Publication statistics

Pub. period:1978-2014
Pub. count:75
Number of co-authors:69



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jock D. Mackinlay:23
George G. Robertson:17
Peter Pirolli:13

 

 

Productive colleagues

Stuart K. Card's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
James A. Landay:91
Ronald M. Baecker:67
 
 
 

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Stuart K. Card

Picture of Stuart K. Card.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Stuart Card" and "Stu Card"

Stuart Card is a Senior Research Fellow and the manager of the User Interface Research group at the Palo Alto Research Center. His study of input devices led to the Fitts's Law characterization of the mouse and was a major factor leading to the mouse's commercial introduction by Xerox. His group has developed theoretical characterizations of human-machine interaction, including the Model Human Processor, the GOMS theory of user interaction, information foraging theory, and statistical descriptions of Internet use. These theories have been put to use in new paradigms of human-machine interaction including the Rooms workspace manager, papertronic systems, and the Information Visualizer. The work of his group has resulted in a dozen Xerox products as well as the contributing to the founding of three software companies, Inxight Software, Outride, and Content Guard. Card is a co-author of the book The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction, a co-editor of the book, Human Performance Models for Computer-Aided Engineering, and has served on many editorial boards, government panels, and university review boards. He received his A.B. in Physics from Oberlin College and his Ph.D. in Psychology from Carnegie Mellon University, where he pursued an interdisciplinary program in psychology, artificial intelligence, and computer science. He has been an adjunct faculty member at Stanford University. His most recent book, Readings in Information Visualization was published in 1999. He is currently developing a supporting science of human-information interaction and visual-semantic prototypes to aid sensemaking. Card is a Fellow of the ACM, the first recipient of the ACM CHI Lifetime Achievement Award, and the first member of the ACM CHI Academy.

 

Publications by Stuart K. Card (bibliography)

 what's this?
2014

Card, Stuart K. and Hollan, James D. (2013): Information Visualization. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/information_visualization.html

Card, Stuart K. (2014). Commentary on 'Bifocal Display' by Robert Spence and Mark Apperley

The Perspective Wall (54 seconds) (2014)

2010
 
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Kim, Nam Wook, Card, Stuart K. and Heer, Jeffrey (2010): Tracing genealogical data with TimeNets. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 241-248

We present TimeNets, a new visualization technique for genealogical data. Most genealogical diagrams prioritize the display of generational relations. To enable analysis of families over time, TimeNets prioritize temporal relationships in addition to family structure. Individuals are represented using timelines that converge and diverge to indicate marriage and divorce; directional edges connect parents and children. This representation both facilitates perception of temporal trends and provides a substrate for communicating non-hierarchical patterns such as divorce, remarriage, and plural marriage. We also apply degree-of-interest techniques to enable scalable, interactive exploration. We present our design decisions, layout algorithm, and a study finding that TimeNets accelerate analysis tasks involving temporal data.

© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Russell, Daniel M., Pirolli, Peter, Furnas, George, Card, Stuart K. and Stefik, Mark (2009): Sensemaking workshop CHI 2009. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4751-4754. Available online

How does one make sense of a large or complex task? By the term "sensemaking" we mean the processes people go through to frame, collect, organize and structure information to help understand a problem. Sensemaking is what people do to get from the earliest phases of an information collecting and organizing task to the conclusion. Sensemaking tasks are commonplace, and this workshop is dedicated to understanding the range of sensemaking behaviors and systems that can support sensemaking.

© All rights reserved Russell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bier, Eric A., Billman, Dorrit, Dent, Kyle and Card, Stuart K. (2009): Collaborative Sensemaking Tools for Task Forces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 439-443

Our work addresses the needs of multiple information workers collaborating on joint projects, which typically require finding, analyzing, and synthesizing information from heterogeneous sources. We report on iterative design, implementation, and assessment of collaborative tools for sensemaking tasks. Our goal is flexible, lightweight tools that both facilitate the activities done individually and lower the costs of effective collaboration. We suggest several approaches to enhance such collaborative sensemaking tools. These approaches include explicit representation of multiple team activities, integrated support for synchronous communication, and views of collected information that are tuned to both the reading and organizing phases of sensemaking. We present an integrated pair of tools, ContextBar and ContextBook, which illustrate these approaches, and describe the results from a formative evaluation of these tools.

