Number of co-authors:36
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Andrew Monk:Michael Harrison:Richard Young:
John Long's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:John M. Carroll:209Alistair G. Sutcli..:147Andrew Monk:68
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Publications by John Long (bibliography)
Long, John (2010): Some celebratory HCI reflections on a celebratory HCI festschrift. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (1) pp. 68-71. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6V0D-4XV06TC-1/2/712f11d68d919fc764426ddcaafa6fe0
Denley, I. and Long, John (2001): Multidisciplinary Practice in Requirements Engineering: Problems and Criteria for Support. In: Proceedings of the HCI01 Conference on People and Computers XV 2001. pp. 125-138.
Bekker, Tilde and Long, John (2000): User Involvement in the Design of Human-Computer Interactions: Some Similarities and Differences between Design Approaches. In: Proceedings of the HCI00 Conference on People and Computers XIV 2000. pp. 135-148.
Dowell, John and Long, John (1998): Conception of the Cognitive Engineering Design Problem. In Ergonomics, 41 (2) pp. 126-139.
Cited in the following chapter:
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Cited in the following chapter:
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Smith, Walter, Hill, Becky, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1997): A Design-Oriented Framework for Modelling the Planning and Control of Multiple Task Work in Secretarial Office Administration. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 16 (3) pp. 161-183.
Design-oriented frameworks are a type of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) discipline knowledge. They are intended to support iterative 'specify-and-implement' design practice, by assisting designers to create models of specific design problems, within a class of design problem. This paper presents a design-oriented framework for a class of HCI design problem, expressed as a the planning and control of multiple task work in secretarial office administration. The planning and control of multiple task work refers generally to how interactive human-computer worksystems specify and select behaviours for performing multiple concurrent tasks. Secretarial office administration is a sub-class of design problem, in which the work supports communications of the organization commissioning the new worksystem. The framework is based on a conception proposed to support an engineering discipline of HCI. The framework conceptualizes the relationship between an interactive worksystem, its domain of work and the effectiveness, or performance, with which work is carried out. The framework was developed from cognitive science and HCI theory and an empirical case-study of an existing secretarial worksystem. The framework expresses the domain of secretarial work as the state transformation of hierarchies of abstract and physical objects, representing communications carried out by the organization. The description of the secretarial work-system expresses the relationship between abstract processes of planning, controlling, perceiving and executing, and abstract representations of plans and knowledge-of-tasks. Planning heuristics and control rules reflect general properties of the dynamic work domain, such as external interruptions and temporary opportunities. The framework also expresses the relationship between these planning and control structures and performance. In its current form, the framework is incomplete, but illustrates an approach to the development of design-oriented knowledge. Using this type of knowledge, a designer may reason about potential solutions to HCI design problems concerning planning and control behaviours for carrying out multiple task work for secretarial office administration.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Denley, Ian and Long, John (1997): A Planning Aid for Human Factors Evaluation Practice. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 16 (4) pp. 203-219.
The work reported here attempts to address Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design problems by the creation of support for the conceptualization of such problems during evaluation. This support takes the form of a planning aid intended to aid novice human factors practitioners (recently qualified graduates, for example) to evaluate interactive worksystems. The planning aid provides a structure for relating and recruiting techniques used in Human Factors (HF) evaluations. It incorporates relevant information for planning an evaluation (e.g., evaluation methods themselves), and offers advice in the form of heuristics about the use of the methods, their selection, and configuration. The output of the planning aid is an evaluation plan. This paper reports the development of the planning aid, and illustrates its application with a case study. Two assessments of the planning aid with novice HF practitioners are also presented and discussed.
© All rights reserved Denley and Long and/or Taylor and Francis
Long, John (1997): Research and the Design of Human-Computer Interactions or 'What Happened to Validation?'. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 223-243.
This paper argues the need for more effective: human-computer interactions; design of such interactions; and research to support such design. More effective research would result in more effective interactions. One contribution to more effective research would be the specification of relations between research and the design of human-computer interactions in support of the validation of new knowledge. The aim of this paper is to propose such a specification both for HCI and Cognitive Science research and the relations between them. Meeting the HCI specification renders HCI knowledge coherent, complete and 'fit-for-design-purpose'. The paper concludes that specification of relations is required for more effective research support for the design of human-computer interactions.
© All rights reserved Long and/or Springer Verlag
Timmer, Peter and Long, John (1997): Separating User Knowledge of Domain and Device: A Framework. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 379-395.
