Number of co-authors:50
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Jan Gulliksen:Robert G. Radwin:Susan Harker:
Gregg C. Vanderheiden's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Bill Buxton:78Jan Gulliksen:49Richard E. Ladner:32
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Gregg C. Vanderheiden
Has also published under the name of:
"Gregg Vanderheiden" and "G. C. Vanderheiden"
Personal Homepage: engr.wisc.edu/ie/faculty/vanderheiden_gregg.html
Publications by Gregg C. Vanderheiden (bibliography)
Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Treviranus, Jutta, Gemou, Maria, Bekiaris, Evangelos, Markus, Kasper, Clark, Colin and Basman, Antranig (2013): The Evolving Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII). In: Stephanidis, Constantine and Antona, Margherita (eds.). "Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design Methods, Tools, and Interaction Techniques for eInclusion". Berlin, Germany: Springerpp. 107-116
We are facing a perfect storm where, just as access to ICT is becoming mandatory for meaningful participation, independence, and self sustenance, we find that we not only are nowhere near providing access to everyone who needs it, but we are actually losing ground due to reasons such as technical proliferation across platforms, increasing product churn (breaking existing solutions), decreasing social resources to address it, and an inability to effectively serve the tails of these populations because of the higher cost to do so. At the same time the incidence of disabilities is increasing as our population ages. This paper describes the Cloud4all and Prosperity4All projects and progress in building the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure, an infrastructure based on cloud, web and platform technologies that can increase dissemination and international localization while lowering the cost to develop, deploy, market, and support a broad range of access solutions.
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden et al. and/or Springer
Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Treviranus, Jutta, Usero, Jose A. Martinez, Bekiaris, Evangelos, Gemou, Maria and Chourasia, Amrish O. (2012): Auto-Personalization: Theory, Practice and Cross-Platform Implementation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 926-930. Available online
In an increasing digital society, access to information and communication technologies (ICT) is no longer just helpful but has become a necessity. However, the human interfaces appearing on these ICT (and increasingly, even common household products) are beyond of the abilities of many people with disability, digital literacy, or aging related limitations. Access to these ICT is essential to these individuals yet it is not possible to create an interface that is usable by all. This paper introduces a new approach to auto-personalization that is based on the development of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII). The GPII is a new international collaborative effort between users, developers and industry to build a sustainable infrastructure to make access to all digital technologies technically and economically possible, including access by users who are unable to use or understand today's technologies. Based on a one-size-fits-one approach, the GPII uses auto-adapting mainstream interfaces, and ubiquitous access to assistive technologies when mainstream interfaces cannot adapt enough, to provide each user with the interface they need. The GPII has three main components: a mechanism to allow individuals to easily discover which interface variations they need and then store it in a secure way on a token or in the cloud; a mechanism to allow them to use these stored needs and preferences to automatically adapt the interfaces on the digital technologies they encounter, anywhere and anytime; and a resource for developers (mainstream and assistive technology) providing the information and tools required to develop, disseminate, and support new access solutions more simply, more quickly, and at lower cost.
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Jordan, J. Bern and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2010): ACCESSIBILITY EXPERIENCE LAB: DISCOVERING THE IMPACT OF DESIGN ON DISABILITIES. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting 2010. pp. 1396-1400. Available online
Many accessibility problems of devices and user interfaces could be avoided if the needs of people with disabilities were considered during the design process. This paper describes an accessibility experience lab module which introduces participants to both the barriers associated with disabilities and the impact that simple design changes can have on those barriers. The core of the lab is an experience session where participants are given functional limitations along with tasks at paired stations so they can compare their experiences on devices with inaccessible and accessible designs. For seven years the experience lab has been a part of the curriculum for first-year engineering students at the University of Wisconsin, and over 1700 students have completed it. In the popular lab, the students are engaged and report interest and insights into design for disabilities. Materials are available at www.trace.wisc.edu/training/explab/.