© All rights reserved Bier et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Evans, Brynn M. and Card, Stuart K. (2008): Augmented information assimilation: social and algorithmic web aids for the information long tail. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 989-998. Available online

To understand how and why individuals make use of emerging information assimilation services on the Web as part of their daily routine, we combined video recordings of online activity with targeted interviews of eleven experienced web users. From these observations, we describe their choice of systems, the goals they are trying to achieve, their information diets, the basic process they use for assimilating information, and the impact of user interface speed.

© All rights reserved Evans and Card and/or ACM Press

 
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Russell, Daniel M., Furnas, George W., Stefik, Mark, Card, Stuart K. and Pirolli, Peter (2008): Sensemaking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3981-3984. Available online

When confronted with a large or complex amount of information, how DO people come to understand it? This workshop will focus on the most recent work in sensemaking, the activities, technologies and behaviors that people do when making sense of their complex information spaces.

© All rights reserved Russell et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Heer, Jeffrey, Card, Stuart K. and Landay, James A. (2005): prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 421-430. Available online

Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions for the design of a wide range of visualization applications, enabling programmers to string together desired components quickly to create and customize working visualizations. To evaluate prefuse we have built both existing and novel visualizations testing the toolkit's flexibility and performance, and have run usability studies and usage surveys finding that programmers find the toolkit usable and effective.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hong, Lichan, Chi, Ed H. and Card, Stuart K. (2005): Annotating 3D electronic books. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1463-1466. Available online

The importance of annotations, as a by-product of the reading activity, cannot be overstated. Annotations help users in the process of analyzing, re-reading, and recalling detailed facts such as prior analyses and relations to other works. As elec-tronic reading become pervasive, digital annotations will become part of the essential records of the reading activity. But creating and rendering annotations on a 3D book and other objects in a 3D workspace is non-trivial. In this paper, we present our exploration of how to use 3D graphics techniques to create realistic annotations with acceptable frame rates. We discuss the pros and cons of several techniques and detail our hybrid solution.

© All rights reserved Hong et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Card, Stuart K., Hong, Lichan, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Chi, Ed H. (2004): 3Book: a 3D electronic smart book. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 303-307. Available online

 
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Heer, Jeffrey and Card, Stuart K. (2004): DOITrees revisited: scalable, space-constrained visualization of hierarchical data. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 421-424. Available online

 
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Card, Stuart K. (2004): Keynote Address: From Information Visualization to Sensemaking: Connecting the Mind's Eye to the Mind's Muscle. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. . Available online

2003
 
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Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. and Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2003): The effects of information scent on visual search in the hyperbolic tree browser. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (1) pp. 20-53. Available online

The Hyperbolic Tree is a focus + context information visualization that has been developed to amplify users' ability to navigate large tree-structured information systems. Information scent is a theoretical construct that captures one kind of interaction between task and display. Information scent is provided by task-relevant display cues, such as node labels on a tree that influence a user's visual search behavior and navigation decisions. An empirical Accuracy of Scent (AOS) score was developed to characterize a set of tasks that required users to find (Retrieval Tasks) or compare (Comparison Tasks) information in tree structures. Two experiments investigated the effect of information scent (tasks with different AOS scores) on performance with the Hyperbolic Tree Browser and the Microsoft Windows File Browser, which is a widely available conventional browser. Experiment 1 found no overall difference in performance time between the two browsers, but did reveal a marginal interaction of information scent with browser performance on Retrieval Tasks. On high AOS tasks the Hyperbolic showed faster performance, but on low AOS tasks the Windows File Browser showed faster performance. Experiment 2 focused only on the Retrieval tasks and revealed that Hyperbolic Tree users examined more tree nodes at a faster rate and visually searched through the tree hierarchy at a faster rate than users of a Windows File Browser lookalike, however, visual search paths were shortened in dense areas of the Hyperbolic Tree display when information scent was low. Two processes appear to affect visual search in the Hyperbolic display: strong information scent improves visual search, and the crowding of targets in a compressed region degrades visual search especially when there is weak information scent.