A framework for modelling user-device interaction is presented. Models constructed with the framework explicitly separate 1) what the operator knows about the work (domain) being carried out, from 2) what the operator knows about the state of the devices used to carry out that work. Using an illustration from Air Traffic Management (ATM), the value of such separation is shown, for the diagnosis of operator behaviour that leads to system ineffectiveness. The design implications of using such worksystem models, in conjunction with domain models, are discussed.
© All rights reserved Timmer and Long and/or Springer Verlag
Long, John (1997): Integrating Human Factors with Software Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 509-512.
Long, John (1997): Twenty-Five Years of HCI: Growth Without Progress?. In: Salvendy, Gavriel, Smith, Michael J. and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 1 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 197-200.
Stork, Adam and Long, John (1997): Structured Methods for Human Factors Research and Development. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 531-534.
Colbert, Martin and Long, John (1996): Towards the Development of Classes of Interaction: Initial Illustration with Reference to Off-Load Planning. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 15 (3) pp. 149-181.
In recent years, a number of difficulties in designing interactions between military personnel and their command and control systems have been identified. These difficulties have been attributed to a lack of carry forward between procurement projects. This paper suggests that lack of carry forward is an integral part of current 'case by case' approaches to HCI. Consequently, a fundamentally different approach to HCI is required. The approach suggested here is a class approach. A class approach to HCI makes class <--> instance relationships between knowledge representations explicit by organising knowledge representations into class hierarchies. Given such hierarchies, procurement projects may consider the relevance of existing knowledge by attempting to locate the problem at hand within the hierarchy. Thus, a class approach to HCI may encourage carry forward by providing: (a) the opportunity to develop multiple instances of classes of interaction by specialising and instantiating class knowledge representations for the instances at hand; (b) the opportunity to apply research knowledge at different levels of development -- to the development of the class and the instance (not just the case); and (c) an additional means of reasoning about the completeness/selectivity of instance knowledge representations -- with respect to relevant, super-ordinate representations. This paper presents an initial illustration of a class approach to HCI. It identifies some key characteristics of a class approach to HCI, and then presents research and development work which exhibits these characteristics. Such an illustration is required, because current understanding about the nature of HCI concerns, and the relationships between HCI knowledge, practices and problems is such that one may not assume that all desirable approaches to HCI are necessarily realisable. Successful initial illustration provides an additional, encouraging precedent for full development of the approach.
© All rights reserved Colbert and Long and/or Taylor and Francis
Long, John (1996): Specifying Relations between Research and the Design of Human-Computer Interactions. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 44 (6) pp. 875-920.
This paper argues the need for more effective: human-computer interactions; design of such interactions; and research to support such design. More effective research for design would result in more effective human-computer interactions. One contribution to more effective research would be the specification of relations between research and the design of human-computer interactions. The aim of this paper is to propose such a specification. Frameworks for specifying relations are proposed for: disciplines; the human-computer interaction (HCI) general design problem; and validation. The frameworks are used to model, and so to specify, the relations: between HCI research and the HCI general design problem; and within the particular scope of HCI, to support HCI research. Together, the models specify the relations between HCI research and the design of human-computer interactions. Meeting these specifications renders HCI knowledge coherent, complete and "fit-for-design-purpose". An illustration of the relations, thus specified, is provided by a model of the planning and control of multiple task work in medical reception and its hypothetical application. The same frameworks are also used to specify the relations between Cognitive Science and the understanding of natural and artificial forms of intelligence. Lastly, they are further used to identify the relations not specified between Cognitive Science and the design of human-computer interactions. The absence of such relations renders Cognitive Science knowledge not coherent, complete nor "fit-for-design-purpose" (as opposed to "fit-for-understanding-purpose"). It is proposed how the relations specified for HCI and Cognitive Science might be used in the assessment of relations between other research and the design of human-computer interactions. Finally, the paper recommends that such an assessment should be undertaken by any discipline, such as Cognitive Science, which claims a relation between its research and the design of human-computer interactions. Such an assessment would establish whether or not such relations are, or can be, specified. The paper concludes that specification of relations is required for more effective research support for the design of human-computer interactions.
© All rights reserved Long and/or Academic Press
Life, M. Andrew and Long, John (1996): Developing University Courses to Enable Students to Specify and Solve Human-Computer Interaction Design Problems. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 63-77.
