Publication statistics

Pub. period:1999-2012
Pub. count:50
Number of co-authors:47



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Sarah Diefenbach:8
Mark Blythe:3
Evangelos Karapanos:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Marc Hassenzahl's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Andrew Monk:68
Andreas Butz:48
Jean-Bernard Marte..:42
 
 
 
Jul 13

A general principle for all user interface design is to go through all of your design elements and remove them one at a time. If the design works as well without a certain design element, kill it.

-- Jakob Nielsen, Designing Web Usability, p. 22.

 
 

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Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

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Marc Hassenzahl

Picture of Marc Hassenzahl.
Has also published under the name of:
"Mark Hassenzahl", "Mare Hassenzahl", and "M. Hassenzahl"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.marc-hassenzahl.de

Marc Hassenzahl is Professor at the Folkwang University in Essen and research manager at MediaCity, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland. He is interested in the positive affective and motivational aspects of interactive technologies - in short: User Experience

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Publications by Marc Hassenzahl (bibliography)

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2012

Hassenzahl, Marc (2012). Commentary on 'Visual Aesthetics' by Noam Tractinsky

 
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Knobel, Martin, Hassenzahl, Marc, Lamara, Melanie, Sattler, Tobias, Schumann, Josef, Eckoldt, Kai and Butz, Andreas (2012): Clique Trip: feeling related in different cars. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 29-37

Contemporary car design must not only focus on technology supporting the driver and the driving task: it needs to create positive experiences for drivers and passengers alike. This case study, the Clique Trip, is an example of designing a positive social (i.e. relatedness) experience in the automotive context, addressing the analysis, the design, and the evaluation of the experience. The Clique Trip experience creates a feeling of closeness and relatedness among friends when being in a "motorcade". It is derived from experience reports, implemented in the car and evaluated on the road. Qualitative and quantitative results revealed its capability to create the targeted social experience.

© All rights reserved Knobel et al. and/or ACM Press

2011

Hassenzahl, Marc (2013): User Experience and Experience Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html

 Cited in the following chapters:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Aesthetic Computing: [/encyclopedia/aesthetic_computing.html]


 
 
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Laschke, Matthias, Hassenzahl, Marc, Diefenbach, Sarah and Tippkämper, Marius (2011): With a little help from a friend: a shower calendar to save water. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 633-646

This design case presents and discusses the Shower Calendar, a "persuasive" concept for reducing the consumption of water for showering. It starts from a discussion of different types of feedback employed by earlier design cases. Based on this, we designed the Calendar concept as an ambient, persistent and individualized feedback. A field study with two families (6 individuals) revealed that the Calendar fosters goal setting, comparison, competition, and communication. In addition, quantitative data showed one family to have been more successful in translating the Calendar's offer into actual behavior change, i.e., saving water. This highlights that change is not achieved by the product itself (as in automation or regulation), but by the people involved.

© All rights reserved Laschke et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Diefenbach, Sarah, Hassenzahl, Marc, Eckoldt, Kai and Laschke, Matthias (2010): The impact of concept (re)presentation on users' evaluation and perception. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 631-634

Early product concept evaluation, which is based on descriptions or conceptual sketches instead of functional prototypes or design models, has many practical advantages. However, a question at hand is whether the format of representation impacts the results of empirical "user studies". A study with two different design concepts and 326 participants revealed that global product evaluation (i.e., goodness) and high-level product perceptions (i.e., pragmatic quality, hedonic quality) are not influenced by differences in the concept (re)presentation (text, pictures, video, functional prototype). Only the assessment of interaction characteristics, such as its speed, was affected.

© All rights reserved Diefenbach et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Nass, Claudia, Klöckner, Kerstin, Diefenbach, Sarah and Hassenzahl, Marc (2010): DESIGNi: a workbench for supporting interaction design. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 747-750

New devices expand design possibilities, but also lead to more challenges in the creation of interaction forms. This article introduces DESIGNi, a workbench that supports designers in exploring interaction forms and their attributes in a structured and systematic way. We present the components of DESIGNi and its use in creating a business application. Moreover, a comparison of the interaction forms specified in the design process with DESIGNi and the perceived interaction characteristics in user studies revealed interesting insights and points for improvement in the interaction design itself.