© All rights reserved Pirolli et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter, Wege, Mija M. Van Der, Morrison, Julie B., Reeder, Robert W., Schraedley, Pamela and Boshart, Jenea (2001): Information Scent as a Driver of Web Behavior Graphs: Results of a Protocol Analysis Method for Web Usability. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 498-505. Available online

The purpose of this paper is to introduce a replicable WWW protocol analysis methodology illustrated by application to data collected in the laboratory. The methodology uses instrumentation to obtain detailed recordings of user actions with a browser, caches Web pages encountered, and videotapes talk-aloud protocols. We apply the current form of the method to the analysis of eight Web protocols, visualizing the structure of the interaction and showing the strong effect of information scent in determining the path followed.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. and Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2001): Visual Information Foraging in a Focus + Context Visualization. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 506-513. Available online

Eye tracking studies of the Hyperbolic Tree browser [10] suggest that visual search in focus+context displays is highly affected by information scent (i.e., local cues, such as text summaries, used to assess and navigate toward distal information sources). When users detected a strong information scent, they were able to reach their goal faster with the Hyperbolic Tree browser than with a conventional browser. When users detected a weak scent or no scent, users exhibited less efficient search of areas with a high density of visual items. In order to interpret these results we present an integration of the CODE Theory of Visual Attention (CTVA) with information foraging theory. Development of the CTVA-foraging theory could lead to deeper analysis of interaction with visual displays of content, such as the World Wide Web or information visualizations.

© All rights reserved Pirolli et al. and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Woodruff, Allison, Gossweiler, Rich, Pitkow, James, Chi, Ed H. and Card, Stuart K. (2000): Enhancing a Digital Book with a Reading Recommender. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 153-160. Available online

Digital books can significantly enhance the reading experience, providing many functions not available in printed books. In this paper we study a particular augmentation of digital books that provides readers with customized recommendations. We systematically explore the application of spreading activation over text and citation data to generate useful recommendations. Our findings reveal that for the tasks performed in our corpus, spreading activation over text is more useful than citation data. Further, fusing text and citation data via spreading activation results in the most useful recommendations. The fused spreading activation techniques outperform traditional text-based retrieval methods. Finally, we introduce a preliminary user interface for the display of recommendations from these algorithms.

© All rights reserved Woodruff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pirolli, Peter, Card, Stuart K. and Wege, Mija M. Van Der (2000): The Effect of Information Scent on Searching - Information Visualization of Large Tree Structures. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 161-172.

1999
 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.) (1999): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Academic Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Information Visualization. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think". Academic Presspp. 1-35

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (1999): Applications and Implications. In: Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.). "Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think". Academic Presspp. 625-640

 
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Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K. (1999): Information foraging. In Psychological Review, 106 (4) pp. 643-675.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Information Foraging Theory: [/encyclopedia/information_foraging_theory.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Information Foraging Theory: [/encyclopedia/information_foraging_theory.html]


 
 
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Chi, Ed H. and Card, Stuart K. (1999): Sensemaking of Evolving Web Sites Using Visualization Spreadsheets. In: InfoVis 1999 1999. pp. 18-. Available online

 
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Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K. (1999). Information Foraging. Retrieved 12 October 2013 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.31.5407&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Information Foraging Theory is an approach to understanding how strategies and technologies for information seeking, gathering, and consumption are adapted to the flux of information in the environment. The theory assumes that people, when possible, will modify their strategies or the structure of the environment to maximize their rate of gaining valuable information. Field studies inform the theory by illustrating that people do freely structure their environments and their strategies to yield higher gains in information foraging. The theory is developed by (a) adaptation (rational) analysis of information foraging problems and (b) a detailed process model (ACT-IF). The adaptation analysis develops (a) information patch models, which deal with time allocation and information filtering and enrichment activities in environments in which information is encountered in clusters (e.g., bibliographic collections), (b) information scent models which address the identification of information value from proximal cues, and (c) information diet models which address decisions about the selection and pursuit of information items. ACT-IF is developed to instantiate these rational models and to fit the moment-by-moment behavior of people interacting with complex information technology. ACT-IF is a production system in which the information scent of bibliographic stimuli is calculated by spreading activation mechanisms. Time allocation and item selection heuristics make use of information scent to select production rules in ways that maximize information foraging activities.

