Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2012
Pub. count:15
Number of co-authors:43


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Erin K. Walline:
Deborah R. Billings:
Kristin E. Schaefer:



Productive colleagues

Peter A. Hancock's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Waldemar Karwowski:35
William S. Marras:34
Kim J. Vicente:26

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Peter A. Hancock


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Current place of employment:
University of Central Florida

Peter Hancock is Provost Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of Psychology and the Institute for Simulation and Training at the University of Central Florida.


Publications by Peter A. Hancock (bibliography)

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Billings, Deborah R., Schaefer, Kristin E., Chen, Jessie Y. C. and Hancock, Peter A. (2012): Human-robot interaction: developing trust in robots. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 109-110.

In all human-robot interaction, trust is an important element to consider because the presence or absence of trust certainly impacts the ultimate outcome of that interaction. Limited research exists that delineates the development and maintenance of this trust in various operational contexts. Our own prior research has investigated theoretical and empirically supported antecedents of human-robot trust. Here, we describe progress to date relating to the development of a comprehensive human-robot trust model based on our ongoing program of research.

© All rights reserved Billings et al. and/or their publisher

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Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna, Karwowski, Waldemar, Hancock, Peter A., Marras, William S., Karwowski, Waldemar, Bonato, Paolo and Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna (2012): Multidisciplinary Concepts in Ergonomic Design and Individual Differences in Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1034-1038.

Currently, individual differences are considered to be the most important factors in home-, work-, health- (HWH) related comfortable designs. However in reality, these factors are still abandoned. Future prospective design needs require an intensive multidisciplinary approach to individual differences and performance capacities. The purpose of this panel is to discuss controversial concepts and ideas on individual differences and capacities which should be included in HWH designs. Novel designs necessitate a broad interaction among psychology, physiology, sociology, biomechanics, emerging current health care needs and functional design as an integration of the individual differences within human capabilities and daily necessities.

© All rights reserved Gielo-Perczak et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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Teo, Grace W., Schmidt, Tarah N., Szalma, James L., Hancock, Gabriella M. and Hancock, Peter A. (2012): The Effect of Knowledge of Results for Training Vigilance in a Video Game-Based Environment. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1421-1425.

One of the greatest challenges facing military personnel deployed to combat zones is the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). In spite of advances in IED detection technology, one of the best defenses against IEDs is the vigilant Soldier. The present study compares the vigilance performance of those who were provided knowledge of results (KR) during vigilance training, to those who did not have knowledge of results, using a video game-based vigilance task. KR was effective in improving vigilance, both during training and during a subsequent test phase in which no feedback was provided. These results indicate that video game-based methods may be useful for training sustained attention.

© All rights reserved Teo et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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Schmidt, Tarah N., Teo, Grace W. L., Szalma, James L., Hancock, Gabriella M. and Hancock, Peter A. (2012): The Effect of Video Game Play on Performance in a Vigilance Task. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1544-1547.

Traditional vigilance research typically employs static stimuli presented in discrete trials within a highly structured laboratory setting with few similarities to operational environments. The current study employs a dynamic video game-based environment in which the vigilance task has crucial elements of real world detection tasks, in this case the detection of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). The novel platform for this vigilance task and its similarity to popular video games on the market motivated the current study to compare performance between video game players (VGPs), to non-video game players (NVGPs). The results indicate that, relative to NVGPs, VGPs achieved improved performance on the vigilance task, regardless of whether they received training using knowledge of results (KR).

© All rights reserved Schmidt et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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Teo, Grace W., Szalma, James L., Schmidt, Tarah N., Hancock, Gabriella M. and Hancock, Peter A. (2012): Evaluating Vigilance in a Dynamic Environment: Methodological Issues and Proposals. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 1586-1590.

Decades of vigilance research have contributed much to our understanding of the factors affecting sustained attention. However most of what we know about vigilance has been from studies employing tasks that involve relatively static stimuli presented on relatively uncluttered backgrounds. This bears little resemblance to many modern day vigilance tasks. The present study discusses the challenges and issues in applying the vigilance paradigm and methodology to a dynamic task requiring vigilance in an IED detection task.