© All rights reserved Nass et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Laschke, Matthias, Hassenzahl, Marc and Mehnert, Kurt (2010): linked.: a relatedness experience for boys. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 839-844

Social exchange, intimacy and relatedness are a basic human need. Not surprisingly, there is a number of means to mediate relatedness over a distance, such as the telephone, Skype or Facebook. However, each of these imposes a particular way of communication, constrained by the employed technology rather than deliberately shaped by the designer. In line with an experience-driven approach to technology design, we suggest linked. as a communication device for teenage boys. An ethnography-inspired study revealed that teenage boys tend to "squabble" to express and fulfill their need for relatedness and physicality. linked. draws upon this. It is a modular pillow-like device, enabling boys to squabble over a distance, thereby providing a means to experience relatedness in a novel, emotional, but socially appropriate ways.

© All rights reserved Laschke et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]


 
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2010): Experience Design: Technology for All the Right Reasons. Morgan and Claypool Publishers

In his In the blink of an eye, Walter Murch, the Oscar-awarded editor of The English Patient, Apocalypse Now, and many other outstanding movies, devises the Rule of Six -- six criteria for what makes a good cut. On top of his list is "to be true to the emotion of the moment," a quality more important than advancing the story or being rhythmically interesting. The cut has to deliver a meaningful, compelling, and emotion-rich "experience" to the audience. Because, "what they finally remember is not the editing, not the camerawork, not the performances, not even the story---it's how they felt." Technology for all the right reasons applies this insight to the design of interactive products and technologies -- the domain of Human-Computer Interaction, Usability Engineering, and Interaction Design. It takes an experiential approach, putting experience before functionality and leaving behind oversimplified calls for ease, efficiency, and automation or shallow beautification. Instead, it explores what really matters to humans and what it needs to make technology more meaningful. The book clarifies what experience is, and highlights five crucial aspects and their implications for the design of interactive products. It provides reasons why we should bother with an experiential approach, and presents a detailed working model of experience useful for practitioners and academics alike. It closes with the particular challenges of an experiential approach for design. The book presents its view as a comprehensive, yet entertaining blend of scientific findings, design examples, and personal anecdotes.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and/or Morgan and Claypool Publishers

 Cited in the following chapters:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]


 
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc, Diefenbach, Sarah and Göritz, Anja (2010): Needs, affect, and interactive products - Facets of user experience. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 353-362

Subsumed under the umbrella of User Experience (UX), practitioners and academics of Human–Computer Interaction look for ways to broaden their understanding of what constitutes “pleasurable experiences” with technology. The present study considered the fulfilment of universal psychological needs, such as competence, relatedness, popularity, stimulation, meaning, security, or autonomy, to be the major source of positive experience with interactive technologies. To explore this, we collected over 500 positive experiences with interactive products (e.g., mobile phones, computers). As expected, we found a clear relationship between need fulfilment and positive affect, with stimulation, relatedness, competence and popularity being especially salient needs. Experiences could be further categorized by the primary need they fulfil, with apparent qualitative differences among some of the categories in terms of the emotions involved. Need fulfilment was clearly linked to hedonic quality perceptions, but not as strongly to pragmatic quality (i.e., perceived usability), which supports the notion of hedonic quality as “motivator” and pragmatic quality as “hygiene factor.” Whether hedonic quality ratings reflected need fulfilment depended on the belief that the product was responsible for the experience (i.e., attribution).

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]


 
 
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Karapanos, Evangelos, Martens, Jean-Bernard and Hassenzahl, Marc (2010): On the retrospective assessment of users' experiences over time: memory or actuality?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4075-4080

An alternative paradigm to longitudinal studies of user experience is proposed. We illustrate this paradigm through a number of recent tool-based methods. We conclude by raising a number of challenges that we need to address in order to establish this paradigm as a fruitful alternative to longitudinal studies.