© All rights reserved Pirolli and Card and/or their publisher

1998
 
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Gershon, Nahum, Eick, Stephen G. and Card, Stuart K. (1998): Design: Information Visualization. In Interactions, 5 (2) pp. 9-15. Available online

 
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Chi, Ed H., Pitkow, James, Mackinlay, Jock D., Pirolli, Peter, Gossweiler, Rich and Card, Stuart K. (1998): Visualizing the Evolution of Web Ecologies. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 400-407. Available online

Several visualizations have emerged which attempt to visualize all or part of the World Wide Web. Those visualizations, however, fail to present the dynamically changing ecology of users and documents on the Web. We present new techniques for Web Ecology and Evolution Visualization (WEEV). Disk Trees represent a discrete time slice of the Web ecology. A collection of Disk Trees forms a Time Tube, representing the evolution of the Web over longer periods of time. These visualizations are intended to aid authors and webmasters with the production and organization of content, assist Web surfers making sense of information, and help researchers understand the Web.

© All rights reserved Chi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Shneiderman, Ben (eds.) (1998): Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

 
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Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K. (1998): Information foraging models of browsers for very large document spaces. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Santucci, Giuseppe and Tarantino, Laura (eds.) AVI 1998 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 24 - 27, 1998, LAquila, Italy. pp. 83-93. Available online

1997
 
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Hewett, Thomas T., Baecker, Ronald M., Card, Stuart K., Carey, Tom, Gasen, Jean G., Mantei, Marilyn, Perlman, Gary, Strong, Gary W. and Verplank, William (1997). ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved 7 August 2003 from ACM SIGHCI: http://sigchi.org/cdg/index.html

 Cited in the following chapters:

Urban Computing: [Not yet published]

Ergonomics: [Not yet published]

Human factors: [/encyclopedia/human_factors_definition.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Urban Computing: [Not yet published]

Ergonomics: [Not yet published]

Human factors: [/encyclopedia/human_factors_definition.html]


 
 
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Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1997): Fix and Float: Object Movement by Egocentric Navigation. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 149-150. Available online

The two traditional techniques for moving objects in graphical workspaces are dragging and cut and paste. Each method has some disadvantages. We introduce a new method, called fix and float, for moving objects in graphical workspaces. The new method fixes the object(s) to the gaze or viewpoint, thereby letting the user move objects implicitly while doing egocentric navigation. We describe the advantages this new method has over previous techniques, and give an example of its use in a 3D graphical workspace.

© All rights reserved Robertson and Card and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1997): The structure of the information visualization design space. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 92-99. Available online

1996
 
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Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and York, William (1996): The WebBook and the Web Forager: An Information Workspace for the World-Wide Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 111-117. Available online

The World-Wide Web has achieved global connectivity stimulating the transition of computers from knowledge processors to knowledge sources. But the Web and its client software are seriously deficient for supporting users' interactive use of this information. This paper presents two related designs with which to evolve the Web and its clients. The first is the WebBook, a 3D interactive book of HTML pages. The WebBook allows rapid interaction with objects at a higher level of aggregation than pages. The second is the Web Forager, an application that embeds the WebBook and other objects in a hierarchical 3D workspace. Both designs are intended as exercises to play off against analytical studies of information workspaces.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K. (1996): Information visualization and information foraging. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. p. 12. Available online

1995
 
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Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K. (1995): Information Foraging in Information Access Environments. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 51-58. Available online

Information foraging theory is an approach to the analysis of human activities involving information access technologies. The theory derives from optimal foraging theory in biology and anthropology, which analyzes the adaptive value of food-foraging strategies. Information foraging theory analyzes trade-offs in the value of information gained against the costs of performing activity in human-computer interaction tasks. The theory is illustrated by application to information-seeking tasks involving a Scatter/Gather interface, which presents users with a navigable, automatically computed, overview of the contents of a document collection arranged as a cluster hierarchy.

