do Developers Meet Users? - Attitudes and Processes in Software Development. In: Doherty, Gavin and Blandford, Ann (eds.) DSV-IS 2006 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 13th International Workshop July 26-28, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 1-10. Available online

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Seffah, Ahmed, Gulliksen, Jan and Desmarais, Michel C. (eds.) (2005): Human-Centered Software Engineering - Integrating Usability in the Software Development Lifecycle. Springer-Verlag

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Bark, I., Folstad, A. and Gulliksen, Jan (2005): Use and Usefulness of HCI Methods: Results from an Exploratory Study among Nordic HCI Practitioners. In: Proceedings of the HCI05 Conference on People and Computers XIX 2005. pp. 201-218.

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Smith, A., Gulliksen, Jan and Bannon, Liam (2005): Building Usability in India: Reflections from the Indo-European Systems Usability Partnership. In: Proceedings of the HCI05 Conference on People and Computers XIX 2005. pp. 219-232.

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McEwan, Tom, Gulliksen, Jan and Benyon, David (eds.) (2005): People and Computers XIX - The Bigger Picture. London, UK, Springer-Verlag

This volume contains the full papers presented at HCI2005, at Napier University Edinburgh, September 2005

© All rights reserved McEwan et al. and/or Springer-Verlag

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Gulliksen, Jan, Boivie, Inger, Persson, Jenny, Hektor, Anders and Herulf, Lena (2004): Making a difference: a survey of the usability profession in Sweden. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 207-215. Available online

Poor usability in interactive systems/products is still a major problem for users and buyers, despite efforts made by an increasing number of usability professionals. How come this is so and what are the main obstacles to usability work? In this paper we report the results of a survey of usability professionals in Sweden, conducted in 2003. The survey identified, e.g. their background and experiences, the type of employment, organization, and products/systems, the software development process being used and some key success factors for usability work. The results indicate, among other things, that management support and project management support are essential for the usability worker. Moreover, they face problems such as, usability and user involvement having low priority in the projects.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gulliksen, Jan, Harker, Susan and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2004): Guidelines, standards, methods and processes for software accessibility. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 (1) pp. 1-5. Available online

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Gulliksen, Jan and Harker, Susan (2004): The software accessibility of human-computer interfaces -- ISO Technical Specification 16071. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 (1) pp. 6-16. Available online

This paper describes the recently published Technical Specification ISO 16071 from the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), along with the process through which the document has been developed. ISO TS 16071 contains guidelines on designing accessible software. This paper also relates the activities within ISO to other ongoing standardisation activities, within, for example, W3C and ETSI. Scope, contents, guidelines and the definition of accessibility in ISO 16071 are discussed in relation to other definitions. Finally, the process of turning the technical specification (TS) into an international standard (IS) is discussed.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen and Harker and/or Springer Verlag

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Gulliksen, Jan, Andersson, Hans and Lundgren, Per (2004): Accomplishing universal access through system reachability -- a management perspective. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 (1) pp. 96-101. Available online

The aim of this paper is to describe the need of a method by which we can estimate the return on accessibility investments in information technology (IT) systems. This paper reveals some of the reasons why accessibility still is a secondhand criterion when designing digital services. It also describes the authors experiences regarding the concept of accessibility and how it must develop in order to obtain the status of a basic business criterion for the benefit of disabled people who are currently excluded from public services and labour markets. The paper also questions the need of a separate accessibility standard. Additionally, we discuss some of the hindering in the market and limiting perspectives that are blocking further development. One of the problems in the market seems to be that accessibility as a concept has been more of an issue about creating equal opportunities and therefore probably does not have the quality of a business criterion. In order to bridge that gap, we argue for replacing accessibility with reachability, which is a concept based on a measure used by media when estimating the reached percentage of a population or target group.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Sandblad, Bengt, Gulliksen, Jan, Aborg, Carl, Boivie, Inger, Persson, Jenny, Goransson, Bengt, Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis, Blomkvist, Stefan and Cajander, Asa (2003): Work environment and computer systems development. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 22 (6) pp. 375-387.