© All rights reserved Karapanos et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Monk, Andrew (2010): The Inference of Perceived Usability From Beauty. In Human Computer Interaction, 25 (3) pp. 235-260

A review of 15 papers reporting 25 independent correlations of perceived beauty with perceived usability showed a remarkably high variability in the reported coefficients. This may be due to methodological inconsistencies. For example, products are often not selected systematically, and statistical tests are rarely performed to test the generality of findings across products. In addition, studies often restrict themselves to simply reporting correlations without further specification of underlying judgmental processes. The present study's main objective is to re-examine the relation between beauty and usability, that is, the implication that "what is beautiful is usable." To rectify previous methodological shortcomings, both products and participants were sampled in the same way and the data aggregated both by averaging over participants to assess the covariance across ratings of products and by averaging over products to assess the covariance across participants. In addition, we adopted an inference perspective to qualify underlying processes to examine the possibility that, under the circumstances pertaining in most studies of this kind where participants have limited experience of using a website or product, the relationship between beauty and usability is mediated by goodness. A mediator analysis of the relationship between beauty, the overall evaluation (i.e., "goodness") and pragmatic quality (as operationalization of usability) suggests that the relationship between beauty and usability has been overplayed as the correlation between pragmatic quality and beauty is wholly mediated by goodness. This pattern of relationships was consistent across four different data sets and different ways of data aggregation. Finally, suggestions are made regarding methodologies that could be used in future studies that build on these results.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Monk and/or Lawrence Erlbaum

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc, Diefenbach, Sarah and Göritz, Anja (2010): Needs, affect, and interactive products -- Facets of user experience. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 353-362

Subsumed under the umbrella of User Experience (UX), practitioners and academics of Human-Computer Interaction look for ways to broaden their understanding of what constitutes "pleasurable experiences" with technology. The present study considered the fulfilment of universal psychological needs, such as competence, relatedness, popularity, stimulation, meaning, security, or autonomy, to be the major source of positive experience with interactive technologies. To explore this, we collected over 500 positive experiences with interactive products (e.g., mobile phones, computers). As expected, we found a clear relationship between need fulfilment and positive affect, with stimulation, relatedness, competence and popularity being especially salient needs. Experiences could be further categorized by the primary need they fulfil, with apparent qualitative differences among some of the categories in terms of the emotions involved. Need fulfilment was clearly linked to hedonic quality perceptions, but not as strongly to pragmatic quality (i.e., perceived usability), which supports the notion of hedonic quality as "motivator" and pragmatic quality as "hygiene factor." Whether hedonic quality ratings reflected need fulfilment depended on the belief that the product was responsible for the experience (i.e., attribution).

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl et al. and/or Elsevier Science

2009
 
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Karapanos, Evangelos, Martens, Jean-Bernard and Hassenzahl, Marc (2009): Accounting for diversity in subjective judgments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 639-648.

In this paper we argue against averaging as a common practice in the analysis of subjective attribute judgments, both across and within subjects. Previous work has raised awareness of the diversity between individuals' perceptions. In this paper it will furthermore become apparent that such diversity can also exist within a single individual, in the sense that different attribute judgments from a subject may reveal different, complementary, views. A Multi-Dimensional Scaling approach that accounts for the diverse views on a set of stimuli is proposed and its added value is illustrated using published data. We will illustrate that the averaging analysis provides insight to only 1/6th of the total number of attributes in the example dataset. The proposed approach accounts for more than double the information obtained from the average model, and provides richer and semantically diverse views on the set of stimuli.

© All rights reserved Karapanos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Roto, Virpi, Hassenzahl, Marc, Vermeeren, Arnold P. O. S. and Kort, Joke (2009): Understanding, scoping and defining user experience: a survey approach. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 719-728.

Despite the growing interest in user experience (UX), it has been hard to gain a common agreement on the nature and scope of UX. In this paper, we report a survey that gathered the views on UX of 275 researchers and practitioners from academia and industry. Most respondents agree that UX is dynamic, context-dependent, and subjective. With respect to the more controversial issues, the authors propose to delineate UX as something individual (instead of social) that emerges from interacting with a product, system, service or an object. The draft ISO definition on UX seems to be in line with the survey findings, although the issues of experiencing anticipated use and the object of UX will require further explication. The outcome of this survey lays ground for understanding, scoping, and defining the concept of user experience.

© All rights reserved Law et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Diefenbach, Sarah and Hassenzahl, Marc (2009): The "Beauty Dilemma": beauty is valued but discounted in product choice. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1419-1426.