© All rights reserved Pirolli and Card and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1995): An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 67-73. Available online

This paper describes Butterfly, an Information Visualizer application for accessing DIALOG's Science Citation databases across the Internet. Network information often involves slow access that conflicts with the use of highly-interactive information visualization. Butterfly addresses this problem, integrating search, browsing, and access management via four techniques: 1) visualization supports the assimilation of retrieved information and integrates search and browsing activity, 2) automatically-created "link-generating" queries assemble bibliographic records that contain reference information into citation graphs, 3) asynchronous query processes explore the resulting graphs for the user, and 4) process controllers allow the user to manage these processes. We use our positive experience with the Butterfly implementation to propose a general information access approach, called Organic User Interfaces for Information Access, in which a virtual landscape grows under user control as information is accessed automatically.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K. (1995): Keynote Address: Information Visualization: Wings for the Mind. In: Gershon, Nahum D. and Eick, Stephen G. (eds.) InfoVis 1995 - IEEE Symposium On Information Visualization 30-31 October, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. p. 2. Available online

 
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Rao, Ramana, Pedersen, Jan O., Hearst, Marti A., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Masinter, Larry, Halvorsen, Per-Kristian and Robertson, George G. (1995): Rich Interaction in the Digital Library. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 29-39.

1994
 
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Card, Stuart K., Pirolli, Peter and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1994): The Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function: Display Evaluation for Direct-Walk Dynamic Information Visualizations. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 238-244. Available online

In this paper we present a method, the Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function, for characterizing information access from dynamic displays. The paper works out this method for a simple, but important, class of dynamic displays called direct-walk interactive information visualizations, in which information is accessed through a sequence of mouse selections and key selections. The method is used to characterize a simple calendar task for an application of the Information Visualizer, to compute the changes in characterization as the result of possible program variants, and to conduct empirical comparison between different systems with the same function.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1994): The Table Lens: Merging Graphical and Symbolic Representations in an Interactive Focus+Context Visualization for Tabular Information. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 318-322. Available online

We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visualization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focus areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most widespread kind of tables, the case-by-variables table. The Table Lens fuses symbolic and graphical representations into a single coherent view that can be fluidly adjusted by the user. This fusion and interactivity enables an extremely rich and natural style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.

© All rights reserved Rao and Card and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K. (1994): Information Workspaces for Large Scale Cognition. In: Bergeron, R. Daniel and Kaufman, Arie E. (eds.) VIS 1994 - Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1994 October 17-21, 1994, Washington, DC, USA. p. 5.

1993
 
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Russell, Daniel M., Stefik, Mark, Pirolli, Peter and Card, Stuart K. (1993): The Cost Structure of Sensemaking. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 269-276. Available online

Making sense of a body of data is a common activity in any kind of analysis. Sensemaking is the process of searching for a representation and encoding data in that representation to answer task-specific questions. Different operations during sensemaking require different cognitive and external resources. Representations are chosen and changed to reduce the cost of operations in an information processing task. The power of these representational shifts is generally under-appreciated as is the relation between sensemaking and information retrieval. We analyze sensemaking tasks and develop a model of the cost structure of sensemaking. We discuss implications for the integrated design of user interfaces, representational tools, and information retrieval systems.

© All rights reserved Russell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Johnson, Walter, Jellinek, Herbert, Klotz Jr, Leigh, Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1993): Bridging the Paper and Electronic Worlds: The Paper User Interface. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 507-512. Available online

Since its invention millenia ago, paper has served as one of our primary communications media. Its inherent physical properties make it easy to use, transport, and store, and cheap to manufacture. Despite these advantages, paper remains a second class citizen in the electronic world. In this paper, we present a new technology for bridging the paper and the electronic worlds. In the new technology, the user interface moves beyond the workstation and onto paper itself. We describe paper user interface technology and its implementation in a particular system called XAX.

© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Judith S., Card, Stuart K., Landauer, Thomas K., Olson, Gary M., Malone, Thomas W. and Leggett, John (1993): Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work: Research Issues for the 90s. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (2) pp. 115-129.

 
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Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 56-71.