Aspiring practitioners must be taught to specify and to solve discipline problems. We begin by considering the gap between HCI research and system development, but particularly as it relates to teaching. The gap manifests itself through the dissatisfaction many system developers express with the adequacy of HCI teaching. We next suggest that one reason for the gap lies in the current tendency to teach HCI as a multidisciplinary applied science subject. This tendency results in incomplete and incoherent coverage, not well-suited to the needs of system development. We suggest that a top-down approach to the subject and stronger design orientation should ameliorate some of the weaknesses. We utilize a conception of HCI as a framework for specifying more effective HCI courses. We report the development of a course in the Human Factors of HCI which has exploited the conception, and we informally evaluate the conception as a partial solution to current inadequacies in HCI teaching.
© All rights reserved Life and Long and/or Springer Verlag
Stork, Adam, Middlemass, James and Long, John (1995): Applying a Structured Method for Usability Engineering to Domestic Energy Management User Requirements: A Successful Case-Study. In: Kirby, M. A. R., Dix, Alan J. and Finlay, Janet E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers X August, 1995, Huddersfield, UK. pp. 367-385.
MUSE, a structured Method for Usability Engineering, was created to improve the practice of Human-Computer Interaction practitioners, a practice that is primarily one of designing artefacts that fulfil user requirements. This paper offers a case-study application of MUSE to a set of domestic energy management user requirements to produce an artefact. The paper presents: an overview of MUSE; the necessary features of an application; the user requirements; the details of the application; the resulting artefact; and an assessment of the artefact with respect to the user requirements. Finally, it is argued that this case-study be considered 'successful', where a successful case-study extends the known frontiers of application of MUSE.
© All rights reserved Stork et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Middlemass, James, Stork, Adam and Long, John (1995): Applying a Structured Method for Usability Engineering To Recreational Facilities Booking User Requirements: A Successful Case Study. In: Palanque, Philippe A. and Bastide, Remi (eds.) DSV-IS 1995 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems 95, Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop June 7-9, 1995, Toulouse, France. pp. 311-328.
Lim, Kee Yong and Long, John (1994): Structured Notations to Support Human Factors Specification of Interactive Systems. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven and Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. pp. 313-326.
The paper illustrates the use of structured notations to support the specification of various aspects of a system design; such as organisational hierarchies, conceptual level tasks, domain semantics, human-computer interactions, etc. In contrast with formal or algebraic notations, graphical structured notations are communicated to users more easily. Thus, user feedback elicitation and design validation would be supported better throughout system development. It is expected that the structured notations illustrated in the paper, could be used more widely for two reasons; namely they support more specific task specifications, and have now been incorporated into a structured human factors method. In addition, off-the-shelf computer-based support for the notation is emerging, e.g. PDF.
© All rights reserved Lim and Long and/or Cambridge University Press
Hill, Becky, Long, John, Smith, Walter and Whitefield, Andy (1993): Planning for Multiple Task Work -- An Analysis of a Medical Reception Worksystem. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 314-320. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/169059/p314-hill/p314-hill.pdf
This paper presents an investigation of interactive worksystem planning in the multiple task work domain of medical reception. In an observational study of a medical reception worksystem, three different types of plan were identified: the task plan, the procedure plan and the activity plan. These three types of plan were required for effective working in the domain of medical reception, because of the many similar concurrent tasks, the frequency of behaviour switching between tasks and the need for consistency within the worksystem. It is proposed, therefore, that to design effective interactive human-computer worksystems for the domain of medical reception (and possibly for other work domains of a similar nature), the designer must specify the three different types of plan and the relationships between them. The three types of plan in medical reception are discussed in the context of design issues such as the allocation of planning structures.
© All rights reserved Hill et al. and/or ACM Press
Lim, K. Y. and Long, John (1992): A Method for (Recruiting) Methods: Facilitating Human Factors Input to System Design. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 549-556. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/142750/p549-lim/p549-lim.pdf
The paper proposes that some current problems in recruiting human factors methods to system design might be alleviated by means of a structured human factors design framework. The explicit stage-wise design scope of such a framework would support the assignment of appropriate human factors methods to specific system design needs. As an illustration, the design framework of an in-house structured human factors methodology is reviewed followed by the assignment of a set of existing human factors methods against its design stages. Subsequent steps to develop the assigned methods into a similar methodology are then described. The potential of such a methodology for facilitating human factors input is discussed.