The empirical study of aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is concerned with -- among other topics -- the relationship between beauty and usability and the general impact of beauty on product choice and use. Specifically, the present paper explores the notion of a "beauty dilemma" -- the idea that people discount beauty in a choice situation, although they value it in general (i.e., they are not choosing what makes them happy). We explored this idea in three studies with a total of over 600 participants. Study 1 revealed a reluctance to pay for beauty due to its hedonic nature (i.e., associated with luxury etc.). Study 2 showed that people prefer a more beautiful product, but justify their choice by referring to spurious advantages in usability. Finally, Study 3 revealed that a choice situation which requires a trade-off between beauty and usability, and which offers no further way to justify choosing beauty, leads to a sharp increase in the preference of usability. The underlying reasons for this "beauty dilemma" and further implications are discussed.

© All rights reserved Diefenbach and Hassenzahl and/or ACM Press

 
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Blythe, Mark, Hassenzahl, Marc and Law, Effie (2009): Now with Added Experience?. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 15 (2) pp. 119-128

2008
 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Roto, Virpi, Vermeeren, Arnold P. O. S., Kort, Joke and Hassenzahl, Marc (2008): Towards a shared definition of user experience. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2395-2398.

User experience (UX) is still an elusive notion with many different definitions, despite some recent attempts to develop a unified view on UX. The lack of a shared definition of UX not only confuses or even misleads customers of a product/service but also undermines the effectiveness of researching, managing and teaching UX. Diverse ideas have been generated in scientific activities that aim to develop a common understanding about the meaning and scope of UX. It is plausible, with sound methodologies, to converge these divergences, driving the UX community closer to a common definition and integrated views of UX. This SIG tackles this challenge by systematically assembling a set of existing definitions and viewpoints of UX and collecting opinions on them from known UX experts/researchers and general CHI'08 attendees.

© All rights reserved Law et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Diefenbach, Sarah and Hassenzahl, Marc (2008): Give me a reason: hedonic product choice and justification. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3051-3056.

Recently, researchers and practitioners of Human-Computer Interaction started to distinguish instrumental, task-related, pragmatic quality aspects (i.e., usefulness, usability) of interactive products from non-instrumental, self-referential, hedonic quality aspects (e.g., beauty, novelty). Although both qualities are appreciated while using a product, hedonic quality tends to be downplayed in the moment of product choice. We suggest and test the idea that this is the consequence of an increased experienced pressure to justify hedonic choices and according expenditures.

© All rights reserved Diefenbach and Hassenzahl and/or ACM Press

 
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Karapanos, Evangelos, Hassenzahl, Marc and Martens, Jean-Bernard (2008): User experience over time. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3561-3566.

The way we experience and evaluate interactive products develops over time. An exploratory study aimed at understanding how users form evaluative judgments during the first experiences with a product as well as after four weeks of use. Goodness, an evaluative judgment related to the overall satisfaction with the product, was largely formed on the basis of pragmatic aspects (i.e. utility and usability) during the first experiences; after four weeks of use identification (i.e. what the products expresses about its owner) became a dominant aspect of how good a product is. Surprisingly, beauty judgments were largely affected by stimulation (e.g. novelty) during the first experiences. Over time stimulation lost its power to make the product beautiful in the users' eyes.

© All rights reserved Karapanos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa, Roto, Virpi and Hassenzahl, Marc (2008): Now let's do it in practice: user experience evaluation methods in product development. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3961-3964.

As the selection of products and services becomes profuse in the technology market, it is often the delighting user experience (UX) that differentiates a successful product from the competitors. Product development is no longer about implementing features and testing their usability, but understanding users' daily lives and evaluating if a product resonates with the in-depth user needs. Although UX is a widely adopted term in industry, the tools for evaluating UX in product development are still inadequate. Based on industrial case studies and the latest research on UX evaluation, this workshop forms a model for aligning the used UX evaluation methods to product development processes. The results can be used to advance the state of "putting UX evaluation into practice".

© All rights reserved Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Brau, Henning, Diefenbach, Sarah, Hassenzahl, Marc, Koller, Franz, Peissner, Matthias and Röse, Kerstin (eds.) Mensch and Computer 2008, Usability Professionals Track September 7-10, 2008, Lübkeck, Germany.

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc, Schöbel, Markus and Trautmann, Tibor (2008): How motivational orientation influences the evaluation and choice of hedonic and pragmatic interactive products: The role of regulatory focus. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (4) pp. 473-479.