1992
 
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Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32. Available online

The Information Grid (InfoGrid) is a framework for building information access applications that provides a user interface design and an interaction model. It focuses on retrieval of application objects as its top level mechanism for accessing user information, documents, or services. We have embodied the InfoGrid design in an object-oriented application framework that supports rapid construction of applications. This application framework has been used to build a number of applications, some that are classically characterized as information retrieval applications, other that are more typically viewed as personal work tools.

© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Robertson, George G. (1992): Remembering Allen Newell. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) pp. 22-24.

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1992): The Information Visualizer: A 3D User Interface for Information Retrieval. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1992 1992. pp. 173-179.

 
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Card, Stuart K. (1992): Capstone Address: Human Engineering the User Interface to Spaceland. In: SI3D 1992 1992. p. 215

1991
 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 173-179. Available online

Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efficient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective Wall for visualizing linear information by smoothly integrating detailed and contextual views. It uses hardware support for 3D interactive animation to fold wide 2D layouts into intuitive 3D visualizations that have a center panel for detail and two perspective panels for context. The resulting visualization supports efficient use of space and time.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1991): The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 181-188. Available online

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its rationale. The system is based on (1) the use of 3D/Rooms for increasing the capacity of immediate storage available to the user, (2) the Cognitive Co-processor scheduler-based user interface interaction architecture for coupling the user to information agents, and (3) the use of information visualization for interacting with information structure.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 189-194. Available online

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Emerging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive animation offer potential solutions to this problem, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualization techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The hierarchy is presented in 3D to maximize effective use of available screen space and enable visualization of the whole structure. Interactive animation is used to shift some of the user's cognitive load to the human perceptual system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 455-456. Available online

 
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Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 461-462. Available online

 
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Robertson, George G., Henderson Jr, D. Austin and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Buttons as First Class Objects on an X Desktop. In: Rhyne, James R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States, 1991, Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States. pp. 35-44. Available online

A high-level user interface toolkit, called XButtons, has been developed to support on-screen buttons as first class objects on an X window system desktop. With the toolkit, buttons can be built that connect user interactions with procedures specified as arbitrary Unix Shell scripts. As first class desktop objects, these buttons encapsulate appearance and behaviour that is user tailorable. They are persistent objects and may store state relevant to the task they perform. They can also be mailed to other users electronically. In addition to being first class desktop objects, XButtons are gesture-based with multiple actions. They support other interaction styles, like the drag and drop metaphor, in addition to simple button click actions. They also may be concurrently shared among users, with changes reflected to all users of the shared buttons. This paper describes the goals of XButtons and the history of button development that led to XButtons. It also describes XButtons from the user's point of view. Finally, it discusses some implementation issues encountered in building XButtons on top of the X window system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1991): A Morphological Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9 (2) pp. 99-122. Available online

The market now contains a bewildering variety of input devices for communication from humans to computers. This paper discusses a means to systematize these devices through morphological design space analysis, in which different input device designs are taken as points in a parametrically described design space. The design space is characterized by finding methods to generate and test design points. In a previous paper, we discussed a method for generating the space of input device designs using primitive and compositional movement operators. This allowed us to propose a taxonomy of input devices. In this paper, we summarize the generation method and explore the use of device footprint and Fitts's law as a test. We then use calculations to reason about the design space. Calculations are used to show why the mouse is a more effective device than the headmouse and where in the design space there is likely to be a more effective device than the mouse.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1990): The Design Space of Input Devices. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI April, 1990. pp. 117-124.

Card, Stuard. K., Mackinlay, J. D., Robertson, G. G., , ACM SIGCHI, Apr 1990, pp117-124.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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Jellinek, Herbert and Card, Stuart K. (1990): Powermice and User Performance. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 213-220.

Claims of increased pointing speed by users and manufacturers of variable-gain mice ("powermice") have become rife. Yet, there have been no demonstrations of this claim, and theoretical considerations suggest it may not even be true. In this paper, the claim is tested. A search of the design spaced of powermice failed to find a design point that improved performance compared to a standard mouse. No setting for the gain for a constant-gain mouse was found that improved performance. No threshold setting for a variable gain mouse was found that improved performance. In fact, even gain and threshold combinations favored by powermouse enthusiasts failed to improve performance. It is suggested that the real source of enthusiasm for powermice is that users are willing to accept reduced pointing speed in return for a smaller desk footprint.

