Number of co-authors:42
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Craig Rosenberg:6Claudia M. Hendrix:5Karl-Erik Bystrom:3
Woodrow Barfield's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Gavriel Salvendy:149Christopher D. Wic..:75Steve Mann:53
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Woodrow Barfield served as Professor and Director of the Sensory Engineering Laboratory at the University of Washington. He has degrees in engineering and intellectual property law and has served on the editorial board of Presence and the Virtual Reality Journal.
Publications by Woodrow Barfield (bibliography)
Barfield, Woodrow (2009): On money, taxes, and property in virtual reality. In Virtual Reality, 13 (1) pp. 37-39. Available online
Barfield, Woodrow (2007): The right of publicity in virtual reality. In Virtual Reality, 11 (1) pp. 69-70. Available online
Barfield, Woodrow (2005): Issues of Law for Software Agents within Virtual Environments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 14 (6) pp. 741-748. Available online
Edwards, Gregory W., Barfield, Woodrow and Nussbaum, Maury A. (2004): The use of force feedback and auditory cues for performance of an assembly task in an immersive virtual environment. In Virtual Reality, 7 (2) pp. 112-119. Available online
Mann, Steve and Barfield, Woodrow (2003): Introduction to Mediated Reality. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 15 (2) pp. 205-208.
Barfield, Woodrow and Caudell, Thomas (eds.) (2001): Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality. CRC Press
Fundamentals of Wearable Computers and Augmented Reality presents a broad coverage of the technologies and interface design issues associated with wearable computers and augmented reality displays both rapidly developing fields in computer science, engineering, and human interface design. This book presents concepts related to the use and underlying technologies of augmented reality and wearable computer systems. There are many application areas for this technology, such as medicine, manufacturing, training, and recreation. Wearable computers will allow a much closer association of information with the user than is possible with traditional desktop computers. This book addresses an important aspect of wearable computers and augmented reality, either from the conceptual or from an application framework. Given the wide coverage of topics on issues related to the display of computer-generated images in the environment, this book can be used as a text for computer science, computer engineering, and interface design courses.
© All rights reserved Barfield and Caudell and/or CRC Press
Nash, Eric B., Edwards, Gregory W., Thompson, Jennifer A. and Barfield, Woodrow (2000): A Review of Presence and Performance in Virtual Environments. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (1) pp. 1-41.
This article provides a review of the literature related to presence and performance within virtual environments. Summary tables are provided to present the reader with a general framework in which to evaluate the type of studies that have been run, as well as representative findings across different tasks and virtual environments. Within the general area of performance, the topics of navigation and knowledge acquisition have been expanded, as they are seen as important aspects of tasks performed within virtual environments drawing much attention from researchers. In addition, given that a sense of presence is an important aspect of the virtual environment experience, the literature related to presence within virtual environments is also reviewed. The summary tables provided can be used to indicate areas where additional research efforts are needed to more fully explain how human performance and presence are affected by use of virtual environment technology. This article concludes with a discussion of potential relations between presence and performance and directions for future research.
© All rights reserved Nash et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Bystrom, Karl-Erik and Barfield, Woodrow (1999): Collaborative Task Performance for Education Using a Virtual Environment. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (4) pp. 435-448.
Barfield, Woodrow, Hendrix, Claudia M. and Bystrom, Karl-Erik (1999): Effects of Stereopsis and Head Tracking on Performance Using Desktop Virtual Environment Displays. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (2) pp. 237-240.
Bystrom, Karl-Erik, Barfield, Woodrow and Hendrix, Claudia M. (1999): A Conceptual Model of the Sense of Presence in Virtual Environments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (2) pp. 241-244.
Barfield, Woodrow and Danas, Eric (1996): Comments on the Use of Olfactory Displays for Virtual Evironments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (1) pp. 109-121.
Hendrix, Claudia M. and Barfield, Woodrow (1996): Presence Within Virtual Environments as a Function of Visual Display Parameters. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (3) pp. 274-289.
Hendrix, Claudia M. and Barfield, Woodrow (1996): The Sense of Presence Within Auditory Virtual Environments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 5 (3) pp. 290-301.
Barfield, Woodrow, Hendrix, Claudia M., Bjorneseth, Ove, Kaczmarek, Kurt A. and Lotens, Wouter (1995): Comparison of Human Sensory Capabilities with Technical Specifications of Virtual Environment Equipment. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4 (4) pp. 329-356.
