Number of co-authors:18
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Sylvie Girard:Lucy Carruthers:Jocelyn Keep:
Hilary Johnson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Laurence Nigay:62Peter Johnson:55Tilde Bekker:32
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Publications by Hilary Johnson (bibliography)
Duggan, Geoffrey B., Johnson, Hilary and Grawemeyer, Beate (2012): Rational security: Modelling everyday password use. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 70 (6) pp. 415-431. Available online
To inform the design of security policy, task models of password behaviour were constructed for different user groups -- Computer Scientists, Administrative Staff and Students. These models identified internal and external constraints on user behaviour and the goals for password use within each group. Data were drawn from interviews and diaries of password use. Analyses indicated password security positively correlated with the sensitivity of the task, differences in frequency of password use were related to password security and patterns of password reuse were related to knowledge of security. Modelling revealed Computer Scientists viewed information security as part of their tasks and passwords provided a way of completing their work. By contrast, Admin and Student groups viewed passwords as a cost incurred when accessing the primary task. Differences between the models were related to differences in password security and used to suggest six recommendations for security officers to consider when setting password policy.
© All rights reserved Duggan et al. and/or Academic Press
Benton, Laura, Johnson, Hilary, Brosnan, Mark, Ashwin, Emma and Grawemeyer, Beate (2011): IDEAS: an interface design experience for the autistic spectrum. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1759-1764. Available online
Designing products and services to meet the specific requirements of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) can be difficult due to their wide ranging and individual needs. Participatory Design (PD) is a design method that could be used to better meet these needs, by giving this population an opportunity to directly contribute to software designed for their use. Researchers have begun to involve children with ASD in the design process, but there is not yet a design method specifically adapted to support the potential difficulties this group may experience during PD sessions. This paper presents a new design method, IDEAS, which attempts to fulfill this need. The development of this method is described along with an initial pilot undertaken to determine the feasibility of using this method with an ASD population. The results indicate that the majority of children with ASD were able to produce a successful final design using this method, and have the potential to be involved in PD sessions as part of a design team.
© All rights reserved Benton et al. and/or their publisher
Girard, Sylvie and Johnson, Hilary (2011): Designing affective animations with children as design partners using role-playing. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 26. Available online
This paper describes a user-centred participatory-design method, novel to the domain of interaction design of affective components for learning, for gathering user requirements from children. The method was considered to be suitable and appealing for children in terms of participating in design, and led to the definition of a sample of digital animations that portray a set of emotional states. The method's main novelty lies in the use of real actors as design partners to express affect, and includes comic strips in the data gathered. This method is believed of value for future design of affective components in educational context by, and for, children.
© All rights reserved Girard and Johnson and/or ACM Press
Girard, Sylvie and Johnson, Hilary (2008): Designing and evaluating affective open-learner modeling tutors. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC08 Interaction Design and Children 2008. pp. 13-16. Available online
Research in educational technology is interested in the creation of learning environments providing an optimized learning experience for its users. Researchers have been seeking design methods and techniques that help create applications capturing the user's attention without distracting him/her from the task at hand. However, there are few ergonomics guidelines, design or evaluation principles/heuristics currently available concerning the learner modeling component of educational software designed for children. The research aims to investigate the impact of embedded interactive user models and emotive interface personas in educational software for primary school children. The contribution of the work will provide an understanding of the design and evaluation techniques that can be used to create attractive learner models, easily accessible and understandable by children, through the use of affective components.