© All rights reserved Jellinek and and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K. and Polson, Peter G. (1990): Introduction to this Special Issue on Foundations of Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 119-123.

 
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Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K. and Robertson, George G. (1990): A Semantic Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 145-190.

A bewildering variety of devices for communication from humans to computers now exists on the market. In this article, we propose a descriptive framework for analyzing the design space of these input devices. We begin with Buxton's (1983) idea that input devices are transducers of physical properties into one, two, or three dimensions. Following Mackinlay's semantic analysis of the design space for graphical presentations, we extend this idea to more comprehensive descriptions of physical properties, space, and transducer mappings. In our reformulation, input devices are transducers of any combination of linear and rotary, absolute and relative, position and force, in any of the six spatial degrees of freedom. Simple input devices are described in terms of semantic mappings from the transducers of physical properties into the parameters of the applications. One of these mappings, the resolution function, allows us to describe the range of possibilities from continuous devices to discrete devices, including possibilities in between. Complex input controls are described in terms of hierarchical families of generic devices and in terms of composition operators on simpler devices. The description that emerges is used to produce a new taxonomy of input devices. The taxonomy is compared with previous taxonomies of Foley, Wallace, and Chan (1984) and of Buxton (1983) by reclassifying the devices previously analyzed by these authors. The descriptive techniques are further applied to the design of complex mouse-based virtual input controls for simulated three-dimensional (3D) egocentric motion. One result is the design of a new virtual egocentric motion control.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1989
 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Malone, Thomas W., Crowston, Kevin, Rao, Ramana, Rosenblitt, David and Card, Stuart K. (1989): How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules?. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 211-216.

The Information Lens provides electronic mail users with the ability to write rules that automatically sort, select, and filter their messages. This paper describes preliminary results from an eighteen-month investigation of the use of this system at a corporate test site. We report the experiences of 13 voluntary users who have each had at least three months experience with the most recent version of the system. We found that: 1. People without significant computer experience are able to create and use rules effectively. 2. Useful rules can be created based on the fields present in all messages (e.g., searching for distribution lists or one's own name in the address fields or for character strings in the subject field), even without any special message templates. 3. People use rules both to prioritize messages before reading them and to sort messages into folders for storage after reading them. 4. People use delete rules primarily to filter out messages from low-priority distribution lists, not to delete personal messages to themselves.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1989): The Cognitive Coprocessor Architecture for Interactive User Interfaces. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 10-18.

The graphics capabilities and speed of current hardware systems allow the exploration of 3D and animation in user interfaces, while improving the degree of interaction as well. In order to fully utilize these capabilities, new software architectures must support multiple, asynchronous, interacting agents (the Multiple Agent Problem), and support smooth interactive animation (the Animation Problem). The Cognitive Coprocessor is a new user interface architecture designed to solve these two problems, while supporting highly interactive user interfaces that have 2D and 3D animations. This architecture includes 3D Rooms, a 3D analogy to the Rooms system with Rooms Buttons extended to Interactive Objects that deal with 3D, animation, and gestures. This research is being tested in the domain of Information Visualization, which uses 2D and 3D animated artifacts to represent the structure of information. A prototype, called the Information Visualizer, has been built.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Card, Stuart K. and Henderson, D. Austin (1987): Catalogues: A Metaphor for Computer Application Delivery. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 959-964.

This paper presents the mail-order catalogue as a metaphor for the delivery of application software in an integrated work environment. It also describes, Catalogue, an adjunct to the Rooms multiple virtual workspace environment, which employs this metaphor. This mechanism can be used (1) to give users "instant starts" by letting the users select a standard setup, (2) to allow users to assemble their own environment from standard components, (3) to parameterize a standard component, and (4) to load applications ready to run.

© All rights reserved Card and Henderson and/or North-Holland

 
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Card, Stuart K. and Henderson Jr, D. Austin (1987): A multiple virtual--workspace interface to support user task switching. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 53-59.

 
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Fuchs, Henry, Card, Stuart K., Crow, Frank and Pizer, Stephen M. (1987): Issues from the 1986 workshop on interactive 3D graphics. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p. 309.