Work environment and occupational health problems of different nature are constantly increasing in computer supported work. Most efforts to improve the work environment are focused primarily on physical aspects, and to some extent on psychosocial aspects. Mental workload and cognitive problems are of a more complex nature, more difficult to measure and provide efficient solutions to, and are more seldom studied or solved. Solutions to work environment problems are usually applied to already existing work situations through improved equipment and work place design, health programmes, education, reorganizations, etc. The problems are seldom prevented by means of applying relevant methods early in the systems development process, before the artefacts have been designed and implemented. This paper, and the following papers of this special issue, will focus on the need to integrate different interdisciplinary methods at different phases in the development process of computerized support systems, with the ultimate goal to prevent work environment problems and decrease the health risks to the users.

© All rights reserved Sandblad et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Gulliksen, Jan, Goransson, Bengt, Boivie, Inger, Blomkvist, Stefan, Persson, Jenny and Cajander, Asa (2003): Key principles for user-centred systems design. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 22 (6) pp. 397-409.

The concept of user-centred systems design (UCSD) has no agreed upon definition. Consequently, there is a great variety in the ways it is applied, which may lead to poor quality and poor usability in the resulting systems, as well as misconceptions about the effectiveness of UCSD. The purpose of this paper is to propose a definition of UCSD. We have identified 12 key principles for the adoption of a user-centred development process, principles that are based on existing theory, as well as research in and experiences from a large number of software development projects. The initial set of principles were applied and evaluated in a case study and modified accordingly. These principles can be used to communicate the nature of UCSD, evaluate a development process or develop systems development processes that support a user-centred approach. We also suggest activity lists and some tools for applying UCSD.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Lantz, Ann and Gulliksen, Jan (2003): Editorial: Design Versus design: A Nordic Perspective. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (1) pp. 1-4.

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Gulliksen, Jan and Lantz, Ann (2003): Design Versus design-From the Shaping of Products to the Creation of User Experiences. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (1) pp. 5-20.

The concept of design in the context of human-computer interaction is discussed based on definitions from industrial design to the very practical problem of achieving usability in industrial projects in practice. Design is an important quality of a product that today has not been receiving enough attention when it comes to computerized artifacts. Design is also a process of creating the user's experience of a system. This article focuses more on design as a creative process of communication than on a posteriori product quality aspects. The Scandinavian tradition has stressed the importance of users participating actively in a user-centered design process. The article defines and discusses user-centered design in light of the theories of communication as put forth by Herbert Clark (1996). Communication is identified as one of the key issues that needs to be addressed to achieve well-functioning user-centered design. The article discusses different terminology and gives examples from a theory on common ground. Finally, mock-ups, prototypes, and video are discussed as tools for facilitating communication and construction of common ground.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen and Lantz and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Aborg, Carl, Sandblad, Bengt, Gulliksen, Jan and Lif, Magnus (2003): Integrating work environment considerations into usability evaluation methods -- the ADA approach. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (3) pp. 453-471.

The ADA-method is an attempt to integrate work environment issues into a usability evaluation method. The intention is to provide a method that can be used for the analysis of computer systems that are used by skilled professionals as a major part of their work. An ADA-analysis is performed as a semi-structured observation interview. The objectives of the ADA-method are (1) to identify usability and cognitive work environment problems in a computer supported work situation, and (2) to be a basis for further analysis and discussions concerning improvements of the system. The method was designed to suit the needs of occupational health specialists as a complement to their traditional methods for investigating physical and psychosocial work environments. However, the method has a more general applicability as it can be taught to any usability expert to facilitate work environment considerations in their analysis and evaluation work. Furthermore, the paper reports on the use of the method in several different settings and the results thereof.

© All rights reserved Aborg et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Boivie, Inger, Gulliksen, Jan and Goransson, Bengt (2003): It's all in a days work of a software engineer. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 33-37.

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Gulliksen, Jan, Blomkvist, S. and Goransson, Bengt (2003): Engineering the HCI profession or softening development processes. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 118-122.

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Gulliksen, Jan and Goransson, Bengt (2003): Usability Design: Integrating User Centered System Design in the Software Development Process. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1025.

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Forbrig, Peter, Gulliksen, Jan, Seffah, Amed, Welie, Martijn van and Borchers, Jan O. (2003): Software and Usability Cross-Pollination - The Role of Usability Patterns. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1039.

