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P. A. Totterdell


Publications by P. A. Totterdell (bibliography)

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Totterdell, P. A., Norman, Michael A. and Browne, Dermot P. (1987): Levels of Adaptivity in Interface Design. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 715-722.

The term adaptation has been used variously to describe computer systems which are personalisable by either designer or user, systems which fixedly change in response to user or application features and to systems which assess the value of their changes. This paper attempts to identify a coherent framework into which these seemingly disparate systems can be mapped. The foundation for the framework originates from the observation that adaptation relates a system to its environment. A number of levels of adaptivity are revealed by using a model of the computational strategies which can be applied in playing game theory's prisoners dilemma. Sufficiency and boundedness are introduced as key concepts. The levels are reinterpreted by looking at an account of adaptation in evolution. The adaptivity argument is then discussed in the context of explanation types in science and in particular Bechtel's realistic-intentional approach. Some design methodology principles for adaptive systems are suggested with Dennett's notional worlds as a first step in the design. Finally, the paper identifies a taxonomy for adaptive systems and reviews the state of the art in computer adaptive systems with respect to the taxonomy.

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