Publication statistics

Pub. period:2010-2012
Pub. count:5
Number of co-authors:4


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Regan L. Mandryk:
Scott Bateman:
Lennart E. Nacke:



Productive colleagues

David R. Flatla's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Carl Gutwin:116
Regan L. Mandryk:29
Scott Bateman:6

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David R. Flatla


Publications by David R. Flatla (bibliography)

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Flatla, David R. and Gutwin, Carl (2012): "So that's what you see": building understanding with personalized simulations of colour vision deficiency. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 167-174.

Colour vision deficiencies (CVD) affect the everyday lives of a large number of people, but it is difficult for others -- even friends and family members -- to understand the experience of having CVD. Simulation tools can help provide this experience; however, current simulations are based on general models that have several limitations, and therefore cannot accurately reflect the perceptual capabilities of most individuals with reduced colour vision. To address this problem, we have developed a new simulation approach that is based on a specific empirical model of the actual colour perception abilities of a person with CVD. The resulting simulation is therefore a more exact representation of what a particular person with CVD actually sees. We tested the new approach in two ways. First, we compared its accuracy with that of the existing models, and found that the personalized simulations were significantly more accurate than the old method. Second, we asked pairs of participants (one with CVD, and one close friend or family member without CVD) to discuss images of everyday scenes that had been simulated with the CVD person's particular model. We found that the personalized simulations provided new insights into the details of the CVD person's experience. The personalized-simulation approach shows great promise for improving understanding of CVD (and potentially other conditions) for people with ordinary perceptual abilities.

© All rights reserved Flatla and Gutwin and/or ACM Press

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Flatla, David R. and Gutwin, Carl (2011): Improving calibration time and accuracy for situation-specific models of color differentiation. In: Thirteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2011. pp. 195-202.

Color vision deficiencies (CVDs) cause problems in situations where people need to differentiate the colors used in digital displays. Recoloring tools exist to reduce the problem, but these tools need a model of the user's color-differentiation ability in order to work. Situation-specific models are a recent approach that accounts for all of the factors affecting a person's CVD (including genetic, acquired, and environmental causes) by using calibration data to form the model. This approach works well, but requires repeated calibration -- and the best available calibration procedure takes more than 30 minutes. To address this limitation, we have developed a new situation-specific model of human color differentiation (called ICD-2) that needs far fewer calibration trials. The new model uses a color space that better matches human color vision compared to the RGB space of the old model, and can therefore extract more meaning from each calibration test. In an empirical comparison, we found that ICD-2 is 24 times faster than the old approach, and had small but significant gains in accuracy. The efficiency of ICD-2 makes it feasible for situation-specific models of individual color differentiation to be used in the real world.

© All rights reserved Flatla and Gutwin and/or ACM Press

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Flatla, David R., Gutwin, Carl, Nacke, Lennart E., Bateman, Scott and Mandryk, Regan L. (2011): Calibration games: making calibration tasks enjoyable by adding motivating game elements. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 403-412.

Interactive systems often require calibration to ensure that input and output are optimally configured. Without calibration, user performance can degrade (e.g., if an input device is not adjusted for the user's abilities), errors can increase (e.g., if color spaces are not matched), and some interactions may not be possible (e.g., use of an eye tracker). The value of calibration is often lost, however, because many calibration processes are tedious and unenjoyable, and many users avoid them altogether. To address this problem, we propose calibration games that gather calibration data in an engaging and entertaining manner. To facilitate the creation of calibration games, we present design guidelines that map common types of calibration to core tasks, and then to well-known game mechanics. To evaluate the approach, we developed three calibration games and compared them to standard procedures. Users found the game versions significantly more enjoyable than regular calibration procedures, without compromising the quality of the data. Calibration games are a novel way to motivate users to carry out calibrations, thereby improving the performance and accuracy of many human-computer systems.

© All rights reserved Flatla et al. and/or ACM Press

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Flatla, David R. (2011): Accessibility for individuals with color vision deficiency. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 31-34.

Individuals with Color Vision Deficiency (CVD) are often unable to distinguish between colors that individuals without CVD can distinguish. Recoloring tools exist that modify the colors in an image so they are more easily distinguishable for those with CVD. These tools use models of color differentiation that rely on many assumptions about the environment and user. However, these assumptions rarely hold in real-world use cases, leading to incorrect color modification by recoloring tools. In this doctoral symposium, I will present Situation-Specific Models (SSMs) as a solution to this problem. SSMs are color differentiation models created in-situ via a calibration procedure. This calibration procedure captures the exact color differentiation abilities of the user, allowing a color differentiation model to be created that fits the user and his/her environmental situation. An SSM-based recoloring tool will be able to provide recolored images that most accurately reflect the color differentiation abilities of a particular individual in a particular environment.

© All rights reserved Flatla and/or ACM Press

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Flatla, David R. and Gutwin, Carl (2010): Individual models of color differentiation to improve interpretability of information visualization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2563-2572.

Color is commonly used to represent categories and values in many computer applications, but differentiating these colors can be difficult in many situations (e.g., for users with color vision deficiency (CVD), or in bright light). Current solutions to this problem can adapt colors based on standard simulations of CVD, but these models cover only a fraction of the ways in which color perception can vary. To improve the specificity and accuracy of these approaches, we have developed the first ever individualized model of color differentiation (ICD). The model is based on a short calibration performed by a particular user for a particular display, and so automatically covers all aspects of the user's ability to see and differentiate colors in an environment. In this paper we introduce the new model and the manner in which differentiability limits are predicted. We gathered empirical data from 16 users to assess the model's accuracy and robustness. We found that the model is highly effective at capturing individual differentiation abilities, works for users with and without CVD, can be tuned to balance accuracy and color availability, and can serve as the basis for improved color adaptation schemes.

© All rights reserved Flatla and Gutwin and/or their publisher

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