© All rights reserved Teo et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

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D'Souza, Melroy E., Hancock, Peter A., Hoonhout, Henriette C. M., Krout, Kelly, Ohme, Phillip J. and Walline, Erin K. (2010): Designing Products to Evoke an Emotional Connection in Users. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1747-1751.

Nowadays, companies are building products (e.g. iPhone, Wii, Xbox360, 1.2" Flat Panel TVs, Dyson Ball, etc.) that literally strike at the heart-strings of users through the emotional connection they seek to establish with customers. It is no longer just about ease of use, usefulness, satisfaction, functionality, but more around building holistic experiences that differentiate products/services and create a strong emotional attachment. In this panel we hope to bring greater awareness of this topic and discuss how the Human Factors community can play a more prominent role in developing products and services that deliver a "wow" experience.

© All rights reserved D'Souza et al. and/or HFES

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Warm, Joel S., Finomore, Victor, Shaw, Tyler H., Funke, Matthew E., Hausen, Michelle J., Matthews, Gerald, Taylor, Purcell, Vidulich, Michael A., Repperger, Daniel W., Szalma, James L. and Hancock, Peter A. (2009): Effects of Training with Knowledge of Results on Diagnosticity in Vigilance Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 53rd Annual Meeting 2009. pp. 1066-1070.

Making accurate diagnostic decisions about signal presence/absence is critical for success in many failure intolerant monitoring technologies requiring sustained attention or vigilance. This study examined the effects of training with knowledge of results (KR) on observer diagnosticity in a vigilance task. Diagnosticty was measured in terms of decision theory measures of positive predictive power (PPP) -- precision in indicating when signals were actually present and negative predictive power (NPP) -- precision when indicating signal absence. Initial training with KR enhanced observers' diagnosticity on a subsequent test task in terms of PPP but not NPP. The picture of performance efficiency reflected by both diagnostic measures differed from results indexed by signal detection theory (SDT) measures of perceptual sensitivity (d') and response bias (c). However as predicted from the computational mechanics of the decision theory and SDT measures, both diagnostic measures correlated positively with d' while NPP correlated negatively with c. These findings indicate that combinations of perceptual ability and level of responding can influence the behavioral metrics signifying diagnosticity in vigilance performance.

© All rights reserved Warm et al. and/or their publisher

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Hancock, Peter A. (1996): Effects of Control Order, Augmented Feedback, Input Device and Practice on Tracking Performance and Perceived Workload. In Ergonomics, 39 pp. 1146-1162.

 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]

 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]

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Manser, Michael P. and Hancock, Peter A. (1995): Endogenous and Exogenous Factors Affecting Estimations of Time-to-Contact. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting 1995. p. 949.

Can the retinal periphery extract time-to-contact information from a radially expanding optical flow field pattern as efficiently as the retinal center? Previous experiments reported have unsatisfactorily answered this question because they have not employed traditional time-to-contact research paradigms or have confounds in the experimental design. To satisfactorily answer this question we have employed a time-estimation research paradigm while controlling for previous confounds. Both males and females viewed a computer generated driving scene depicting a road approaching on a 0 trajectory and another road approaching on a trajectory 40 to the participants left. Participants were instructed to look ahead at a stranded vehicle at all times. A vehicle approached from either the front road or from the side road and was then removed from the scene 40 meters, 60 meters, or 80 meters before collision. Participants pressed a hand held button when the approaching vehicle would have collided with them had it continued traveling down the road. In all conditions, if the car had continued traveling down the road collision with the participant would have occurred. The experiment consisted of a 2 x 2 x 3 (sex by road trajectory by removal distance) mixed design with sex as a between subject factor while trajectory and removal distance were within subject variables. Results of the experiment indicated the retinal periphery is less sensitive than the retinal center to time-to-contact information provided by an expanding optical flow field pattern. In addition, participants underestimated time-to-contact progressively as removal distance increased and the variability of participant's responses increased significantly as removal distance increased. In contrast to previous findings, significant sex differences were not present. Results are discussed in terms of time-to-contact theory and practical transportation applications.