© All rights reserved Lim and Long and/or ACM Press
Smith, Walter, Hill, Becky, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1992): Modelling the Relationship Between Planning, Control, Perception and Execution Behaviours in Interactive Worksystems. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 57-72.
This paper presents a model of planning carried out by interactive worksystems which attempts: 1. To describe the relationship between planning, control, perception and execution behaviours; and 2. To make explicit how these may be distributed across the user and physically separate devices. Such a model, it is argued, is more suitable to support HCI design practice than theories of planning in cognitive science which focus on problem-solving methods and representations. To demonstrate the application of the model to work situations, it is illustrated by examples drawn from an observational study of secretarial office administration.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Long, John (1992): Human-Computer Interaction Engineering: A Laboratory Overview of the Ergonomics Unit, University College London. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 511-514.
Lim, Kee Yong and Long, John (1992): Rapid Prototyping, Structured Methods and Incorporation of Human Factors into System Development. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 1992. pp. 407-417.
In recent years, two apparently opposing approaches for improving human factors incorporation into system development halve emerged, namely rapid prototyping and structured analysis and design methods. Arguments for and against configuring human factors inputs with respect to each of these approaches have become blurred. To clarify the issues, the paper examines how well existing problems of human factors input are addressed by the approaches. In so doing, a case for structured analysis and design methods is established. A specific solution to the problems is then proposed comprising the development and subsequent integration of a structured human factors method with a particular structured analysis and design method. The human factors method is then reviewed and illustrated using a case-study concerning the design of a network security management system.
© All rights reserved Lim and Long and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Carroll, John M., Young, Richard M. and Long, John (1991): HCI Theory on Trial. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 399-401. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/108844/p399-sutcliffe/p399-sutcliffe.pdf
This panel will examine the potential of artifact theory to deliver usable designs in contention with two rival theories, the HCI conception of engineering, and cognitive modelling. The aim will be to explore how well artifact theory and alternative approaches can deliver good design and the contribution the theory makes to the process and product of design.
© All rights reserved Sutcliffe et al. and/or ACM Press
Buckley, Paul and Long, John (1990): Using Videotex for Shopping -- A Qualitative Analysis. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 9 (1) pp. 47-61.
Public access computer systems, e.g. videotex, enable the development of value added services such as teleshopping and telebanking. Potential users may not have any significant experience of computers, or indeed any interest in learning how to operate them. The computers, therefore, need to be simple to use. This paper attempts to identify features of the teleshopping task which contribute to problems of usability. This identification is a pre-requisite for subsequent experimental evaluation and system optimization. First, transactions are described in terms of a general model of the task. The videotex form of a particular transaction -- shopping -- is then examined and expectations of sources of difficulty are derived. The data from an observational study are used to identify sources of difficulty and to establish a set of operationalizable system variables contributing to user difficulties and errors. A model of the user is then described with accounts for such problems of usability in terms of mismatch between knowledge used by the expert ideal user and the knowledge used in real transactions. The errors and the statements of difficulty from the observational study are used again to establish the knowledge sources which mismatched with the ideal user knowledge. Relationships between the system variables and these knowledge variables are identified. The operationalizability of the variables allows subsequent experimentation to quantify their effects, and to confirm the grouping and relationship of system characteristics with the incorrect or inadequate knowledge sources. The findings are intended to contribute to improving videotex transaction systems. The aims and the success of the approach are discussed, along with the role of the models as conceptual organizers.
© All rights reserved Buckley and Long and/or Taylor and Francis
Denley, Ian and Long, John (1990): Towards an Evaluation Planning Aid: A Feasibility Study in Modelling Evaluation Practice Using a Blackboard Framework. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 407-413.
This paper assesses the feasibility of the blackboard architecture as an organisational schema with which to model evaluation practice, and to provide an initial input to the development of an evaluation planning aid for practitioners. The paper illustrates the potential of a blackboard framework as a structure for making explicit the classes of knowledge used by human factors practitioners in the evaluation of interactive human-computer systems. A number of case histories of evaluation practice are modeled in terms of the framework, and provide examples of its applicability. It is concluded that the blackboard architecture has potential as a structure with which to model evaluation practice.
© All rights reserved Denley and Long and/or North-Holland
Monk, Andrew, Carroll, John M., Harrison, Michael, Long, John and Young, Richard (1990): New Approaches to Theory in HCI: How Should We Judge Their Acceptability?. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1055-1058.