Davis, Elizabeth Thorpe, Corso, Gregory M., Barfield, Woodrow, Eggleston, Robert G., Ellis, Stephen, Ribarsky, Bill and Wickens, Christopher D. (1994): Human Perception and Performance in 3D Virtual Environments. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 230-234.
Virtual environments have the potential to become very significant tools both in the civilian and military sectors. They offer a new human-computer interface in which users actively participate and are totally immersed in a computer-generated 3D virtual world. Important applications of virtual environments include the scientific visualization of complex data sets, the operation of remotely manipulated vehicles or teleoperators, the display of aircraft locations for air traffic control, simulated flight training, simulated driving training, teleoperated surgery as well as medical training and skill acquisition in surgery. Because virtual environments offer greater flexibility than most traditional HCI interfaces, those and other tasks may be better handled by virtual environments than by more traditional HCI interfaces. For example, virtual reality technology offers the capability of 3D or 2D representations, egocentric or exocentric 3D viewpoint, stereoscopic or monoscopic views, dynamically changing or relatively static representations as well as the availability of multi-sensory information (e.g., visual, auditory, and tactile inputs) and of perceptual-motor interactions. Yet, current VR systems still suffer from technical limitations that may restrict their usefulness. These technical limitations include poor spatio-temporal resolution of visual, auditory, and haptic images; cross-sensory image registration; and inaccuracy of head and eye tracking devices. Some of these limitations may be overcome by advances in the technology while other limitations may be overcome by cleverly adapting the VE system to exploit the capabilities and limitations of human perception. In all applications of virtual environments, human spatial perception plays a crucial role. For example, distance, elevation, and azimuth information is used to determine where objects are located. Yet, the perceived spatial location of an object may be ambiguous within a given display. Stereoscopic displays can provide humans with visual cues to disambiguate this information. But, there are other ways to resolve this ambiguity, such as the use of other visual cues or of other sensory modalities (e.g., auditory and haptic senses). Moreover, determination of the "best" perceptual cues and the "best" sensory modalities may be task dependent.
© All rights reserved Davis et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gee, Jim C., Barfield, Woodrow, Haynor, David R. and Kim, Yongmin (1993): User Interface Design for Medical Imaging Workstations: Image Display and Processing. In Interacting with Computers, 5 (3) pp. 279-294.
Conventional diagnostic protocols in radiological viewing require the availability of a large display space, as exemplified by the film alternator (or lightbox). However, the recent trend in medical imaging workstation design is the use of relatively small display screens to present radiological images. In the study, the efficacy of an alternator-filmstrip metaphor for navigating through and displaying the images of a patient study is evaluated. The metaphor relies on the availability of a 'pictorial directory' and accommodates the concurrent display of a variable number of images on the screen. In addition the study also evaluated the utility of two commonly available operations for manipulating the appearance of an image: contrast enhancement and image magnification. The study consisted of two experimental variables: availability of a pictorial directory (yes, no) and number of concurrently displayed images (1, 2, or 4). Twelve radiologists viewed two sets of X-ray computed tomography (CT) studies for each of the six treatment conditions and were asked to record an interpretation for each study. Results indicate that interpretations using the two-image display formats took the least amount of time per study, whereas the single-image format with access to the pictorial directory required the longest mean interpretation time. The image magnification capability was generally not found to be useful for image interpretation, whereas the contrast manipulation operations were judged extremely helpful. Implications of the results for medical imaging workstation design are discussed.
© All rights reserved Gee et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Ng, Linda and Barfield, Woodrow (1993): User Information Requirements for Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems as a Function of Driver Category. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 1077-1081.
Advanced Traveler Information Systems/Commercial Vehicle Operations (ATIS/CVO) are segments of IVHS currently being researched as a means of decreasing road congestion and increasing safety. Due to the complex information requirements for these systems, three surveys have been designed by University of Washington researchers and distributed nationwide to collect these requirements from the users: commercial drivers, dispatchers and private vehicle drivers. This paper discusses the methodology used to design the surveys and the effort to ensure that a representative sample was included on a nationwide basis. Approximately 8,300 surveys were distributed in person and 10,000 dispatcher surveys were distributed in a newsletter. Data estimation procedures will include modeling the influence of an in-vehicle system for route guidance and determining the significant impacts of an ATIS/CVO in terms of age, gender, income, and other socioeconomic characteristics.