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Hektor, Anders and Gulliksen, Jan (2003): Nita - Swedish IT User Centre. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1065.

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Goransson, Bengt, Lif, Magnus and Gulliksen, Jan (2003): Usability Design - Extending Rational Unified Process with a New Discipline. In: Jorge, Joaquim A., Nunes, Nuno Jardim and Cunha, Joao Falcao e (eds.) DSV-IS 2003 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 10th International Workshop June 11-13, 2003, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal. pp. 316-330. Available online

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Gulliksen, Jan and Sandblad, Bengt (2001): Work Environment and the Development of Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 558-562.

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Gulliksen, Jan and Goransson, Bengt (2001): Reengineering the Systems Development Process for User Centred Design. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 359-366.

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Gulliksen, Jan and Boivie, Inger (2001): Usability throughout the Entire Software Development Lifecycle. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. p. 841.

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Gulliksen, Jan, Lutsch, Clemens and Harker, Susan (2001): Accessibility through standardization. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 581-585.

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Olsson, Eva and Gulliksen, Jan (1999): A Corporate Style Guide That Includes Domain Knowledge. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (4) pp. 317-338.

Different professions adopt their own language such that the semantics involve elements very specific to their domain. System developers approaching users in a new domain often experience initial difficulties when trying to understand these semantics and associated work practices. Although most software developers also lack knowledge of human-computer interaction (HCI), means of transferring domain and HCI knowledge to developers in a convenient form are needed. A domain-specific style guide could be a worthy framework for the development of a high-level structure of interface elements and guidelines, including domain knowledge. Such a style guide is suggested as a practical form for packaging domain and HCI knowledge to aid developers. Anticipated benefits are enhanced application quality, usability, efficiency, and acceptance as the communication among software developers and intended users improves. The speed of application development could also increase. This article summarizes a project in which a medical style guide was developed and describes in more detail the work procedure utilized in the development of a corporate style guide for the tax-handling domain. Finally, suggestions on style guide development conditions are presented based on experiences from the establishment of the style guide in an organization.

© All rights reserved Olsson and Gulliksen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Gulliksen, Jan and Ostreicher, Lars (1999): HCI Education in Sweden. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (2) pp. 3-7. Available online

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Gulliksen, Jan, Lantz, Ann and Boivie, Inger (1999): User Centered Design -- Problems and Possibilities: A Summary of the 1998 PDC and CSCW Workshop. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (2) pp. 25-35. Available online

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Gulliksen, Jan (1999): Bringing the Social Perspective: User Centred Design. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 1327-1331.

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Gulliksen, Jan, Lantz, Ann and Boivie, Inger (1998): User-Centered Design in Practice -- Problems and Possibilities. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 417-418. Available online

Approaches in User-Centered Design (UCD) vary from Participatory Design to model-based engineering. No matter what the approach, UCD is not a simple, clear-cut way to develop successful systems. The purpose of this workshop is to discuss the problems encountered in practice and possible solutions, focusing on case studies in real systems development projects. Problems in this area include communication problems or lack of communication between system developers and users, between management and users, and between individuals in a team; and conflicting goals between the different groups in the process. Does UCD require certain attitudes in the organization and in individuals in order to bring success? Do UCD and requirements engineering conflict? What is the role of management and authority in a project in order to be able to make the decisions that are required for a project to succeed? Is UCD appropriate for every type of work activity?

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or ACM Press

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Artim, John, Harmelen, Mark van, Butler, Keith A., Gulliksen, Jan, Henderson, Austin, Kovacevic, Srdjan, Lu, Shijian, Overmyer, Scott, Reaux, Ray, Roberts, Dave, Tarby, Jean-Claude and Linden, Keith Vander (1998): Incorporating Work, Process and Task Analysis into Commercial and Industrial Object-Oriented Systems Development. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (4) pp. 33-36. Available online

In this paper, we report on the results of the CHI98 workshop on task, process and work analysis coupled with object modeling. This workshop was a follow-up to a CHI97 workshop of the same topic. This year's workshop took as its starting point the summary paper and framework created in last year's workshop. The goal of this year's workshop was to bridge the conceptual gulf between current HCI practice and current development practice. The result of this workshop is a proposed set of extensions to UML, a key standard in the object-oriented development community.