1986
 
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Newell, Allen and Card, Stuart K. (1986): Straightening Out Softening Up: Response to Carroll and Campbell. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (3) pp. 251-267.

Carroll and Campbell have exercised themselves over a straw man not subscribed to by us. In the process, our position has not been accurately represented. In reply, we restate as clearly as we can the position for which we actually did and do argue. The underlying issue seems to concern the advantages of using technical psychological theories to identify underlying mechanisms in human-computer interaction. We argue that such theories are an important part of a science of human-computer interaction. We argue further that technical theories must be considered in the context of the uses to which they are put. The use of a theory helps to determine what is a good approximation, the degree of formalization that is justified, and the appropriate commingling of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Technical theories encourage cumulative progress by abetting the classical scientific heuristic of divide and conquer.

© All rights reserved Newell and Card and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Henderson, Jr. D. Austin and Card, Stuart K. (1986): Rooms: The Use of Multiple Virtual Workspaces to Reduce Space Contention in a Window-Based Graphical User Interface. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (3) pp. 211-243.

A key constraint on the effectiveness of window-based human-computer interfaces is that the display screen is too small for many applications. This results in "window thrashing," in which the user must expend considerable effort to keep desired windows visible. Rooms is a window manager that overcomes small screen size by exploiting the statistics of window access, dividing the user's workspace into a suite of virtual workspaces with transitions among them. Mechanisms are described for solving the problems of navigation and simultaneous access to separated information that arise from multiple workspaces.

© All rights reserved Henderson and Card and/or ACM Press

 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1986): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1985
 
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Newell, Allen and Card, Stuart K. (1985): The prospects for psychological science in human-computer interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (3) pp. 209-242.

1984
 
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Card, Stuart K., Robert, J. M. and Keenan, L. N. (1984): On-Line Composition of Text. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 51-56.

The use of text-editors for writing original text has been little studied despite the importance of the task. A study conducted by Gould found that the composition rate of writers using a text editor was more than 50% slower than the same writers writing by hand. We show that the source of the slowness is the design of the text editor and that using a display-oriented editor writers can write as fast and good typists faster than by hand. Like Gould, there was no quality difference based on the source of the letters and users of the text editor made many more modifications. Fewer than half of the modifications users made actually improved the text.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Card, Stuart K., Pavel, Misha and Farrell, J. E. (1984): Window-Based Computer Dialogues. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 239-243.

In recent years a number of systems have used windows as the basis for advanced user interfaces. Yet how exactly users benefit from windows or what features of windows are important for design is neither understood nor has it been studied. Current window designs are given a simple classification. Seven functional uses that have been identified for windows are described. The Window Working Set concept based on operating system theory is introduced for the analysis of space constraints on window use.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or North-Holland

1983
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1983): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapter:

GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection Rules): [Not yet published]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection Rules): [Not yet published]


 
1982
 
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Card, Stuart K. (1982): User Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 190-196.

 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Card, Stuart K. (1982): Applying Cognitive Psychology to Computer Systems: A Graduate Seminar in Psychology. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 295-298.

1980
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1980): The keystroke-level model for user performance with interactive systems. In Communications of the ACM, 23 pp. 396-410.

There are several aspects of user-computer performance that system designers should systematically consider. The authors propose a simple model, the keystroke-level model, for predicting one aspect of performance: the time it takes an expert user to perform a given task on a given computer system. The model is based on counting keystrokes and other low-level operations, including the user's mental preparations and the system's responses. Performance is coded in terms of these operations and operator times summed to give predictions. Heuristic rules are given for predicting where mental preparations occur. When tested against data on 10 different systems, the model's prediction error is 21 percent for individual tasks. An example is given to illustrate how the model can be used to produce parametric predictions and how sensitivity analysis can be used to redeem conclusions in the face of uncertain assumptions. Finally, the model is compared to several simpler versions. The potential role for the keystroke-level model in system design is discussed.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
1978
 
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Card, Stuart K., English, William K. and Burr, Betty J. (1978): Evaluation of mouse, rate controlled isometric joystick, step keys, and text keys for text selection on a CRT. In Ergonomics, 21 pp. 386-392.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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