Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2012
Pub. count:27
Number of co-authors:43


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Monica S. Lam:
Manolis Savva:
Arti Chhajta:



Productive colleagues

Jeffrey Heer's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

James A. Landay:91
Stuart K. Card:73
Jennifer Mankoff:45

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Jeffrey Heer

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Publications by Jeffrey Heer (bibliography)

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Chuang, Jason, Manning, Christopher D. and Heer, Jeffrey (2012): Termite: visualization techniques for assessing textual topic models. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 74-77.

Topic models aid analysis of text corpora by identifying latent topics based on co-occurring words. Real-world deployments of topic models, however, often require intensive expert verification and model refinement. In this paper we present Termite, a visual analysis tool for assessing topic model quality. Termite uses a tabular layout to promote comparison of terms both within and across latent topics. We contribute a novel saliency measure for selecting relevant terms and a seriation algorithm that both reveals clustering structure and promotes the legibility of related terms. In a series of examples, we demonstrate how Termite allows analysts to identify coherent and significant themes.

© All rights reserved Chuang et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kairam, Sanjay, MacLean, Diana, Savva, Manolis and Heer, Jeffrey (2012): GraphPrism: compact visualization of network structure. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 498-505.

Visual methods for supporting the characterization, comparison, and classification of large networks remain an open challenge. Ideally, such techniques should surface useful structural features -- such as effective diameter, small-world properties, and structural holes -- not always apparent from either summary statistics or typical network visualizations. In this paper, we present GraphPrism, a technique for visually summarizing arbitrarily large graphs through combinations of 'facets', each corresponding to a single node- or edge-specific metric (e.g., transitivity). We describe a generalized approach for constructing facets by calculating distributions of graph metrics over increasingly large local neighborhoods and representing these as a stacked multi-scale histogram. Evaluation with paper prototypes shows that, with minimal training, static GraphPrism diagrams can aid network analysis experts in performing basic analysis tasks with network data. Finally, we contribute the design of an interactive system using linked selection between GraphPrism overviews and node-link detail views. Using a case study of data from a co-authorship network, we illustrate how GraphPrism facilitates interactive exploration of network data.

© All rights reserved Kairam et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kandel, Sean, Parikh, Ravi, Paepcke, Andreas, Hellerstein, Joseph M. and Heer, Jeffrey (2012): Profiler: integrated statistical analysis and visualization for data quality assessment. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 547-554.

Data quality issues such as missing, erroneous, extreme and duplicate values undermine analysis and are time-consuming to find and fix. Automated methods can help identify anomalies, but determining what constitutes an error is context-dependent and so requires human judgment. While visualization tools can facilitate this process, analysts must often manually construct the necessary views, requiring significant expertise. We present Profiler, a visual analysis tool for assessing quality issues in tabular data. Profiler applies data mining methods to automatically flag problematic data and suggests coordinated summary visualizations for assessing the data in context. The system contributes novel methods for integrated statistical and visual analysis, automatic view suggestion, and scalable visual summaries that support real-time interaction with millions of data points. We present Profiler's architecture -- including modular components for custom data types, anomaly detection routines and summary visualizations -- and describe its application to motion picture, natural disaster and water quality data sets.

© All rights reserved Kandel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Willett, Wesley, Heer, Jeffrey, Hellerstein, Joseph and Agrawala, Maneesh (2011): CommentSpace: structured support for collaborative visual analysis. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3131-3140.

Collaborative visual analysis tools can enhance sensemaking by facilitating social interpretation and parallelization of effort. These systems enable distributed exploration and evidence gathering, allowing many users to pool their effort as they discuss and analyze the data. We explore how adding lightweight tag and link structure to comments can aid this analysis process. We present CommentSpace, a collaborative system in which analysts comment on visualizations and websites and then use tags and links to organize findings and identify others'" contributions. In a pair of studies comparing CommentSpace to a system without support for tags and links, we find that a small, fixed vocabulary of tags (question, hypothesis, to-do) and links (evidence-for, evidence-against) helps analysts more consistently and accurately classify evidence and establish common ground. We also find that managing and incentivizing participation is important for analysts to progress from exploratory analysis to deeper analytical tasks. Finally, we demonstrate that tags and links can help teams complete evidence gathering and synthesis tasks and that organizing comments using tags and links improves analytic results.