© All rights reserved Jordan and Vanderheiden and/or HFES
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2008): Ubiquitous Accessibility, Common Technology Core, and Micro-Assistive Technology: Commentary on "Computers and People with Disabilities. In ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 1 (2) p. 10. Available online
Much has changed since 1992 when the original CACM article by Ephraim Glinert and Bryant York was published. In the early 1990's, accessibility was mostly an add-on, with only Apple computers having built-in access. Computers were playing an increasingly important role in education and employment, but had not yet completely integrated themselves into all aspects of life as completely as they have today. The World Wide Web as we know it had not yet been born. Today there are accessibility features built directly into every major operating system, and one OS even includes a built-in screen reader. Assistive technologies are more numerous and capable. And awareness of the importance of access is much higher. However, some things have not changed. Assistive technologies lag behind mainstream technologies in both compatibility and functionality. Effective assistive technologies are often beyond the financial reach of those who need them. Effective assistive technologies are not available in many countries and many languages, even though technology is reaching into education, employment, and daily living of more countries and more people in each country every year. In moving forward we need to build on what we have achieved and explore new concepts, such as a common technical core, ubiquitous accessibility, micro assistive technology, and free public accessibility. Cooperative and collaborative approaches also need to be explored if we are to have any hope of catching up and keeping up with the ever-accelerating mainstream information and communication technologies.
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden and/or ACM Press
Sesto, Mary, Nelson, Regina, Yan, Long and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2008): Evaluation of an experimental mainstream cellular phone feature to allow use by individuals with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 7 (1) pp. 25-30. Available online
This proof-of-concept study evaluated the ability of individuals with moderate to severe cognitive impairments to use a mainstream cellular phone that was programmed with two new experimental interfaces (Flip and Picture modes). Success in placing a call was measured following a brief demonstration or instruction in phone use and again after a brief distraction. Sixteen individuals with Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranging from 6 to 19 (mean= 12.31, SD=4.39) participated. The success rate using the Standard dialing mode was 12.5% during the instruction phase and 6.3% in the carryover phase. The Flip mode resulted in a 100% success rate for both the Instruction and Carryover phases; the Picture mode resulted in a 100% success rate in the Instruction phase and 81.3% success rate during Carryover phase. A potential application of this work is that mainstream cellular phones could be designed to include a simple feature that would make them usable by people with moderate to severe cognitive disabilities.
© All rights reserved Sesto et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Zimmermann, Gottfried and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2008): Accessible design and testing in the application development process: considerations for an integrated approach. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 7 (1) pp. 117-128. Available online
Accessible design principles should permeate virtually all phases of the application development cycle, using existing "best practices of software engineering" for accessibility purposes. This paper proposes a methodology for accessible design and testing that includes proven tools of software engineering, namely use cases and scenarios, to capture functional requirements. Guidelines developed through user testing and heuristics are made real using personas to exemplify accessibility requirements, reflecting a diversity of user capabilities and use contexts. For implementation and testing, test cases containing accessibility checkpoints are generated, based on the guidelines. Complementary to this methodology, expert reviews and user testing should be conducted for evaluation of the developed products and further refinement of the development process.
© All rights reserved Zimmermann and Vanderheiden and/or Springer Verlag
Zimmermann, Gottfried and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2007): The Universal Control Hub: An Open Platform for Remote User Interfaces in the Digital Home. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 1040-1049. Available online
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Zimmermann, Gottfried (2007): Non-homogenous Network, Control Hub and Smart Controller (NCS) Approach to Incremental Smart Homes. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Ambient Interaction, 4th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, UAHCI 2007 Held as Part of HCI International 2007 Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007 Proceedings, Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 238-244. Available online
Trewin, Shari, Zimmermann, Gottfried and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2004): Abstract representations as a basis for usable user interfaces. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (3) pp. 477-506. Available online
This article examines four existing or proposed standards for abstract description of user interfaces: UIML, XIML, XForms and URC. These are assessed with respect to a "universal remote console" scenario, in which abstract user interface descriptions enable any user to access and control any compliant device or service in the local environment, using any personal device. Achieving usable interfaces in this scenario requires an abstract language that (a) separates data from presentation; (b) explicitly declares interface elements, their state, dependencies, and semantics; (c) incorporates alternative resources in a flexible way; and (d) supports remote control and different interaction styles. Of the technologies examined, XForms and URC provide the best match to the requirements. While XForms requires an appropriate context of use to provide full access, the URC standard will include specification of the context in which the language is to be used. Two specific research challenges are identified: semantic tagging and the development of effective authoring processes.