The perceived quality of interactive products can be roughly divided into instrumental, task-related, pragmatic attributes (e.g., usefulness, usability) and non-instrumental, self-referential, hedonic attributes (e.g., novelty, beauty). Recent studies suggest that the weighting of both aspects in forming an overall evaluation of an interactive product heavily depends on features of the actual situation, such as whether an individual has to perform a specific task or not. The present paper extends these findings by assuming that a match between an individual's motivational orientation and particular product attributes (i.e., pragmatic, hedonic) moderates the perceived value of interactive products. Specifically, it shows how differences in regulatory foci (promotion or prevention focus), that is, differences in the way goal-directed behavior is regulated, influence product evaluation and choice. Participants were either set in a prevention focus (concern for safety and the avoidance of negative outcomes) or promotion focus (concern for personal growth and the attainment of positive outcomes). Subsequently, they were asked to evaluate and choose between a primarily pragmatic and a primarily hedonic mp3-player. The results revealed the expected effect of the activated regulatory focus on evaluation and choice. Individuals in a promotion focus rated the hedonic player as more appealing and chose it more frequently compared to individuals in a prevention focus. Reverse results, albeit not as strong, were found for the evaluation and choice of the pragmatic player. Our findings support the idea that product appeal and choice is strongly context-dependent. It further extends previous findings by showing that not only major differences in the situation, such as providing a specific task or not, impact product appreciation but that more subtle, motivational orientations can have similar effects.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Thielsch, Meinald T. and Hassenzahl, Marc (2008): Achtmal Schönheit. In i-com, 3 pp. 50-55.

2007
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Ullrich, Daniel (2007): To do or not to do: Differences in user experience and retrospective judgments depending on the presence or absence of instrumental goals. In Interacting with Computers, 19 (4) pp. 429-437.

Recently, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) started to focus on experiential aspects of product use, such as affect or hedonic qualities. One interesting question concerns the way a particular experience is summarized into a retrospective value judgment about the product. In the present study, we specifically explored the relationship between affect, mental effort and spontaneity experienced while interacting with a storytelling system and retrospective judgments of appeal. In addition, we studied differential effects of the presence or absence of instrumental goals. In general, active instrumental goals did not only impact experience per se by, for example, inducing mental effort, but also the way subsequent retrospective judgments were formed. We discuss the implications of our findings for the practice of product evaluation in HCI specifically, and more general aspects, such as the role of affect in product evaluations and the importance of usage mode compatibility (i.e., a compatibility of the way one ought to and actually does approach a product).

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Ullrich and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Margeritta von, Hassenzahl, Marc and Platz, Axel (2007): Veränderung in der Wahrnehmung und Bewertung interaktiver Produkte. In: Gross, Tom (ed.) Mensch and Computer 2007 September 2-5, 2007, Weimar, Germany. pp. 49-58.

 
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Harbich, Stefanie, Hassenzahl, Marc and Kinzel, Klaus (2007): e4 - Ein neuer Ansatz zur Messung der Qualität interaktiver Produkte für den Arbeitskontext. In: Gross, Tom (ed.) Mensch and Computer 2007 September 2-5, 2007, Weimar, Germany. pp. 39-48.

 
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Heidecker, Stephanie and Hassenzahl, Marc (2007): Eine gruppenspezifische Repertory Grid Analyse der wahrgenommenen Attraktivität von Universitätswebsites. In: Gross, Tom (ed.) Mensch and Computer 2007 September 2-5, 2007, Weimar, Germany. pp. 129-138.

 
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Kohler, Kirstin, Niebuhr, Sabine and Hassenzahl, Marc (2007): Stay on the Ball! An Interaction Pattern Approach to the Engineering of Motivation. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 519-522.

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2007): Aesthetics in interactive products: Correlates and consequences of beauty. In: Schifferstein, Hendrik N. J. and Hekkert, Paul (eds.). "Product Experience". Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2006
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Tractinsky, Noam (2006): User experience -- a research agenda. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (2) pp. 91-97.