© All rights reserved Artim et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gulliksen, Jan, Lif, Magnus, Lind, Mats, Nygren, Else and Sandblad, Bengt (1997): Analysis of Information Utilization (AIU). In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 9 (3) pp. 255-282.

Analysis of information utilization (AIU) is a method for describing and analyzing how information entities identified in information analysis are being used in the work situation. AIU aims at complementing existing methods for user interface design by identifying additional requirements for human-computer interaction. The method focuses on aspects of computer-supported work, related to cognitive load, aspects of which end users often not are explicitly aware. For skilled workers, in a professional work environment, the efficiency of the user interface is extremely important. We earlier stressed that important criteria for design of user interfaces deals with making the interface "obvious" to the users, by minimizing the cognitive load associated with the handling of it. AIU is performed through observation interviews in which human-computer experts interview representative users about their work situation and observe physical information-handling routines. The analysis identifies work tasks in terms of judgments and decision-making situations, requirements concerning the tasks that may have to be performed simultaneously, important features and priorities of the information, actions the user can initiate, and so on. The method supports the interface designer with human-computer interaction requirements structured for a workspace-oriented design. It is integrated in a user-centered development model and supports the simultaneous development of competence, organization, work activity, and information technology. This article describes the background and contents of the method and how the results of the analysis are documented and used in the design process. A number of application projects have shown that AIU makes it possible to capture aspects of human work and information processing that are important to the design of better interfaces. AIU is not a new method for system development but complements today's methods for task and information analysis with more design-relevant information. For illustration, an example is presented, describing interface design based on AIU in a system development project in the Swedish National Tax Board.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Gulliksen, Jan (1997): Agility in Case Handling Work. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1997. pp. 331-334.

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Gulliksen, Jan and Sandblad, Bengt (1995): Domain-Specific Design of User Interfaces. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (2) pp. 135-151.

The use of graphical user interfaces in a computerized work environment is often considered to substantially improve the work situation. The outcome can, however, often be the opposite. Inappropriate use of windowing techniques, scrolling, and colors can result in tedious and confusing interaction with the computer. Today's standards and style guides define basic design principles but are insufficient for design of interfaces to end-user applications. Here detailed domain knowledge is indeed essential. A domain-specific style guide (DSSG) is an extension of today's standard with domain-specific primitives, interface elements, and forms, together with domain-specific guidelines. Careful dedicated analysis of information utilization in a domain is the development basis for a DSSG. The development is performed with an object-oriented approach to facilitate the reuse of interface components and to support consistency and structure. Using a DSSG, the development of applications can be performed with a simplified information analysis. Therefore a more effective design process is possible, one in which end users can participate in the design using their own familiar domain-related terminology. Time and costs for the development process can be drastically reduced if domain-specific style guides, design guidelines, and development tools are used.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen and Sandblad and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

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Gulliksen, Jan, Lind, Mats, Lif, Magnus and Sandblad, Bengt (1995): Efficient Development of Organisations and Information Technology -- A Design Approach. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 951-956.

In this paper a framework for the entire process of organisation and information system development is discussed, focusing especially on design issues. Our definition of the process of design in human-computer interaction is the process of creating a formal description by appearance and functionality of an information system. This design is based on both formal and informal descriptions of interaction requirements as a result of a work analysis process. The analysis phase is separate from the design phase. According to the definition of design, as a specification into a formal language, it can never completely describe all requirements. We distinguish four, different, consecutive gaps of communication in the design process. In each of these gaps some information about the actual work situation can be lost. These gaps constitute severe obstacles in the process of developing efficient and usable information systems for specific work situations. Development models covering the entire process of design might bridge, or at least narrow, these gaps. Some main characteristics of such models are presented.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Gulliksen, Jan, Johnson, M., Lind, M., Nygren, E. and Sandblad, Bengt (1993): The Need for New Application Specific Interface Elements. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 15-20.

The design of user interfaces for skilled workers in professional work settings should be based on style-guides that certify efficiency. Most of todays style-guides and design guidelines over-emphasise general aspects or aspects relevant to novices. To increase efficiency both of the design process and of the resulting interface, more domain specific interface elements should be used. This paper explains the basic ideas of such domain specific style-guides and gives some examples from the health care domain.

© All rights reserved Gulliksen et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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