© All rights reserved Trewin et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Gulliksen, Jan, Harker, Susan and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2004): Guidelines, standards, methods and processes for software accessibility. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 3 (1) pp. 1-5. Available online
Trewin, Shari, Zimmermann, Gottfried and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2003): Abstract user interface representations: how well do they support universal access?. In: Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2003. pp. 77-84. Available online
This paper examines four XML languages for abstract user interface representation: UIML, XIML, XForms and AIAP. It discusses whether the high level architectures of these languages support the requirements of universal usability by allowing use of personal interfaces. Specific technical requirements include separation of data from presentation, explicit declarative representation of interface elements, their state, dependencies, and semantics, flexibility in inclusion of alternative resources and support for remote control and different interaction styles. Of the languages examined, XForms and AIAP provide the best match to the requirements. While XForms requires an appropriate delivery context to provide full access, the AIAP standard will include specification of the context in which the language is to be used.
© All rights reserved Trewin et al. and/or ACM Press
Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Zimmermann, G. and Trewin, Shari (2003): A Standard for Controlling Ubiquitous Computing and Environmental Resources from Any Personal Device. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 499-506.
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2003): Universal Interface Sockets and Virtual AT as Access Approaches for People with Severe, Extreme, and Multiple Disabilities. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1055-1062.
Zimmermann, Gottfried, Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Gilman, Al (2002): Universal Remote Console -- Prototyping for the Alternate Interface Access Standard. In: Carbonell, Noelle and Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 23-25, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 524-531.
A Universal Remote Console is a device that can be used to operate any compatible services or devices. The Universal Remote Console (URC) renders a user interface for the target service or device in a way that accommodates the user's needs and preferences. The V2 technical committee of the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) is currently developing a standard for "Alternative User Interface Access" that includes URCs. This paper describes preliminary design aspects of the standard under development, in particular an XML-based language that is used to communicate an abstract user interface definition for the target service or device to a URC. Prototypical implementations for URCs developed at the Trace Center serve as the basis for experimental research for the standard under development, and will be demonstrated at the workshop.
© All rights reserved Zimmermann et al. and/or Springer Verlag
Chisholm, Wendy, Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Jacobs, Ian (2001): Web content accessibility guidelines 1.0. In Interactions, 8 (4) pp. 35-54. Available online
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2001): Development of generic accessibility/ability usability design guidelines for electronic and information technology products. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 635-639.
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2000): Fundamental Principles and Priority Setting for Universal Usability. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 32-37. Available online
There are a number of interrelating factors that must be considered and weighed against each other when deciding which features or capabilities should be added to a product to increase its flexibility and usability by a wider range of users. Not all strategies or approaches are created equal, and designers have limited resources in developing and improving products. It is, therefore, important that the different dimensions of usability be understood and that priorities be applied appropriately. This paper attempts to delineate some of the key dimensions of usability and to begin the process of providing a rationale for prioritization between possible changes to a product's interface. The paper discusses a multidimensional prioritization approach that is coupled to a vector-based usability evaluation procedure currently being developed.
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden and/or ACM Press
Law, Chris and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (2000): The Development of a Simple, Low Cost Set of Universal Access Features for Electronic Devices. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 118-123. Available online
A simple set of universal access features has been developed, which can be applied to almost any public or personal electronic device, providing access for people with a wide variety of sensory and physical disabilities, and a wide variety of functional limitations imposed by circumstance. Implementing the features require adding one to three buttons to the device (or using existing buttons on a device if appropriate), adding speech output and enhancing the programming of the device to utilize the techniques. In our experience, thus far, adding these features can be done for approximately 1% or less of the retail value of the device. This paper introduces the access features (collectively called EZ Access TM, pronounced "easy access"), and discusses some of the key underlying principles which make the features easy to learn and use. Other issues concerning industrial transfer or the techniques are also discussed.
© All rights reserved Law and Vanderheiden and/or ACM Press
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1997): Use of a Common Table Architecture for Creating Hands Free, Eyes Free, Noisy Environment (Flex-Modal, Flex-Input) Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1997. pp. 449-452.
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1997): Cross Disability Access to Touch Screen Kiosks and ATMs. In: Salvendy, Gavriel, Smith, Michael J. and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 1 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 417-420.