Over the last decade, 'user experience' (UX) became a buzzword in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and interaction design. As technology matured, interactive products became not only more useful and usable, but also fashionable, fascinating things to desire. Driven by the impression that a narrow focus on interactive products as tools does not capture the variety and emerging aspects of technology use, practitioners and researchers alike, seem to readily embrace the notion of UX as a viable alternative to traditional HCI. And, indeed, the term promises change and a fresh look, without being too specific about its definite meaning. The present introduction to the special issue on 'Empirical studies of the user experience' attempts to give a provisional answer to the question of what is meant by 'the user experience'. It provides a cursory sketch of UX and how we think UX research will look like in the future. It is not so much meant as a forecast of the future, but as a proposal -- a stimulus for further UX research.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Tractinsky and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Tractinsky, Noam (2006): User experience - a research agenda. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 25 (2) pp. 91-97

Over the last decade, 'user experience' (UX) became a buzzword in the field of human computer interaction (HCI) and interaction design. As technology matured, interactive products became not only more useful and usable, but also fashionable, fascinating things to desire. Driven by the impression that a narrow focus on interactive products as tools does not capture the variety and emerging aspects of technology use, practitioners and researchers alike, seem to readily embrace the notion of UX as a viable alternative to traditional HCI. And, indeed, the term promises change and a fresh look, without being too specific about its definite meaning. The present introduction to the special issue on Empirical studies of the user experience' attempts to give a provisional answer to the question of what is meant by the user experience'. It provides a cursory sketch of UX and how we think UX research will look like in the future. It is not so much meant as a forecast of the future, but as a proposal - a stimulus for further UX research.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Tractinsky and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2006): Hedonic, Emotional, and Experiential Perspectives on Product Quality. In: Ghaoui, Claude (ed.). "Encyclopedia of human computer interaction". Idea Group Referencepp. 266-272

Human-computer interaction (HCI) can be defined as a discipline, which is concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems [products] for human use (Hewett et al, 1996). Evaluation and design require a definition of what constitutes a good or bad product and, thus, a definition of interactive product quality (IPQ). Usability is such a widely accepted definition. ISO 9241 Part 11 (ISO, 1998) defines it as the “extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use.” Although widely accepted, this definition’s focus on tasks and goals, their efficient achievement and the involved cognitive information processes repeatedly caused criticism, as far back as Carroll and Thomas’ (1988) emphatic plea not to forget the “fun” over simplicity and efficiency (see also Carroll, 2004). Since then, several attempts have been made to broaden and enrich HCI’s narrow, work-related view on IPQ (see, for example, Blythe, Overbeeke, Monk,&Wright, 2003; Green&Jordan, 2002; Helander&Tham, 2004). The objective of this article is to provide an overview of HCI current theoretical approaches to an enriched IPQ. Specifically, needs that go beyond the instrumental and the role of emotions, affect, and experiences are discussed.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and/or Idea Group Reference

 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
2005
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Peissner, Matthias (eds.) Usability Professionals 2005 September 4-7, 2005, Linz, Austria.

 
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Tractinsky, Noam and Hassenzahl, Marc (2005): Arguing for Aesthetics in Human-Computer Interaction. In i-com Zeitschrift für interaktive und kooperative Medien, 4 (3) p. 66–68

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2004
 
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Blythe, Mark, Hassenzahl, Marc and Wright, Peter (2004): Introduction. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 36-37.

 
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Blythe, Mark and Hassenzahl, Marc (2004): Interview with Don Norman. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 43-46.

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2004): Emotions can be quite ephemeral; we cannot design them. In Interactions, 11 (5) pp. 46-48.

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2004): The Interplay of Beauty, Goodness, and Usability in Interactive Products. In Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (4) pp. 319-349.

Two studies considered the interplay between user-perceived usability (i.e., pragmatic attributes), hedonic attributes (e.g., stimulation, identification), goodness (i.e., satisfaction), and beauty of 4 different MP3-player skins. As long as beauty and goodness stress the subjective valuation of a product, both were related to each other. However, the nature of goodness and beauty was found to differ. Goodness depended on both perceived usability and hedonic attributes. Especially after using the skins, perceived usability became a strong determinant of goodness. In contrast, beauty largely depended on identification; a hedonic attribute group, which captures the product's ability to communicate important personal values to relevant others. Perceived usability as well as goodness was affected by experience (i.e., actual usability, usability problems), whereas hedonic attributes and beauty remained stable over time. All in all, the nature of beauty is rather self-oriented than goal-oriented, whereas goodness relates to both.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2004): Beautiful Objects as an Extension of the Self: A Reply. In Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (4) pp. 377-386.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2003
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc, Burmester, Michael and Koller, Franz (2003): AttrakDiff: Ein Fragebogen zur Messung wahrgenommener hedonischer und pragmatischer Qualität. In: Szwillus, Gerd and Ziegler, Jürgen (eds.) Mensch and Computer 2003 September 7-10, 2003, Stuttgart, Germany. .

