Number of co-authors:40
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Paul Reed:Teresa L. Roberts:Bruce Tognazzini:
John D. Gould's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Philip J. Barnard:47Clayton H. Lewis:37Thomas K. Landauer:32
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John D. Gould
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Publications by John D. Gould (bibliography)
Boies, Stephen J., Ukelson, Jacob P., Gould, John D., Anderson, David, Babecki, Watt and Clifford, Jerry (1993): Using ITS to Create an Insurance Industry Application: A Joint Case Study. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (4) pp. 311-336.
In a joint case study, IBM and Continental Insurance evaluated the use of a new software development environment (called ITS) to implement a portion of an important Continental Insurance underwriting application. IBM and Continental's data-processing management jointly concluded that ITS (a) is fairly easy to learn and use; (b) substantially reduces application development time; (c) is capable of doing a range of Continental applications; and (d) produces applications that are easier to maintain over the years as usage patterns, insurance laws, and evolving technology require that these applications be changed.
© All rights reserved Boies et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Gould, John D., Ukelson, Jacob P. and Boies, Stephen J. (1993): Improving Application Development Productivity by Using ITS. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (1) pp. 113-146.
Perhaps the key problem in application development today is the need to increase the productivity of development organizations. This paper identifies the main factors affecting application development productivity, and then describes a new application development environment (called ITS, which stands for Interactive Transaction System) that is aimed at, among other things, addressing these factors. A unique feature of ITS is the support of multiple, rule-based user interface styles, which has the implication of allowing multiple applications to run in the same style and the same application to run in multiple styles. The results of four case studies of developers using ITS to implement serious applications are summarized, with emphasis upon the effects of ITS on development productivity. These results demonstrate that ITS (a) greatly enhances application development productivity, and (b) provides a mechanism for creating applications that can lead to improved end-user productivity and that of their work organizations. These studies can also serve as a model for how to do human factors work within very advanced technological projects -- ones where the preoccupation of necessity first centers on establishing technical feasibility.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Academic Press
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J. and Lewis, Clayton (1991): Making Usable, Useful, Productivity-Enhancing Computer Applications. In Communications of the ACM, 34 (1) pp. 74-85.
Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1990): Using a Touchscreen for Simple Tasks. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (1) pp. 59-74.
This work was done in the context of an interdisciplinary project (called ITS) aimed at producing new tools for computer application development. One motivation is to provide designers with a computer-based toolkit from which they can select human-computer interaction techniques appropriate to various contexts and conditions. These experiments extend our work to touchscreens, and provide a basis of comparison with keyboards and arrow keys. Three human-computer interaction methods, including basic entry and autocompletion, were studied in two simple laboratory scenarios: participants specified dates and airlines reservations. Autocompletion was preferred over, and was faster than, basic entry. The a priori countable, minimum number of touches required to use a particular interaction method is a good predictor of how much time people will need to use that interaction method on a particular task. Similar results were found previously with keyboards and arrow keys.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Wiecha, Charles, Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J. and Gould, John D. (1989): Generating Highly Interactive User Interfaces. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 277-282.
Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Wiecha, Charles (1989): Transformations on a Dialog Tree: Rule-Based Mapping of Content to Style. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 67-75.
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): ITS: A New Method for Computer Application Development and Prototyping. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 245-248.
Perhaps the one thing that user interface designers most want is tools that will help them (a) quickly visualize their work; (b) carry it out more efficiently and faster; and (c) do iterative design; and (d) allow them to do more work without the need of programmers. An on-going research project (called ITS) is responding to these challenges by developing software tools for user interface and application development, together with providing a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application. Human-computer interface styles are general, rule-based, under parameter control, and designed to handle a variety of applications. Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: content experts, content programmers, style experts, and style programmers. Third, end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each work role.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): Demonstration of ITS -- A Rapid Application Development System for User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. p. 1142.