© All rights reserved Manser and Hancock and/or Human Factors Society

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Flach, John M., Hancock, Peter A., Caird, Jeff and Vicente, Kim J. (1995): Global perspectives on the ecology of human-machine systems. Hillsdale, USA, Erlbaum

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Wachtel, Jerry, Allen, R. Wade, Dingus, Thomas A., Evans, Leonard, Hancock, Peter A., McKnight, A. James and O'Neill, Brian (1993): Driving Simulators -- Serious Tools or Frivolous Toys? Part 2 -- A Panel Discussion. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 622-624.

An article in the July 1992 issue of the HFS Bulletin described the development of one of the world's newest and most sophisticated driving simulators, the proposed National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) to be located at the University of Iowa. In the December, 1992 issue of the Bulletin, a letter to the editor by Leonard Evans criticized the article, because, in Dr. Evans' opinion, it added to the literature on the technology of simulation, but continued the unfortunate tradition of a lack of substantive research results obtained from simulation. Evans said: " . . . the community of scholars who have actually studied driver behavior is confident that (the simulator) will make little contribution to better understanding of driver behavior or traffic crashes." Other writers have taken positions similar to that of Dr. Evans. For example, in an interview for an article in Heavy Duty Trucking, Brian O'Neill, the President of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, described NADS as a "waste of taxpayers' money." This debate, which has raged for many years, continues to be joined by others, primarily in print. Is this debate helpful or harmful? Has it helped to focus our thinking on the true merits (or lack thereof) of driving simulators to support human factors research, or has it had the opposite effect? Has it served to stimulate research about simulators or research using simulators, or has it contributed to a reduction in the ranks of those who might use simulators in their work, or to a delay in development, validation and use of simulators? Has it led to a generalized lack of trust of simulation and in the results of work performed with simulators, or has it made no essential difference?

© All rights reserved Wachtel et al. and/or Human Factors Society

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Dember, William N., Warm, Joel S., Nelson, W. Todd, Simons, Karen G., Hancock, Peter A. and Gluckman, Jonathan P. (1993): The Rate of Gain of Perceived Workload in Sustained Attention. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1388-1392.

Perceived workload was measured via the NASA TLX following a visual vigilance task. Five task durations (10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 min) were combined pictorially with two levels of discrimination difficulty (easy, hard) in a between groups design. Detection probability, computed from the final 10 min of watch in each duration condition, varied inversely with signal salience and declined over time. Overall workload varied directly with salience and increased linearly over time. The temporal growth in perceived workload was independent of signal salience. This result suggests that the rate of gain in workload is based upon general features of the vigilance situation rather than specific psychophysical demands such as signal salience.

© All rights reserved Dember et al. and/or Human Factors Society

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Becker, Ami B., Warm, Joel S., Dember, William N., Sparnall, JoAnn, DeRonde, Laura and Hancock, Peter A. (1992): Effects of Aircraft Noise on Vigilance Performance and Perceived Workload. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 1513-1517.

This study examined the effects of exposure to intermittent jet aircraft noise played through stereophonic speakers (70dBA or 95dBA maximum intensity) on performance efficiency and perceived workload in a 40-min visual vigilance task. The noise featured a Doppler-like quality in which planes seemed to approach from the monitor's left and recede to the right. Performance in noise, measured in terms of perceptual sensitivity (d'), was significantly poorer than in a quiet condition. Moreover, in comparison to subjects performing in quiet, those who operated in noise were less able to profit from knowledge of results (KR) regarding performance efficiency. In addition to its negative effects upon signal detectability, noise significantly elevated perceived workload, as indexed by the NASA-TLX. This effect was robust; it was not mitigated by KR, even though KR served generally to reduce the overall level of perceived workload in the study. The consistency of the effects of noise in regard to both performance efficiency and perceived workload challenges a recent conclusion offered by Koelega and Brinkman (1986) that lawful relations are not observable in studies of the effects of noise on vigilant behavior.

© All rights reserved Becker et al. and/or Human Factors Society

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Warm, Joel S., Dember, William N., Gluckman, Jonathan P. and Hancock, Peter A. (1991): Vigilance and Workload. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 980-981.

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Becker, Ami B., Warm, Joel S., Dember, William N. and Hancock, Peter A. (1991): Effects of Feedback on Perceived Workload in Vigilance Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 1491-1494.

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