© All rights reserved Willett et al. and/or their publisher

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Kandel, Sean, Paepcke, Andreas, Hellerstein, Joseph and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): Wrangler: interactive visual specification of data transformation scripts. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3363-3372.

Though data analysis tools continue to improve, analysts still expend an inordinate amount of time and effort manipulating data and assessing data quality issues. Such "data wrangling" regularly involves reformatting data values or layout, correcting erroneous or missing values, and integrating multiple data sources. These transforms are often difficult to specify and difficult to reuse across analysis tasks, teams, and tools. In response, we introduce Wrangler, an interactive system for creating data transformations. Wrangler combines direct manipulation of visualized data with automatic inference of relevant transforms, enabling analysts to iteratively explore the space of applicable operations and preview their effects. Wrangler leverages semantic data types (e.g., geographic locations, dates, classification codes) to aid validation and type conversion. Interactive histories support review, refinement, and annotation of transformation scripts. User study results show that Wrangler significantly reduces specification time and promotes the use of robust, auditable transforms instead of manual editing.

© All rights reserved Kandel et al. and/or their publisher

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Robson, Christine, Kandel, Sean, Heer, Jeffrey and Pierce, Jeffrey (2011): Data collection by the people, for the people. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 25-28.

Data Collection by the People, for the People is a CHI 2011 workshop to explore data from the crowd, bringing together mobile crowdsourcing&participatory urbanism researchers with data analysis and visualization researchers. The workshop is two-day event beginning with day of field work in the city of Vancouver, trying out mobile crowdsourcing applications and data analysis tools. Participants are encouraged to contribute applications and tools which they wish to share. Our goal is to provoke discussion and brainstorming, enabling both data collection researchers and data manipulation/analysis researchers to benefit from mutually learned lessons about crowdsourced data.

© All rights reserved Robson et al. and/or their publisher

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Guo, Philip J., Kandel, Sean, Hellerstein, Joseph M. and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): Proactive wrangling: mixed-initiative end-user programming of data transformation scripts. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 65-74.

Analysts regularly wrangle data into a form suitable for computational tools through a tedious process that delays more substantive analysis. While interactive tools can assist data transformation, analysts must still conceptualize the desired output state, formulate a transformation strategy, and specify complex transforms. We present a model to proactively suggest data transforms which map input data to a relational format expected by analysis tools. To guide search through the space of transforms, we propose a metric that scores tables according to type homogeneity, sparsity and the presence of delimiters. When compared to "ideal" hand-crafted transformations, our model suggests over half of the needed steps; in these cases the top-ranked suggestion is preferred 77% of the time. User study results indicate that suggestions produced by our model can assist analysts' transformation tasks, but that users do not always value proactive assistance, instead preferring to maintain the initiative. We discuss some implications of these results for mixed-initiative interfaces.

© All rights reserved Guo et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hangal, Sudheendra, Lam, Monica S. and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): MUSE: reviving memories using email archives. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 75-84.

Email archives silently record our actions and thoughts over the years, forming a passively acquired and detailed life-log that contains rich material for reminiscing on our lives. However, exploratory browsing of archives containing thousands of messages is tedious without effective ways to guide the user towards interesting events and messages. We present Muse (Memories USing Email), a system that combines data mining techniques and an interactive interface to help users browse a long-term email archive. Muse analyzes the contents of the archive and generates a set of cues that help to spark users' memories: communication activity with inferred social groups, a summary of recurring named entities, occurrence of sentimental words, and image attachments. These cues serve as salient entry points into a browsing interface that enables faceted navigation and rapid skimming of email messages. In our user studies, we found that users generally enjoyed browsing their archives with Muse, and extracted a range of benefits, from summarizing work progress to renewing friendships and making serendipitous discoveries.