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2003): The Thing and I: Understanding the Relationship Between User and Product. In: Blythe, Mark.A., Overbeeke, Kees, Monk, Andrew F. and Wright, Peter C. (eds.). "Funology: From Usability to Enjoyment". Springerpp. 31-42

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2002
 
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Sandweg, Nina, Hassenzahl, Marc and Kuhn, Klaus (2002): Designing a Telephone-Based Interface for a Home Automation System. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 14 (3) pp. 401-414.

User-interface design lacks expertise in designing nonvisual user interfaces. This is surprising as there are various domains where auditory interfaces have already been proved to be helpful, such as railway information services and reading support for blind persons. We present a case study concerning the design of a telephone-based interface (TBI). It was realized within the development process of an interaction concept for a modular home automation system. The design was based on requirements gathered in user focus groups and on general guidelines for the design of TBIs. The TBI's evaluation revealed some minor (i.e., easily solved) usability problems. Questionnaires showed a positive ergonomic quality as well as a positive overall appeal. Interestingly, the evaluation indicates a potential to improve hedonic quality (i.e., non-task-related quality aspects). It may be induced by the addition of nonspeech sounds, thereby enriching user experience.

© All rights reserved Sandweg et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Wessler, Rainer (2002): Capturing Design Space From a User Perspective: The Repertory Grid Technique Revisited. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 14 (3) pp. 441-459.

The design of an artifact (e.g., software system, household appliance) requires a multitude of decisions. In the course of narrowing down the design process, "good ideas" have to be divided from "bad ideas." To accomplish this, user perceptions and evaluations are of great value. The individual way people perceive and evaluate a set of prototypes designed in parallel may shed light on their general needs and concerns. The Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) is a method of elucidating the so-called personal constructs (e.g., friendly-hostile, bad-good, playful-expert-like) people employ when confronted with other individuals, events, or artifacts. We assume that the personal constructs (and the underlying topics) generated as a reaction to a set of artifacts mark the artifacts' design space from a user's perspective and that this information may be helpful in separating valuable ideas from the not so valuable. This article explores the practical value of the RGT in gathering design-relevant information about the design space of early artifact prototypes designed in parallel. Ways of treating the information gathered, its quality and general advantages, and limitations of the RGT are presented and discussed. In general, the RGT proved to be a valuable tool in exploring a set of artifact's design space from a user's perspective.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Wessler and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2001
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2001): The Effect of Perceived Hedonic Quality on Product Appealingness. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (4) pp. 481-499.

Usability can be broadly defined as quality of use. However, even this broad definition neglects the contribution of perceived fun and enjoyment to user satisfaction and preferences. Therefore, we recently suggested a model taking "hedonic quality" (HQ; i.e., non-task-oriented quality aspects such as innovativeness, originality, etc.) and the subjective nature of "appealingness" into account (Hassenzahl, Platz, Burmester,&Lehner, 2000). In this study, I aimed to further elaborate and test this model. I assessed the user perceptions and evaluations of 3 different visual display units (screen types). The results replicate and qualify the key findings of Hassenzahl, Platz, et al. (2000) and lend further support to the model's notion of hedonic quality and its importance for subjective judgments of product appealingness.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
 
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Hamborg, Kai-Christoph, Hassenzahl, Marc and Wessler, Rainer (2001): Gestaltungsunterstützende Methoden für die benutzer-zentrierte Softwareentwicklung. In: Oberquelle, Horst, Oppermann, Reinhard and Krause, Jürgen (eds.) Mensch and Computer 2001 March 5-8, 2001, Bad Honnef, Germany. .

2000
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc (2000): Prioritizing Usability Problems: Data-Driven and Judgement-Driven Severity Estimates. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (1) pp. 29-42.