This note is in connection with a live demonstration of ITS. ITS is aimed at providing fast prototyping of user interfaces in new computer applications (within a few hours of when a designer begins work); greatly reducing the workload in designing, implementing, testing computer applications; insuring excellent, consistent, well-tested interface styles. ITS is a new, comprehensive approach to application development (see in this proceedings Gould, Boies, Bennett, and Green for references). ITS provides software tools for user interface and application development, and a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application.... Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: application (content) experts, application (content) programmers, style experts, and style programmers.... Third, our informal analysis of computer applications indicates that end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. All information that flows across the user interface can be thought of in terms of these four operations.... Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each role.... If successful, ITS will: (a) Reduce the main source of errors in application development today, namely poor customer-programmer communication, by allowing content experts to become implementers (not just interviewees). (b) Reduce the risks and major resistance in carrying out interface design today. Separating user interface style and user interface content allows each to be tested independently without unforeseen, dangerous side-effects. (c) Speed up application development through code re-use and productivity enhancing tools. (d) Relieve severe skill shortages of outstanding programmers and not enough usability people. The best work will be leveraged. (e) Provide a framework for formulating human factors work and insuring that it has impact. In contrast to user interface guidelines, which are instantiated in a book, ITS results are instantiated in a computer-based toolkit.
© All rights reserved Boies et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Mia, Rasamny, Marwan and Vosburgh, Ann Marie (1988): Empirical Evaluation of Entry and Selection Methods for Specifying Dates. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 279-283.
Experienced and inexperienced computer users used seven different interaction methods to specify dates of events. Key results were that the three entry methods were faster, more accurate, and preferred over the four selection methods -- by both experienced and inexperienced computer users. The rank order of performance with these methods was about the same for both groups. Number of keystrokes required by each method was a good predictor of performance time. For selection tasks, decomposing them into separate fields is advisable.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Greene, Sharon L., Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1988): Entry-Based versus Selection-Based Interaction Methods. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 284-287.
Five different human-computer interaction techniques were studied to determine the relative advantages of entry-based and selection-based methods. Gould, Boies, Meluson, Rasamny, and Vosburgh (1988), found that entry techniques aided by either automatic or requested string completion, were superior to various selection-based techniques. This study examines unaided as well as aided entry techniques, and compares them to selection-based methods. Variations in spelling difficulty and database size were studied for their effect on user performance and preferences. The main results were that automatic string completion was the fastest method and selection techniques were better than unaided entry techniques, especially for hard-to-spell words. This was particularly true for computer-inexperienced participants. The database size had its main influence on performance with the selection techniques. In the selection and aided-entry methods there was a strong correlation between the observed keystroke times and the minimum number of keystrokes required by a task.
© All rights reserved Greene et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Mills, Carol Bergfeld, Comstock, Elizabeth M., Dearlove, Judith E., Redish, Janice C., Wichansky, Anna, Celline, Joe and Gould, John D. (1988): Development of Documentation in Real Time. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 328-329.
The primary purpose of this panel is to exchange information on common practices and procedures in the development of documentation for computer products (e.g. user manuals). This topic should be of great interest for anyone concerned with the development of usable computer products since documentation is a major part of the interface for most of these products. Yet documentation frequently receives very little or "last minute" attention from developers and producers. As a result, it is often confusing and difficult to use. The goal of this panel is to discuss problems encountered in developing documentation and what can be done to overcome some of those difficulties. The focus of the panel will be the problems of dealing with limited time and resources, as well as the relationships between different development groups (writers, hardware developers, software developers, and human factor specialists), and the decision-making process.
© All rights reserved Mills et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gould, John D. (1987): How to Design Usable Systems. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. xxxv-xli.
Brown, Polly S. and Gould, John D. (1987): An Experimental Study of People Creating Spreadsheets. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 5 (3) pp. 258-272.
Nine experienced users of electronic spreadsheets each created three spreadsheets. Although participants were quite confident that their spreadsheets were accurate, 44 percent of the spreadsheets contained user-generated programming errors. With regard to the spreadsheet creation process, we found that experienced spreadsheet users spend a large percentage of their time using the cursor keys, primarily for the purpose of moving the cursor around the spreadsheet. Users did not spend a lot of time planning before launching into spreadsheet creation, nor did they spend much time in a separate, systematic debugging stage. Participants spent 21 percent of their time pausing, presumably reading and/or thinking, prior to the initial keystrokes of spreadsheet creation episodes.