© All rights reserved Girard and Johnson and/or ACM Press
Johnson, Hilary and Carruthers, Lucy (2006): Supporting creative and reflective processes. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (10) pp. 998-1030. Available online
One of the major challenges in computer vision is to create automated systems that perform tasks with at least the same competences as human experts. In particular for automated inspection of natural objects this is not easy to achieve. The task is hampered by large in-class variations and complex 3D-morphology of the objects and subtle argumentations of experts. For example, in our horticultural case we deal with quality assessment of young tomato plants, which requires experienced specialists. We submit that automation of such a task employing an explicit model of the objects and their assessment is preferred over a black-box model obtained from modelling input-output relations only. We propose to employ ontologies for representing the geometrical shapes, object parts and quality classes associated with the explicit models. Our main contribution is the description of a method to develop a white-box computer vision application in which the needed expert knowledge is defined by: (i) decomposing the task of the inspection system into subtasks and (ii) identifying the algorithms that execute the subtasks. This method describes the interaction between the task decomposition and the needed task-specific knowledge, and studies the delicate balance between general domain knowledge and task-specific details. As a proof of principle of this methodology, we work through a horticultural case study and argue that the method leads to a robust, well-performing, and extendable computer vision system.
© All rights reserved Johnson and Carruthers and/or Academic Press
Johnson, Hilary and Hyde, Joanne (2004): Modeling individual and collaborative construction of jigsaws. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 11-12. Available online
Johnson, Peter, May, Jon and Johnson, Hilary (2003): Introduction to multiple and collaborative tasks. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (4) pp. 277-280. Available online
Johnson, Hilary and Hyde, Joanne (2003): Towards modeling individual and collaborative construction of jigsaws using task knowledge structures (TKS). In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 10 (4) pp. 339-387. Available online
Recent years have seen an overwhelming interest in how people work together as a group. Both the nature of collaboration and research into how people collaborate is complex and multifaceted, with different research agendas, types of studies, and variations in the behavioral data collected. A better understanding of collaboration is needed in order to be able to make contributions to the design of systems to support collaboration and collaborative tasks. In this article, we combine relevant literature, past research, and a small-scale empirical study of two people individually and collaboratively constructing jigsaws. The objective is to make progress towards the goal of generating extensions to an existing task modeling approach, Task Knowledge Structures. The research described has enabled us to generate requirements for approaches to modeling collaborative tasks and also a set of requirements to be taken into account in the design of a computer-based collaborative virtual jigsaw.
© All rights reserved Johnson and Hyde and/or ACM Press
Johnson, Peter, O'Neill, Eamonn and Johnson, Hilary (1999): Introduction to This Special Issue on Representations in Interactive Systems Development. In Human-Computer Interaction, 14 (1) pp. 1-7.
O'Neill, Eamonn, Johnson, Peter and Johnson, Hilary (1999): Representations and User-Developer Interaction in Cooperative Analysis and Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 14 (1) pp. 43-91.
Participatory design (PD) and task analysis (TA) have each been widely promoted as amelioratives to the problems of developing systems that meet users' requirements. However, PD methods have tended to focus on design per se, rather than also promoting user-developer cooperation in upstream analysis activities. TA methods have promoted these upstream activities but largely failed to involve users directly in the analysis and modeling work. Hence, there is a need for a broader approach that encourages user-developer cooperation throughout systems analysis and design activities. This article examines the support for user-developer interaction provided by representations of users' tasks and software designs in 2 real-world software development projects that followed a task-based cooperative development approach. In the course of the system development work, the representations were called on to serve a number of different purposes. Task model and paper prototype representations facilitated the development of common ground among the members of the development team through the provision of an external shared model of the object of the development activity and helped to delimit an interaction space in which the cooperative activity was conducted. Weaknesses of the representations as supports for cooperative development included users' reluctance physically to amend the representations and the very strength of common ground developed between the participants that was not explicitly represented in the external models.
© All rights reserved O'Neill et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Johnson, Hilary, Nigay, Laurence and Roast, C. R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XIII August 1-4, 1998, Sheffield, UK.
Johnson, Hilary, Johnson, Peter and O'Neill, Eamonn (1998): Representations in Interactive Software Development: The First International Worlkshop. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (4) pp. 85-87. Available online
Wilson, Stephanie, Bekker, Tilde, Johnson, Peter and Johnson, Hilary (1997): Helping and Hindering User Involvement -- A Tale of Everyday Design. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 178-185. Available online
The importance of an early and on-going focus on users in interactive system design is widely accepted. However, in practice, involving users poses many problems and requires designers to balance conflicting demands. Various factors can hinder or ease the involvement of users. This paper reports a case study involving the design of a bespoke application and gives a detailed account of the obstacles and facilitators to user involvement encountered during the design activity. The obstacles and facilitators are presented in terms of issues such as contacting and selecting users, motivating users, facilitating and mediating meetings and offering points of focus for user contributions. We report and contrast the views of various stakeholders in the design process, and supplement these with our own observations as non-participant observers. Finally, we discuss issues raised by the study and draw out a number of lessons for the CHI community.
© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or ACM Press
Keep, Jocelyn and Johnson, Hilary (1997): Generating Requirements in a Courier Despatch Management System. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (1) pp. 51-53. Available online
Wilson, Stephanie, Bekker, Tilde, Johnson, Hilary and Johnson, Peter (1996): Costs and Benefits of User Involvement in Design: Practitioners' Views. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 221-240.
Many design approaches recommend some form of user involvement in the design of interactive systems, although there has been little empirical research directed towards assessing the benefits to be gained, and costs to be incurred, from having users involved during the design process. Moreover, the work that does exist has tended to take a narrow view, considering the gains and losses primarily from an organizational perspective. This paper offers richer definitions of the costs and benefits by which user involvement might be assessed, emphasizing the contrasting views of different 'stakeholders' in the design process. It presents and discusses two empirical studies conducted in the light of these definitions to examine the costs and benefits of user involvement as perceived by design practitioners.
© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Johnson, Hilary and Johnson, Peter (1993): Explanation Facilities and Interactive Systems. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 159-166. Available online
Our main research aim is to improve the provision of explanation facilities in information systems generally, and to identify what is meant by "explanation". This paper reports research which identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of current research and shows how to overcome those weaknesses. We are also concerned with both present and future uses of explanation in information systems and the role of explanation in a broad range of interactive applications.
© All rights reserved Johnson and Johnson and/or ACM Press
Johnson, Hilary and Johnson, Peter (1991): Empirical Investigation of Different Explanatory Dialogue Styles. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991. pp. 915-919.
The knowledge that people recruit and acquire during the course of an explanatory dialogue is of significant importance to understanding how these dialogues are successfully carried out and ultimately how explanation and learning occur. In this paper a small-scale study is described which investigated the effects of different explanatory dialogue styles on knowledge acquisition by novices. The two dialogue styles manipulated were "active" giving strong spontaneous guidance and "passive", giving reactive guidance. A trend was found for the students in the active dialogue style to acquire more knowledge than the students in the passive condition. However, the difference between the two groups was small, and providing students with strong guidance was costly in terms of expert resources.
© All rights reserved Johnson and Johnson and/or Elsevier Science
Johnson, Hilary and Johnson, Peter (1990): Designers-Identified Requirements for Tools to Support Task Analyses. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 259-264.
The authors are presently developing tools to enable software designers to carry out task analyses (TA). The tools will support a methodology comprising techniques for carrying out task analyses and will also take account of integrating the resulting TA information into system design. To support integration and to identify the requirements for TA tools, a group of designers were surveyed. The survey identified whether designers believe TA would be of use to them and also how, why and where TA might contribute to design. The designers' views of desired characteristics of TA tools, was also sought. This paper outlines the results of this small, detailed survey of what designers want, need and expect from TA tools.
© All rights reserved Johnson and Johnson and/or North-Holland
Johnson, Peter, Johnson, Hilary, Waddington, Ray and Shouls, Alan (1988): Task-Related Knowledge Structures: Analysis, Modelling and Application. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 35-62.
A theoretical and methodological approach to task modelling is described, with a worked example of the resultant model. The theory holds that task knowledge is represented in a person's memory and that this knowledge can be described by a Task Knowledge Structure (TKS). The method of analysis has been developed for carrying out analyses of real world tasks. The method uses a variety of techniques for collecting information about task knowledge. A second perspective of the paper shows how a developed TKS model can be decomposed into a design for a software system to support the identified tasks within the domain of the analysis. This decompositional method uses the structure of frames to provide consistency between different levels of design decomposition.
© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
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