Laux, Lila, McNally, Peter R., Paciello, Michael G. and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1996): Designing the World Wide Web for People with Disabilities: A User Centered Design Approach. In: Second Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1996. pp. 94-101. Available online
The emergence of the World Wide Web has made it possible for individuals with appropriate computer and telecommunications equipment to interact as never before. An explosion of next-generation information systems are flooding the commercial market. This cyberspace convergence of data, computers, networks, and multimedia presents exciting challenges to interface designers. However, this "new technology frontier" has also created enormous roadblocks and barriers for people with disabilities. This panel will discuss specific issues, suggest potential solutions and solicit contributions required to design an accessible Web interface that includes people with disabilities.
© All rights reserved Laux et al. and/or ACM Press
Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Chisholm, Wendy A. and Ewers, Neal (1996). Design of HTML pages to increase their accessibility to users with disabilities, Strategies for today and tomorrow. University of Wisconsin - Madison
Mital, A., Deivanayagam, S., Malzahn, D., Wiker, S., Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Freivalds, Andris (1994): Educating People with Disabilities. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. p. 417.
Accommodating individuals with disabilities in the workplace is a rapidly growing concern. Furthermore, those who are functionally impaired are in a dire need of assistance. In a classroom, the main function of a student is to learn. Learning is facilitated by an instructor's lectures, writings on the board, use of audiovisuals, etc. Generally, it is presumed that students do not have any common functional impairments (visual, auditory, etc.) and, therefore, no special effort is made to accommodate those who may have such impairments. Obviously, the learning of a legally-blind student or one who has impaired hearing, for example, will be compromised if no assistance is provided. Then there are issues such as providing reading materials for the blind (college catalogues, lecture notes, etc., in braille?). What should be done? The purpose of this panel discussion is to, in general, address and discuss the issues involved in educating people with disabilities, particularly those that are not very obvious or visible (ex., wheelchair confinement). How should university campuses resolve this problem in this age of dwindling resources? Sensitive issues, such as "Needs of the many versus the needs of the few?" and "What responsibility do we have to the few that really need such assistance?", also need to be resolved.
© All rights reserved Mital et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Mendenhall, John (1994): Use of a Two-Class Model to Analyze Applications and Barriers to the Use of Virtual Reality by People with Disabilities. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 3 (3) pp. 193-200.
Wiker, Steven F., Vanderheiden, Gregg C. and Lee, Seongil (1993): Development of Tactile Displays for Blind Access to Computers. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. .
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1993): Use of Seamless Access Protocol to Expand the Human Interface of Next-Generation Information Systems and Appliances. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 492-497.
The area of appliance-level information/transaction systems exists now only in its infancy, but will, as it matures, emerge even more rapidly than did personal computers. This is in part because the costs will be lower. More importantly, however, the information systems will be designed to be very user-friendly, they will address the information needs of daily living of a much broader range of people, and they will be delivered directly into our homes as well as public environments. As a result, these technologies are likely to affect the lives of a much greater number of people with disabilities than has the use of personal computers. The importance of extending the human interface of these systems to include access by people with disabilities will therefore be more important, and may be required by law. To address this issue, a "seamless" approach to extending the interface of public and standard consumer product information appliances is proposed to allow their use by people with reduced physical or sensory abilities. This seamless interface protocol would allow an interface to take full advantage of the sensory and motor systems of people without limitations to maximize their ease and convenience in using the information systems (including graphics and touch windows) while providing the interface adjustability to adapt to people with temporary or permanent limitations in their physical or sensory abilities (including total blindness) to allow them to access and use the information systems as well. Key to the seamless approach is the ability to provide access to the information using the same underlying flow control (rather than a separate interface protocol for specific disabilities) and its ability to adapt to a wide variety of interface/presentation designs. Using the same underlying flow control allows users with only mild limitations to invoke only those aspects of the interface options necessary to meet their needs, and allows them to work the system in the same basic manner and to access the same information as their peers (both without and with severe disabilities). The use of a general protocol rather than a specific interface format provides manufacturers with the ability to vary the interface for their products as is necessary to innovate and to differentiate their products from others. The use of standard underlying and predictable interface/control options and conventions (the protocol) allows people with sensorimotor limitations to approach and use these very different-appearing systems without special instructions (in the same way that conventions are used in most interfaces, so that the public at large is be able to figure out new information systems and kiosks as they encounter them).