Software-ergonomic system analysis often reveals numerous usability problems. Given that system design suffers from limited resources, the prioritization of usability problems seems inevitable. Surprisingly enough, prioritization is not in the focus of scientific interest. Within this paper, approaches to prioritization relying on severity estimates will be presented. Two of the approaches, namely priorities based on data about the impact of a problem (data-driven) and priorities based on judgements of interest group members (judgement-driven) will be further explored. In the data-driven approach total problem-handling time caused by a usability problem is presented as a measure of severity. The major disadvantage of the data-driven approach is its costs. A possible alternative are severity estimates based on judgements by members of involved interest groups. The first of two studies shows how to obtain judgement driven severity estimates and reveals a fundamental lack of correspondence between data-driven and judgement-driven severity estimates. The second study supports the notion that the lack of correspondence may stem from a difference between assumptions of the data-driven approach and the naive judgement model of interest group members in the judgement-driven approach. A hypothetical model for severity estimates by interest group members is presented.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and/or Taylor and Francis

 
Edit | Del

Sandweg, Nina, Hassenzahl, Marc and Kuhn, Klaus (2000): Designing a Telephone-Based Interface for a Home Automation System. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (3) pp. 401-414.

User-interface design lacks expertise in designing nonvisual user interfaces. This is surprising as there are various domains where auditory interfaces have already been proved to be helpful, such as railway information services and reading support for blind persons. We present a case study concerning the design of a telephone-based interface (TBI). It was realized within the development process of an interaction concept for a modular home automation system. The design was based on requirements gathered in user focus groups and on general guidelines for the design of TBIs. The TBI's evaluation revealed some minor (i.e., easily solved) usability problems. Questionnaires showed a positive ergonomic quality as well as a positive overall appeal. Interestingly, the evaluation indicates a potential to improve hedonic quality (i.e., non-task-related quality aspects). It may be induced by the addition of nonspeech sounds, thereby enriching user experience.

© All rights reserved Sandweg et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
Edit | Del

Hassenzahl, Marc and Wessler, Rainer (2000): Capturing Design Space From a User Perspective: The Repertory Grid Technique Revisited. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (3) pp. 441-459.

The design of an artifact (e.g., software system, household appliance) requires a multitude of decisions. In the course of narrowing down the design process, "good ideas" have to be divided from "bad ideas." To accomplish this, user perceptions and evaluations are of great value. The individual way people perceive and evaluate a set of prototypes designed in parallel may shed light on their general needs and concerns. The Repertory Grid Technique (RGT) is a method of elucidating the so-called personal constructs (e.g., friendly-hostile, bad-good, playful-expert-like) people employ when confronted with other individuals, events, or artifacts. We assume that the personal constructs (and the underlying topics) generated as a reaction to a set of artifacts mark the artifacts' design space from a user's perspective and that this information may be helpful in separating valuable ideas from the not so valuable. This article explores the practical value of the RGT in gathering design-relevant information about the design space of early artifact prototypes designed in parallel. Ways of treating the information gathered, its quality and general advantages, and limitations of the RGT are presented and discussed. In general, the RGT proved to be a valuable tool in exploring a set of artifact's design space from a user's perspective.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl and Wessler and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
Edit | Del

Hassenzahl, Marc, Platz, Axel, Burmester, Michael and Lehner, Katrin (2000): Hedonic and Ergonomic Quality Aspects Determine a Software's Appeal. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 201-208.

The present study examines the role of subjectively perceived ergonomic quality (e.g. simplicity, controllability) and hedonic quality (e.g. novelty, originality) of a software system in forming a judgement of appeal. A hypothesised research model is presented. The two main research question are: (1) Are ergonomic and hedonic quality subjectively different quality aspects that can be independently perceived by the users? and (2) Is the judgement of appeal formed by combining and weighting ergonomic and hedonic quality and which weights are assigned? The results suggest that both quality aspects can be independently perceived by users. Moreover, they almost equally contributed to the appeal of the tested software prototypes. A simple averaging model implies that both quality aspects will compensate each other. Limitations and practical implication of the results are discussed.

© All rights reserved Hassenzahl et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Hassenzahl, Marc and Prumper, Jochen (1999): Designing usable keyword search systems. In: 1999. pp. 107-111.

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/marc_hassenzahl.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1999-2012
Pub. count:50
Number of co-authors:47



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Sarah Diefenbach:8
Mark Blythe:3
Evangelos Karapanos:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Marc Hassenzahl's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Andrew Monk:68
Andreas Butz:48
Jean-Bernard Marte..:42
 
 
 
Jul 13

A general principle for all user interface design is to go through all of your design elements and remove them one at a time. If the design works as well without a certain design element, kill it.

-- Jakob Nielsen, Designing Web Usability, p. 22.

 
 

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