© All rights reserved Hangal et al. and/or ACM Press

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Savva, Manolis, Kong, Nicholas, Chhajta, Arti, Fei-Fei, Li, Agrawala, Maneesh and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): ReVision: automated classification, analysis and redesign of chart images. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 393-402.

Poorly designed charts are prevalent in reports, magazines, books and on the Web. Most of these charts are only available as bitmap images; without access to the underlying data it is prohibitively difficult for viewers to create more effective visual representations. In response we present ReVision, a system that automatically redesigns visualizations to improve graphical perception. Given a bitmap image of a chart as input, ReVision applies computer vision and machine learning techniques to identify the chart type (e.g., pie chart, bar chart, scatterplot, etc.). It then extracts the graphical marks and infers the underlying data. Using a corpus of images drawn from the web, ReVision achieves image classification accuracy of 96% across ten chart categories. It also accurately extracts marks from 79% of bar charts and 62% of pie charts, and from these charts it successfully extracts data from 71% of bar charts and 64% of pie charts. ReVision then applies perceptually-based design principles to populate an interactive gallery of redesigned charts. With this interface, users can view alternative chart designs and retarget content to different visual styles.

© All rights reserved Savva et al. and/or ACM Press

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Moraveji, Neema, Olson, Ben, Nguyen, Truc, Saadat, Mahmoud, Khalighi, Yaser, Pea, Roy and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): Peripheral paced respiration: influencing user physiology during information work. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 423-428.

We present the design and evaluation of a technique for influencing user respiration by integrating respiration-pacing methods into the desktop operating system in a peripheral manner. Peripheral paced respiration differs from prior techniques in that it does not require the user's full attention. We conducted a within-subjects study to evaluate the efficacy of peripheral paced respiration, as compared to no feedback, in an ecologically valid environment. Participant respiration decreased significantly in the pacing condition. Upon further analysis, we attribute this difference to a significant decrease in breath rate while the intermittent pacing feedback is active, rather than a persistent change in respiratory pattern. The results have implications for researchers in physiological computing, biofeedback designers, and human-computer interaction researchers concerned with user stress and affect.

© All rights reserved Moraveji et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kim, Nam Wook, Card, Stuart K. and Heer, Jeffrey (2010): Tracing genealogical data with TimeNets. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 241-248.

We present TimeNets, a new visualization technique for genealogical data. Most genealogical diagrams prioritize the display of generational relations. To enable analysis of families over time, TimeNets prioritize temporal relationships in addition to family structure. Individuals are represented using timelines that converge and diverge to indicate marriage and divorce; directional edges connect parents and children. This representation both facilitates perception of temporal trends and provides a substrate for communicating non-hierarchical patterns such as divorce, remarriage, and plural marriage. We also apply degree-of-interest techniques to enable scalable, interactive exploration. We present our design decisions, layout algorithm, and a study finding that TimeNets accelerate analysis tasks involving temporal data.

© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or their publisher

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Heer, Jeffrey and Bostock, Michael (2010): Crowdsourcing graphical perception: using mechanical turk to assess visualization design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 203-212.

Understanding perception is critical to effective visualization design. With its low cost and scalability, crowdsourcing presents an attractive option for evaluating the large design space of visualizations; however, it first requires validation. In this paper, we assess the viability of Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a platform for graphical perception experiments. We replicate previous studies of spatial encoding and luminance contrast and compare our results. We also conduct new experiments on rectangular area perception (as in treemaps or cartograms) and on chart size and gridline spacing. Our results demonstrate that crowdsourced perception experiments are viable and contribute new insights for visualization design. Lastly, we report cost and performance data from our experiments and distill recommendations for the design of crowdsourced studies.