© All rights reserved Ng and Barfield and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow and Weghorst, Suzanne (1993): The Sense of Presence within Virtual Environments: A Conceptual Framework. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 699-704.
Recent developments in display technology, e.g., the use of a head-mounted display slaved to the user's head position, techniques to spatialize sound, and computer-generated tactile and kinesthetic interfaces allow humans to experience impressive visual, auditory, and tactile simulations of virtual worlds. However, while the technological developments in virtual environments have been quite impressive, what is currently lacking is a conceptual and analytical framework in which to guide research in this developing area. What is also lacking is a set of metrics which can be used to measure performance within virtual environments and to quantify the level of presence experienced by participants of virtual worlds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the concept of presence in the context of virtual environments focusing on conditions which may produce a sense of presence within virtual worlds and to suggest techniques to measure presence. In addition, we present the results of two exploratory studies which investigated several important factors related to the sense presence within virtual environments.
© All rights reserved Barfield and Weghorst and/or Elsevier Science
Barfield, Woodrow, Furness, Thomas A., Rosenberg, Craig and Han, Alex (1992): A God's Eye (Exocentric) versus Pilot's Eye (Egocentric) Frame of Reference for Enhanced Situational Awareness. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. .
Barfield, Woodrow, Rosenberg, Craig and Cohen, Mike (1992): The Use of 3D Auditory Perspective and Perspective-Auditory Display Formats for Directional Judgment Tasks. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. .
Barfield, Woodrow and Rosenberg, Craig (1992): Comparison of Stereoscopic and Perspective Spatial Display Formats for Exocentric Judgment Tasks. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. .
Barfield, Woodrow and Lim, Rafael (1991): Evaluation of Computer Graphics Techniques for the Design of Images for Human-Computer Interaction. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991. pp. 83-87.
A psychophysics study was performed to investigate the relationship between computer graphics rendering techniques and subjective ratings of realism for computer-synthesized images. By manipulating the lighting and shading characteristics of computer-synthesized images, 31 different variations of a standard image were created. The experiment task was to rate the realism of each computer-synthesized image in comparison to two standards; a wireframe image representing the low end of realism, and a picture of the real image, representing the high end of realism. The results indicated that smooth shaded images were perceived as significantly more realistic than a flat shaded image, while color-mapped images were perceived as significantly more realistic than images rendered without a color map. However, there were no significant differences in perceived realism as a function of one versus two point light sources or between one versus two specular highlights. These and other findings are used to evaluate the psychological validity of several mathematical analysis of shading information that are used to render realistic three-dimensional images.
© All rights reserved Barfield and Lim and/or Elsevier Science
Barfield, Woodrow and Kim, Young (1991): Computer Graphics Programming Principals as Factors in the Design of Perspective Displays. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1991. pp. 93-97.
An important issue in the design of perspective displays concerns the relationship between the perspective geometry parameters used to design such displays and the accuracy with which observers can reconstruct the spatial information contained within the perspective projection. These are important issues for the design of visual displays because viewing a three-dimensional (3D) image projected onto a two-dimensional (2D) surface requires that the observer mentally reconstruct the original 3D information based on the perspective projection. There are several geometric parameters of perspective which influence the accuracy with which observers can reconstruct the original 3D information (McGreevy and Ellis, 1986). These include the geometric field of view (GFOV) and station point distance. This study investigated the effect of these variables on the accuracy of an exocentric direction task using a computer-generated perspective display.
© All rights reserved Barfield and Kim and/or Elsevier Science
Barfield, Woodrow and Rosenberg, Craig (1990): The Effects of Scene Complexity on Judgements of Aimpoint During Final Approach. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 61-65.
Gray, Bruce G., Barfield, Woodrow, Haselkorn, Mark, Spyridakis, Jan and Conquest, Loveday (1990): The Design of a Graphics-Based Traffic Information System Based on User Requirements. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 603-606.
This paper reports the results of several studies designed to investigate commuter behavior and decision making with the goal of obtaining functional requirements for a user-based advanced driver information system (ADIS). The achieve this objective, the following tasks were performed: (1) a large sample survey was administered to 9,652 motorists commuting to a downtown location, (2) an in-depth interview was conducted focusing on the individual motorist's commute, and (3) a questionnaire was administered to investigate the relationship between various forms of graphical traffic information on commuter behavior and decision making. The information obtained from the above studies is being used to design traffic information screens that form the focal part of an ADIS.