Long, John and Dowell, John (1989): Conceptions of the Discipline of HCI: Craft, Applied Science, and Engineering. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 9-32.
The theme of HCI '89 is 'the theory and practice of HCI'. In providing a general introduction to the Conference, this paper develops the theme within a characterisation of alternative conceptions of the discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). First, consideration of disciplines in general suggests their complete definition can be summarised as: 'knowledge, practices and a general problem having a particular scope, where knowledge supports practices seeking solutions to the general problem'. Second, the scope of the general problem of HCI is defined by reference to humans, computers, and the work they perform. Third, by intersecting these two definitions, a framework is proposed within which different conceptions of the HCI discipline may be established, ordered, and related. The framework expresses the essential characteristics of the HCI discipline, and can be summarised as: 'the use of HCI knowledge to support practices seeking solutions to the general problem of HCI'. Fourth, three alternative conceptions of the discipline of HCI are identified. They are HCI as a craft discipline, as an applied scientific discipline, and as an engineering discipline. Each conception is considered in terms of its view of the general problem, the practices seeking solutions to the problem, and the knowledge supporting those practices; examples are provided. Finally, the alternative conceptions are reviewed, and the effectiveness of the discipline which each offers is comparatively assessed. The relationships between the conceptions in establishing a more effective discipline are indicated.
© All rights reserved Long and Dowell and/or Cambridge University Press
Dowell, John and Long, John (1989): A 'Late' Evaluation of a Messaging System Design and the 'Target' of 'Early' Evaluation Methods. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 331-344.
This paper describes a Human Factors evaluation of a messaging system. The evaluation was performed in the course of research developing methods for the ('early') evaluation of system design specifications. The research aims to develop early evaluation methods with the capability for pre-empting ('late') evaluations of implemented designs. The research approach is to investigate empirically this capability of the early evaluation methods. Accordingly, concurrent early and late evaluations of designs are being conducted; their comparison is intended to substantiate the pre-emptive capability of the early evaluation methods. Characterisation of the researchers' late evaluations identifies the particular classes of developers' late evaluation practices they represent. Hence, the 'target' of the early evaluation methods -- that is, the late evaluation practices they can pre-empt -- is being declared. Evaluation of the 'Intermail' messaging system was one late evaluation conducted by the authors for the purposes of the research. In describing the evaluation, the paper also presents its characterisation enabling the target of the early evaluation methods to be declared. The paper discusses the general need for early evaluation methods to declare their targets as a means of qualifying their utility. The paper demonstrates how that qualification can be provided.
© All rights reserved Dowell and Long and/or Cambridge University Press
Long, John and Whitefield, A. (1989): Cognitive Ergonomics and Human-Computer Interaction (Cambridge Series on Human-Computer Interaction). Cambridge University Press
Hammond, N. V., Barnard, Philip J., Morton, J., Long, John and Clark, I. A. (1987): Characterizing User Performance in Command-Driven Dialogue. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 6 (2) pp. 159-205.
To learn to use an interactive system, a person typically has to acquire a good deal of new knowledge. The ease of learning will depend on the extent to which the design of the task and the interface capitalizes on the user's pre-existing knowledge and his or her cognitive capabilities for learning. This paper explores the nature of both design decisions and user learning with a command-based system. Three studies were conducted, all involving a task in which secret messages were decoded by means of a sequence of commands (based on the task used by Barnard et al. 1981). In Study I, software specialists designed command structures for the task and gave reasons for their choices. In Study II, naive subjects chose between alternative command terms. In Study III, subjects learned to use interactive versions of the task in which dialogue factors (command terms and argument structures) were systematically varied. The results enabled the development of user knowledge of the system to be specified in detail. Comparisons across the three studies highlighted the diversity of the factors determining both design decisions and user behaviour.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Long, John (1986): People and Computers: Designing for Usability: An Introduction to HCI-86. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 3-23.
This paper provides a general introduction to HCI-86. First, the theme and aims of the conference are elaborated and the state-of-the-art of HCI assessed, as reflected in the presented papers. Then, areas of HCI poorly represented in the papers are identified to aid delegates make good the omissions by their active participation in the interactive sessions offered by the conference. The different groups making up the HCI community are identified and discussed in terms of their background disciplines. Ways of promoting understanding between the groups are proposed. The importance of the conference as a means for advancing understanding of HCI within the community is emphasised. The wider context within which HCI developments are likely to occur is briefly described.