© All rights reserved Heer and Bostock and/or their publisher

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Heer, Jeffrey, Kong, Nicholas and Agrawala, Maneesh (2009): Sizing the horizon: the effects of chart size and layering on the graphical perception of time series visualizations. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1303-1312.

We investigate techniques for visualizing time series data and evaluate their effect in value comparison tasks. We compare line charts with horizon graphs -- a space-efficient time series visualization technique -- across a range of chart sizes, measuring the speed and accuracy of subjects' estimates of value differences between charts. We identify transition points at which reducing the chart height results in significantly differing drops in estimation accuracy across the compared chart types, and we find optimal positions in the speed-accuracy tradeoff curve at which viewers performed quickly without attendant drops in accuracy. Based on these results, we propose approaches for increasing data density that optimize graphical perception.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Heer, Jeffrey, Vigas, Fernanda B. and Wattenberg, Martin (2009): Voyagers and voyeurs: Supporting asynchronous collaborative visualization. In Communications of the ACM, 52 (1) pp. 87-97.

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Heer, Jeffrey, Agrawala, Maneesh and Willett, Wesley (2008): Generalized selection via interactive query relaxation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 959-968.

Selection is a fundamental task in interactive applications, typically performed by clicking or lassoing items of interest. However, users may require more nuanced forms of selection. Selecting regions or attributes may be more important than selecting individual items. Selections may be over dynamic items and selections might be more easily created by relaxing simpler selections (e.g., "select all items like this one"). Creating such selections requires that interfaces model the declarative structure of the selection, not just individually selected items. We present direct manipulation techniques that couple declarative selection queries with a query relaxation engine that enables users to interactively generalize their selections. We apply our selection techniques in both information visualization and graphics editing applications, enabling generalized selection over both static and dynamic interface objects. A controlled study finds that users create more accurate selection queries when using our generalization techniques.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Vigas, Fernanda B., Wattenberg, Martin, Heer, Jeffrey and Agrawala, Maneesh (2008): Social data analysis workshop. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3977-3980.

This workshop addresses a new online phenomenon: social data analysis, that is, collective analysis of data supported by social interaction. The recent democratization of data sources on the Internet -- from mandated publication of government-generated data to scientific repositories of experimental data sets -- has enabled a new kind of web site where users upload and collaboratively analyze the most varied sorts of data. So far, most of these sites have relied on visualization as an intrinsic part of their analytical arsenal. The goals of this workshop are to: * Bring together, for the first time, the social data analysis community * Examine the design of social data analysis sites today * Discuss the role that visualizations play in social data analysis * Explore how users are utilizing the various sites that allow them to exchange data-based insights.

© All rights reserved Vigas et al. and/or ACM Press

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Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer and Heer, Jeffrey (2007): Momento: support for situated ubicomp experimentation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 125-134.

We present the iterative design of Momento, a tool that provides integrated support for situated evaluation of ubiquitous computing applications. We derived requirements for Momento from a user-centered design process that included interviews, observations and field studies of early versions of the tool. Motivated by our findings, Momento supports remote testing of ubicomp applications, helps with participant adoption and retention by minimizing the need for new hardware, and supports mid-to-long term studies to address infrequently occurring data. Also, Momento can gather logdata, experience sampling, diary, and other qualitative data.

© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or ACM Press

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Heer, Jeffrey, Vigas, Fernanda B. and Wattenberg, Martin (2007): Voyagers and voyeurs: supporting asynchronous collaborative information visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1029-1038.

This paper describes mechanisms for asynchronous collaboration in the context of information visualization, recasting visualizations as not just analytic tools, but social spaces. We contribute the design and implementation of, a web site supporting asynchronous collaboration across a variety of visualization types. The site supports view sharing, discussion, graphical annotation, and social navigation and includes novel interaction elements. We report the results of user studies of the system, observing emergent patterns of social data analysis, including cycles of observation and hypothesis, and the complementary roles of social navigation and data-driven exploration.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

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boyd, danah and Heer, Jeffrey (2006): Profiles as Conversation: Networked Identity Performance on Friendster. In: HICSS 2006 - 39th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 4-7 January, 2006, Kauai, HI, USA. .