© All rights reserved Gray et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow, Lim, Rafael and Rosenberg, Craig (1990): Visual Enhancements and Geometric Field of View as Factors in the Design of a Three-Dimensional Perspective Display. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1470-1473.
This study investigated the effect of providing visual enhancements to a three-dimensional (3D) perspective display on the observers ability to judge the azimuth and elevation which separated two computer-generated images. The 3D perspective scenes were modeled after displays presented previously by McGreevy and Ellis (1986) but with several visual enhancements designed to assist users in performance of the experiment tasks. The visual enhancements included: (1) the capability to rotate the perspective scenes in near real-time and, (2) the presentation of solid shaded objects in the computer-generated scenes. The results provide information on the magnitude of the errors which occur when observers are required to make directional judgements using perspective displays and on the effectiveness of several visual enhancements on the accuracy of directional judgements using a 3D perspective display.
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow, Salvendy, Gavriel and Foley, James D. (1989): An Analogue and Propositional Hybrid Model for the Perception of Computer Generated Graphical Images. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 8 (4) pp. 257-272.
This research investigated two alternative models, analogue and propositional, which describe how three-dimensional (3-D) graphical images are represented and stored in human memory. In order to differentiate between the two models, three separate experiments were performed using a variation of the Shepard-Metzler mental rotation paradigm (Shepard and Metzler 1971). For each experiment, the effects of three independent variables on the performance of a 'mental rotation' task were examined: (a) three levels of figure complexity, (b) three axes of rotation and (c) four angles of rotation. The subjects' task was to compare specific angle, axis or depth versus picture plane rotations for pairs (rotated and non-rotated versions) of 3-D graphic figures displayed on a CRT. The results indicated that response times varied depending on level of figure complexity, axis or angle of rotation. A new hybrid model integrating components of both the analogue and propositional positions is proposed to explain the reaction time data. In this model, analogue processes occur when processing requirements for cognitive tasks are low, whereas propositional processes occur when processing requirements are high. Implications of the results for the internal representation of 3-D images in human memory and for the design of graphic work stations are discussed.
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barfield, Woodrow and Robless, Robert (1989): The Effects of Two- or Three-Dimensional Graphics on the Problem-Solving Performance of Experienced and Novice Decision Makers. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 8 (5) pp. 369-385.
An experiment was performed to investigate the relationship between two-dimensional (2-D) or three-dimensional (3-D) graphs displayed on paper or computer and the problem-solving performance of experienced and novice managers. The effects of these variables on solution times, confidence in answers and effectiveness of solutions for a production management case were examined. It was predicted that experienced managers would engage in forward chaining as a problem-solving strategy, while novices would use backward chaining as a problem-solving technique (Larkin et al. 1980). Results indicated that solution times were faster for computer than for paper presentations of data, but no significant relationship between response times and dimensionality of graphs was found. Novice subjects produced more accurate answers using 2-D paper presentations of graphs, while experienced managers produced more accurate answers when provided with 3-D graphs on computer. Further, experienced and novice managers were more confident of their answers when provided 2-D graphs as decision aids than with any other mode of presentation. Verbal protocols and retrospective reports indicated that in solving the cases experienced managers engaged in forward chaining, backward chaining and means-ends analysis as problem-solving techniques more often than novices.
© All rights reserved Barfield and Robless and/or Taylor and Francis
Barfield, Woodrow, Rosenberg, Craig and Kraft, Conrad (1989): The Effects of Visual Cues to Realism and Perceived Impact Point during Final Approach. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 115-119.
This research investigated the effect of providing three different simulations of ground terrain on the ability of subjects to accurately determine the aimpoint during a final approach. Several simulations were created to model a straight-in final approach (3 degree glideslope) to a standard FAA runway from several distances. The three levels of terrain realism ranged from a homogeneous surface to farmlands with hills. The subject's task was to estimate the aimpoint which represented an extrapolation of the flightpath to its point-of-contact with the ground as well as the altitude at nine different distances from threshold. The results indicated that increased levels of realism lead to better performance in judging altitude and predicting aimpoint during a simulated final approach.