© All rights reserved Brown and Gould and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D. and Salaun, Josiane (1987): Behavioral Experiments on Handmarkings. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 5 (4) pp. 358-377.
Handmarkings or handwritten editing marks can be used as direct editing commands to an interactive computer system. Five exploratory experiments studied the potential value of handmarkings for editing text and pictures, as well as for some specific results. Circles are the most frequently used scoping mark, and arrows are the most frequently used operator and target indicators. Experimental comparisons showed that handmarkings have the potential to be faster than keyboards and mice for editing tasks. Their ultimate value will, however, depend on the style and details of their user-interface implementation.
© All rights reserved Gould and Salaun and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D., Alfaro, Lizette, Finn, Rich, Haupt, Brian, Minuto, Angela and Salaun, Josiane (1987): Why reading was slower from CRT displays than from paper. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 7-11.
Gould, John D. and Salaun, Josiane (1987): Behavioral experiments on handmarkings. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 175-181.
Mills, Carol Bergfeld, Bury, Kevin F., Marshall, Catherine, Reed, Paul, Roberts, Teresa L., Tognazzini, Bruce and Gould, John D. (1987): Usability Testing in the Real World. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (1) pp. 43-46.
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Levy, Stephen, Richards, John T. and Schoonard, Jim (1987): The 1984 Olympic Message System: A Test of Behavioral Principles of System Design. In Communications of the ACM, 30 (9) pp. 758-769.
Gould, John D., Lewis, Clayton H. and Barnes, Vincent (1985): Effects of Cursor Speed on Text-Editing. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 7-10.
Nine participants used a full screen computer text-editor (XEDIT) with an IBM 3277 terminal to edit marked-up documents at each of three cursor speeds (3.3, 4.7, and 11.0 cm/sec.). Results show that 9% of editing time was spent controlling and moving the cursor, regardless of cursor speed. The variations in cursor speed studied did not seem to act as a pacing device for the entire editing task.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or ACM Press
Landauer, Thomas K., Gould, John D., Anderson, John R. and Barnard, Philip J. (1985): Psychological Research Methods in the Human Use of Computers. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 41-45.
Psychological research methods have been used with increasing frequency in work on computer-human interaction. Judging from the state of the literature and from remarks heard in the halls at conferences such as this, the utility and appropriate roles of such methods are not yet clear. Panel members, who are all research psychologists working on issues related to human use of computers, will present a variety of contrasting views on how to go about such research, and on its proper goals. John Gould will describe two different but complementary approaches, applied research on general design issues, and formative human factors participation in development. John Anderson will discuss the use of formal models of human cognition. Phil Barnard will consider the role of applied research in the discovery of underlying principles to guide design. Tom Landauer will propose that psychological research can be the basis for invention of new "cognitive tools". Short synopses of the positions they will take are given below. Panel members hope that the audience will join them in bringing out important differences between the various approaches and methods and arguing their absolute and relative merits.
© All rights reserved Landauer et al. and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D., Lewis, Clayton H. and Barnes, Vincent (1985): Cursor Movement during Text Editing. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 3 (1) pp. 22-34.
Nine participants used a full-screen computer text editor (XEDIT) with an IBM 3277 terminal to edit marked-up documents at each of three cursor speeds (3.3, 4.7, and 11.0 cm/s). These speeds occur when a user continuously holds down an arrow key to move the cursor more than one character position (i.e., in repeat or typamatic mode). Results show that cursor speed did not seem to act as a pacing device for the entire editing task. Since cursor speed is a form of system response, this finding is in contrast with the generally found positive relation between system-response time and user-response time. Participants preferred the Fast cursor speed, however. Overall, more than one-third of all keystrokes were used to move the cursor. We estimate that 9-14 percent of editing time was spent controlling and moving the cursor, regardless of cursor speed.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D. and Lewis, Clayton (1985): Design for Usability: Key Principles and What Designers Think. In Communications of the ACM, 28 (3) pp. 300-311.
Gould, John D. and Lewis, Clayton H. (1983): Designing for Usability -- Key Principles and What Designers Think. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 50-53.