© All rights reserved Long and/or Cambridge University Press
Johnson, Peter, Long, John and Visick, David (1986): Voice versus Keyboard: Use of a Comparative Analysis of Learning to Identify Skill Requirements of Input Devices. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 546-562.
This paper is concerned with the evaluation of alternative forms of input device, specifically voice recognition and keyboards. Four devices were tested experimentally in a data entry task. The aim of the assessment was to provide, on the basis of a comparative analysis of learning, information concerning the skill requirements of operators, which would allow the selection of a suitable device for parcel sorting. Learning was analysed in terms of two performance indices: percentage errors and time to complete the task or task component. An analysis of learning on each device was carried out. The analysis was used to identify the skill requirements of operation, and to make recommendations concerning the application of the devices.
© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Visick, David, Johnson, Peter and Long, John (1984): The Use of Simple Speech Recognisers in Industrial Applications. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 209-213.
This paper points out, and attempts to deal with, some of the problems that may be encountered when using simple speech recognition systems in industrial applications. An experiment compared a voice recogniser with a keyboard, as the destination input device in a parcel sorting task. The task was represented first by a simple laboratory simulation of the coding sub-task, and then by an authentic simulation using real parcels on a sorting rig. Results showed that voice input may be quite unsuitable for tasks having little or no manual content. Also, for tasks requiring precise sequencing of operations, voice may offer inadequate intrinsic timing feedback. Finally, a practical means of empirical vocabulary optimisation is described.
© All rights reserved Visick et al. and/or North-Holland
Long, John and Buckley, Paul (1984): Transaction Processing Using Videotex or: Shopping on PRESTEL. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 251-255.
The suitability of videotex (VT) for supporting transactional services (including shopping) was assessed, firstly by relating VT technology to a model of transaction processing. Expectations regarding suitability were generally confirmed by an observational study in which naive subjects ordered goods via two different systems. Further assessment involved analysis of user difficulties and errors. These were used to identify variables affecting performance and were modelled in terms of a mismatch between a naive user's incomplete representation of the system and inappropriate representations which interfere with task performance.
© All rights reserved Long and Buckley and/or North-Holland
Johnson, Peter, Diaper, Dan and Long, John (1984): Tasks, Skills and Knowledge: Task Analysis for Knowledge Based Descriptions. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 499-503.
A method for deriving descriptions of knowledge from tasks is described. Knowledge descriptions constitute the basis of a syllabus specifying the training requirements of Information Technology (IT). Task analysis for Knowledge Descriptions (TAKD) is a method which is first used to generate descriptions of tasks, and then to reexpress the descriptions in terms of knowledge. The resulting knowledge descriptions consist of action/object pairs that when combined represent the knowledge content of tasks. The potential application of TAKD to other design problems is discussed and in particular to the design of the Human-Computer Interface and Intelligent Knowledge Based Systems.
© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or North-Holland
Hammond, Nick, Hinton, Geoffrey, Barnard, Philip J., MacLean, Allan, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1984): Evaluating the Interface of a Document Processor: A Comparison of Expert Judgement and User Observation. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 725-729.
Efforts to improve the usability of systems have resulted in the development of several techniques for interface evaluation. This paper explores evaluation through (1) assessment by Human Factors researchers and (2) analysis of user performance. Three pairs of researchers prepared reports on the interface of a document processor. Separately, five novice users were observed learning the system. The two evaluations generated overlapping but separable classes of information. User testing provided low-level information on procedural and conceptual difficulties, while experts provided a more integrated overview and hypotheses concerning the sources of problems.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or North-Holland
Gilligan, Peter and Long, John (1984): Videotext Technology: An Overview with Special Reference to Transaction Processing as an Interactive Service or Everything You Never Wanted to Know About Text on TV and Were Terrified that Someone Would Tell You. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 3 (1) pp. 41-71.
This paper presents a comprehensive overview of videotex technology with specific reference to transaction processing. Transaction processing is taken to include: banking, shopping, ticket booking and the downline loading of software. The overview characterizes the interactive transaction services offered by videotext systems. First, the hardware aspects of delivery of the information are considered including broadcast delivery and telephone and cable network delivery. Second, the software aspects of the construction of the information are discussed, including character and graphics (picture) generation. Last, the interactive services offered on videotext systems are reviewed, including transaction modes, dialogue types, task elements and user classification. Conclusions are drawn with respect to the suitability of videotext systems for different modes of transaction processing.