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Heer, Jeffrey, Card, Stuart K. and Landay, James A. (2005): prefuse: a toolkit for interactive information visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 421-430.

Although information visualization (infovis) technologies have proven indispensable tools for making sense of complex data, wide-spread deployment has yet to take hold, as successful infovis applications are often difficult to author and require domain-specific customization. To address these issues, we have created prefuse, a software framework for creating dynamic visualizations of both structured and unstructured data. prefuse provides theoretically-motivated abstractions for the design of a wide range of visualization applications, enabling programmers to string together desired components quickly to create and customize working visualizations. To evaluate prefuse we have built both existing and novel visualizations testing the toolkit's flexibility and performance, and have run usability studies and usage surveys finding that programmers find the toolkit usable and effective.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Heer, Jeffrey and boyd, danah (2005): Vizster: Visualizing Online Social Networks. In: InfoVis 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 23-25 October, 2005, Minneapolis, MN, USA. p. 5.

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Heer, Jeffrey, Good, Nathaniel, Ramirez, Ana, Davis, Marc and Mankoff, Jennifer (2004): Presiding over accidents: system direction of human action. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 463-470.

As human-computer interaction becomes more closely modeled on human-human interaction, new techniques and strategies for human-computer interaction are required. In response to the inevitable shortcomings of recognition technologies, researchers have studied mediation: interaction techniques by which users can resolve system ambiguity and error. In this paper we approach the human-computer dialogue from the other side, examining system-initiated direction and mediation of human action. We conducted contextual interviews with a variety of experts in fields involving human-human direction, including a film director, photographer, golf instructor, and 911 operator. Informed by these interviews and a review of prior work, we present strategies for directing physical human action and an associated design space for systems that perform such direction. We illustrate these concepts with excerpts from our interviews and with our implemented system for automated media capture or "Active Capture," in which an unaided computer system uses techniques identified in our design space to act as a photographer, film director, and cinematographer.

© All rights reserved Heer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Heer, Jeffrey and Card, Stuart K. (2004): DOITrees revisited: scalable, space-constrained visualization of hierarchical data. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 421-424.

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Heer, Jeffrey, Newberger, Alan, Beckmann, Chris and Hong, Jason I. (2003): liquid: Context-Aware Distributed Queries. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht and McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 140-148.

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Davis, Marc, Heer, Jeffrey and Ramirez, Ana (2003): Active capture: automatic direction for automatic movies. In: Rowe, Lawrence A., Vin, Harrick M., Plagemann, Thomas, Shenoy, Prashant J. and Smith, John R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM International Conference on Multimedia November 2-8, 2003, Berkeley, CA, USA. pp. 88-89.

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Heer, Jeffrey and Chi, Ed H. (2002): Separating the swarm: categorization methods for user sessions on the web. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 243-250.

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Hong, Jason I., Heer, Jeffrey, Waterson, Sarah and Landay, James A. (2001): WebQuilt: A proxy-based approach to remote web usability testing. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 19 (3) pp. 263-285.

WebQuilt is a web logging and visualization system that helps web design teams run usability tests (both local and remote) and analyze the collected data. Logging is done through a proxy, overcoming many of the problems with server-side and client-side logging. Captured usage traces can be aggregated and visualized in a zooming interface that shows the web pages people viewed. The visualization also shows the most common paths taken through the web site for a given task, as well as the optimal path for that task, as designated by the designer. This paper discusses the architecture of WebQuilt and describes how it can be extended for new kinds of analyses and visualizations.

© All rights reserved Hong et al. and/or ACM Press

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