Any system designed for people to use should be (1) easy to learn; (b) useful, i.e., contain functions people really need in their work; (c) easy to use; and (4) pleasant to use. In this note we present theoretical considerations and empirical data relevant to attaining these goals. First, we mention four principles for system design which we believe are necessary to attain these goals. Then we present survey results that demonstrate that our principles are not really all that obvious, but just seem obvious once presented. The responses of designers suggest that they may sometimes think they are doing what we recommend when in fact they are not. This is consistent with the experience that systems designers do not often recommend or use them themselves. We contrast some of these responses with what we have in mind in order to provide a more useful description of our principles. Lastly, we consider why this might be so. These sections are summaries of those in a longer paper to appear elsewhere (Gould&Lewis, 1983). In that paper we elaborate on our four principles, showing how they form the basis for a general methodology of design, and we describe a successful example of using them in actual system design (IBM's Audio Distribution System).
© All rights reserved Gould and Lewis and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D. and Boies, Stephen J. (1983): Human Factors Challenges in Creating a Principal Support Office System -- The Speech Filing System Approach. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 1 (4) pp. 273-298.
This paper identifies the key behavioral challenges in designing a principal-office system and our approaches to them. These challenges included designing a system which office principals would find useful and would directly use themselves. Ultimately, the system, called the Speech Filing System (SFS), became primarily a voice store and forward message system with which users compose, edit, send, and receive audio messages, using telephones as terminals. Our approaches included behavioral analyses of principals' needs and irritations, controlled laboratory experiments, several years of training, observing, and interviewing hundreds of actual SFS users, several years of demonstrating SFS to thousands of potential users and receiving feedback, empirical studies of alternative methods of training and documentation, continual major modifications of the user interface, simulations of alternative user interfaces, and actual SFS usage analyses. The results indicate that SFS is now relatively easy to learn, solves real business problems, and leads to user satisfaction.
© All rights reserved Gould and Boies and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D., Conti, John and Hovanyecz, Todd (1983): Composing letters with a simulated listening typewriter. In Communications of the ACM, 26 (4) pp. 295-308. Available online
With a listening typewriter, what an author says would be automatically recognized and displayed in front of him or her. However, speech recognition is not yet advanced enough to provide people with a reliable listening typewriter. An aim of our experiments was to determine if an imperfect listening typewriter would be useful for composing letters. Participants dictated letters, either in isolated words or in consecutive word speech. They did this with simulations of listening typewriters that recognized either a limited vocabulary (1000 or 5000 words)or an unlimited vocabulary. Results suggest that some versions, even upon first using them, could be at least as good as traditional methods of handwriting and dictating. Isolated word speech with large vocabularies may provide the basis for a useful listening typewriter.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D., Conti, John and Hovanyecz, Todd (1982): Composing Letters with a Simulated Listening Typewriter. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 367-370.
Speech recognition is not yet advanced enough to provide people with a reliable listening typewriter with which they could compose documents. The aim of this experiment was to determine if an imperfect listening typewriter would be useful for highly experienced dictators. Participants dictated either in isolated words or in continuous speech, and used a simulated listening typewriter which recognized a limited vocabulary as well as one which recognized an unlimited one. Results suggest that reducing the rate at which people dictate, either through limitations in vocabulary size or through speaking in isolated words, led to reductions in people's performance. For these first-time users, no version of the listening typewriter was better than traditional dictating methods.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or ACM Press
Gould, John D. (1982): Writing and Speaking Letters and Messages. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 16 (2) pp. 147-171.
Twelve participants composed written and spoken letters under various conditions. In the first five experiments they were told which letters to write and which letters to speak. In the last three experiments they could choose their method of composition. Results showed that speaking required only 35-75% of the time that writing did. Written and spoken letters were rated as about equally effective, being characterized more by their similarities than by their differences. When participants could choose a method, they did not always select the method that they said they would under those circumstances. A key theoretical result was that time spent planning was not a constant amount in both methods, but rather a constant ratio. Planning time was about two-thirds of total composition time, regardless of letter complexity.
© All rights reserved Gould and/or Academic Press
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