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden and/or Elsevier Science
Lee, S., Wiker, S. F. and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1993): Interactive Haptic Interface: Two-Dimensional Form Perception for Blind Access to Computers. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 190-195.
Eight sighted college students tactually explored line drawings on a computer screen using an Optacon. Particular forms of primitive elements were shown to significantly affect the likelihood of correct identification of the shapes. Configuration of the tactile array does not appear to affect the perception of two-dimensional graphic forms. The findings of this study have implications in the design of tactile communication systems, especially graphic computer access systems for people with visual impairments.
© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1993): Use of Seamless Access Protocol to Expand the Hman Interface of Next Generation Information Systems and Appliances. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) HCI International 1993 - Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 1 August 8-13, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 492-497.
Lin, Mei-Li, Radwin, Robert G. and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1992): Gain Effects on Performance Using a Head-Controlled Computer Input Device. In Ergonomics, 35 pp. 159-175.
Cited in the following chapter:
: [Not yet published]
Cited in the following chapter:
: [Not yet published]
Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Boyd, Wesley, Mendenhall, Jr. John H. and Ford, Kelly (1991): Development of a Multisensory Nonvisual Interface to Computers for Blind Users. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 315-318.
The advent of graphic-based display environments such as those found on the Macintosh, Windows, OS/2 Presentation Manager, and X Windows, has the potential for providing barriers for individuals with visual impairments, particularly those who are blind. The problems stem from three factors. First, the information being displayed on the screen has shifted from a character-based format that was stored in an ASCII text buffer to a pixel-based format. This makes it much more difficult for screen reading software to determine what characters are on the screen. Second, text-based systems used a single font and relatively few attributes (bold, underline). On the graphic displays, text can assume a very large variety of sizes, fonts, and attributes (bold, underline, italic, crossed out, etc.). When these font changes or attributes contain information, they complicate the process of presenting information via speech or braille. Third, the advent of the graphics-based system has led to much more widespread incorporation of graphic elements, such as charts, diagrams, and pictures, within the text. The new systems also introduce a number of advantages or opportunities for individuals with severe visual impairments or who are blind. Both the consistency of the human interface among applications and the use of system tools in the display process hold the potential for providing access to a broader range of applications for persons who are blind, if an effective human interface to these operating systems can be developed. The Systems X project is using a multi-sensory approach to explore techniques for providing an effective and efficient interface to graphic-based by people who are blind. A prototype system, dubbed "Systems 3," has been developed which uses speech input/output, the keyboard, and a virtual tactile tablet to allow individuals to access both text and graphic elements in the system. Using the prototype, individuals who are completely blind have been able to use a Macintosh computer, access and read text documents, and handle simple to moderate graphic elements such as bar charts. A series of research studies is now ongoing to test the limits of the access and to quantify the relative efficacy of various approaches to providing a nonvisual interface to these graphic-based operating environments.
© All rights reserved Vanderheiden et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Wiker, Steven F., Vanderheiden, Gregg C., Lee, Seongil and Arndt, Steven (1991): Development of Tactile Mice for Blind Access to Computers: Importance of Stimulation Locus, Object Size, and Vibrotactile Display Resolution. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 708-712.
Graphics are used increasingly in the interface and portrayal of information in application software used by modern computers. This approach, while of benefit to the sighted population, produces significant perceptual and usability problems for the blind. This paper presents the findings of a set of experiments that were conducted to evaluate recognition performance for unseen graphic objects when: a) vibrotactile cutaneous stimuli are directly presented to either the dominant hand tasked with maneuvering a mouse-driven screen sensor, or to the nonactive hand, b) graphical element size and geometric complexity are varied, and c) pixel-to-tactor mapping ratios are varied. Results showed that kinesthetic cues, and pixel-to-tactor resolution of the vibrotactile display were far more important in terms of recognition accuracy and response rate than the locus of cutaneous stimulation.
© All rights reserved Wiker et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Ladner, Richard E., McDonough, Francis A., Roth, William, Scadden, Lawrence A. and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1988): Public Law 99-506, "Section 508" Electronic Equipment Accessibility for Disabled Workers. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 219-222.
Buxton, Bill, Scadden, Lawrence A., Foulds, Richard, Shein, Fraser, Rosenstein, Mark and Vanderheiden, Gregg C. (1986): Human Interface Design and the Handicapped User. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 291-297.
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