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow, Haselkorn, Mark, Spyridakis, Jan and Conquest, Loveday (1989): Commuter Behavior and Decision Making: Designing Motorist Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 611-614.
This research reports on the results of a large sample survey designed to investigate the response of the survey was to investigate the impact of traffic information on commuter's route choices, mode choices, and departure times, and to determine whether motorists could be categorized according to their specific information needs. The surveyed population consisted of 9,652 home-to-work
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow, Bun, Loo Kar and Kraft, Conrad (1989): The Influence of Eccentricity, Contrast, and Angular Extent on the Perception of Peripheral Apparent Motion. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 1445-1449.
Two experiments were performed to investigate the perception of peripherally presented apparent motion as a function of eccentricity of the stimulus, ambient illumination, gender, athletic ability, age, stimuli pattern (diamond, square), and angular extent of stimuli presentation. The experiment task for both studies was to determine the direction of apparent motion for a lighter than background stimulus target presented on a Braumbach perimeter. The results from experiment one indicated main effects for subjects, eccentricity, and age. The results from experiment two indicated main effects for subjects, eccentricity, and angular separation of the apparent motion.
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gee, Jim, Barfield, Woodrow, Haynor, David and Kim, Yongmin (1989): The Design and Analysis of a Medical Imaging Workstation. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1989. pp. 286-293.
Conventional diagnostic protocols in radiological viewing dictate the availability of a large display space, as exemplified by the film alternator (or lightbox). Currently, electronic emulation of the display capacity of an alternator is prohibitively expensive, thus a hybrid alternator-filmstrip metaphor is introduced to aid the radiologist in scrolling through X-ray Computed Tomography studies. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of the alternator-filmstrip metaphor and the subjective preferences for its associated image display formats. In addition, the effectiveness of two image processing functions provided by the workstation, contrast manipulation and zoom, were tested. Implications of the results for medical imaging workstation design are discussed.
© All rights reserved Gee et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Barfield, Woodrow, Sandford, James and Foley, James D. (1988): The Mental Rotation and Perceived Realism of Computer-Generated Three-Dimensional Images. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 29 (6) pp. 669-684.
Two experiments were performed, one to investigate the effects of computer-generated realism cues (hidden surfaces removed, multiple light sources, surface shading) on the speed and accuracy with which subjects performed a standard cognitive task (mental rotation), the other to study the subjective perceived realism of computer-generated images. In the mental rotation experiment, four angles of rotation, two levels of object complexity, and five combinations of realism cues were varied as subjects performed "same-different" discriminations of pairs of rotated three-dimensional images. Results indicated that mean reaction times were faster for shaded images than for hidden-edge-removed images. In terms of speed of response and response accuracy, significant effects for object complexity and angle of rotation were shown. In the second experiment, subjective ratings of image realism revealed that wireframe images were viewed as less realistic than shaded images and that number of light sources was more important in conveying realism than type of surface shading. Implications of the results for analogue and propositional models on memory organization and integral and non-integral characteristics of realism cues are discussed.
© All rights reserved Barfield et al. and/or Academic Press
Sandford, James, Barfield, Woodrow and Foley, James D. (1987): Empirical Studies of Interactive Computer Graphics: Perceptual and Cognitive Issues. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 519-523.
Two experiments were performed to test the effects of varying computer graphics realism cues (wireframe vs. solid figures, flat vs. smooth shading for solid figures, and one or two light sources for solid figures) on the performance of a standard cognitive task (mental rotation) and on the subjective perceived realism of the computer-generated images. In the mental rotation experiment, mean reaction times were slower for wireframe than for smooth and flat shaded images and significant effects for figure complexity and angle of rotation were shown. In the second experiment, subjective ratings of image realism indicated that wireframe images were viewed as less realistic than solid model images and that number of light sources was more important in conveying image realism to users than was the type of shading.
© All rights reserved Sandford et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Barfield, Woodrow (1986): Expert-Novice Differences for Software: Implications for Problem-Solving and Knowledge Acquisition. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 5 (1) pp. 15-29.
Experts differ from non-experts in how they acquire knowledge, solve problems and process information. In the study reported here three levels of program organization (executable order, random lines, random chunks) are manipulated in order to distinguish expert from non-expert (intermediate, novice, naive) performance in a software recall task. Implications for problem-solving and knowledge acquisition are discussed.
© All rights reserved Barfield and/or Taylor and Francis
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