© All rights reserved Gilligan and Long and/or Taylor and Francis
Bridger, Robert S. and Long, John (1984): Some Cognitive Aspects of Interface Design in a Two-Variable Optimization Task. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21 (6) pp. 521-539.
Three experiments on human performance strategy in a two-variable optimization task are presented. Subjects were required to locate a minimum value on a third dimension by repeatedly specifying values on two other dimensions. Two preliminary experiments investigated subjects' informational requirements in performing the task and attempted an initial characterization of strategy. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of a total record of system responses in the form of a list. This was found to aid performance. Prior knowledge of the minimum value, but not its location, was also investigated. This was not found to aid performance. Experiment 2 compared the list with a partial record of system responses known as the current minimum -- the most optimal state attained up to any particular point in the task. No significant differences between these two performance aids were found. Experiment 3 compared the total record in list form with a total record in the form of a matrix. Superior performance using the matrix was attributed to the two-variable strategy which accompanied its use, in contrast to the one-variable strategy that occurred with the list. Although outstanding hypotheses exist and alternative interpretations are possible, some agreement with previous research was found. Suggestions for the design of optimal user interfaces are given, emphasizing the need to identify critical information for task performance and the relationship between this and the subjects' or operators' strategy.
© All rights reserved Bridger and and/or Academic Press
Hammond, Nick, Jorgensen, A., MacLean, Allan, Barnard, Philip J. and Long, John (1983): Design Practice and Interface Usability: Evidence from Interviews with Designers. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 40-44.
Long, John, Hammond, N. V., Barnard, Philip J., Morton, J. and Clark, I. (1983): Introducing the Interactive Computer at Work: The Users' Views. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 2 (1) pp. 39-106.
This study had two aims: (i) to document the problem of interface usability in terms of the users' views and (ii) to characterize the context within which usability operates by identifying the general set of variables underlying the attitudes of both users and non-users to the introduction of an interactive computer system into their place of work. The particular system studied included an interactive planning package designed for professionals with no programming skills. An in-depth discussion technique was used to collect the views of 16 professional employees working for a large local authority. A total of 440 'statements' were classified in a hierarchy (main headings: pre-planning introduction; effects of the system; use of the system; assessment of the system; general attitudes). Twenty-seven variables (e.g. decisionmaking involvement; skill change; specialist language) and nine contexts over which they operated (e.g. computer applications; departmental relations) were generated from the statements. The study indicated a general problem of usability at the level of the interface, individual relations and group relations. Cognitive and linguistic difficulties in using the system appeared to depend on the command language, the type of user and the class of application. Selective issues are discussed including non-use of the interactive system; the role of the link man; the spread of computer knowledge and skills; and the extent of user insight. Further discussion centres on differing levels of impact, uses of data and an evaluation of the study's methodology.
© All rights reserved Long et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barnard, Philip J., Hammond, N. V., Morton, J. and Long, John (1981): Consistency and Compatibility in Human-Computer Dialogue. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 15 (1) pp. 87-134.
To tackle problems of human-computer interaction the traditional scope of human-machine studies needs extending to include the complex cognitive skills of understanding, communication and problem solving. This extension requires a fusion of the conceptual and empirical tools of human factors with those of cognitive psychology. A methodological approach to this fusion is outlined as a background for three studies of structured human-computer dialogue. The studies involved a task in which secret messages were decoded in a number of discrete steps corresponding to computer commands. Each "command" required two numeric arguments. The study investigated underlying variables using questionnaire techniques in addition to user performance in an interactive version of the task. Three factors concerning the order of arguments in a command string were investigated: the consistent positioning of a recurrent argument, the relationship between argument entry order and their order in natural language, and the relationship between argument entry order and the position of argument values on a VDU. In Study I software specialists were asked to design command structures for the task and to give reasons for their choices. In Study II naive subjects were asked to choose between telegrams in which alternative argument orders were expressed in terms of alternative word orders. In the interactive version of the task, used in Study III, positionally consistent systems were most readily learned, but this depended on having the recurrent argument in the first position. With positionally inconsistent systems there were reliable effects due to the position of the direct object of individual command verbs.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or Academic Press
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