Multimodal Affective Computing

 

Affective Computing is computing that relates to, arises from, or deliberately influences emotion or other affective phenomena (Picard 1997).

Research on automatic emotion recognition did not start until the 1990s. Although researchers like Ekman published studies on how people recognized emotions from face display in the 1960s (Ekman and Friesen 1968), people would find it absurd that anyone would even propose giving machines such abilities when emotional mechanisms were not considered to have a significant role in various aspects of human life. However, scientists found out that even in the most rational of decisions, emotions persist: emotions always exist, we always feel something.

In the early 1990s, Salovey and Mayer published a series of papers on emotional intelligence (Salovey and Mayer 1990). They suggested that the capacity to perceive and understand emotions define a new variable in personality. Goleman popularized his view of emotional intelligence or Emotional Quotient (EQ) in his 1995 best­selling book by discussing why EQ mattered more than Intelligence Quotient (IQ) (Goleman 1995). Goleman drew together research in neurophysiology, psychology and cognitive science. Other scientists also provided evidence that emotions were tightly coupled with all functions we, humans, are engaged with: attention, perception, learning, reasoning, decision making, planning, action selection, memory storage and retrieval (Isen 2000 and Picard 2003).

This new scientific understanding of emotions provided inspiration to various researchers for building machines that will have abilities to recognize, express, model, communicate, and respond to emotions. The initial focus has been on the recognition of the prototypical emotions from posed visual input, namely face expressions. All existing work in the early 1990s attempted to recognize prototypical emotions from two static face images: neutral and expressive. In the second half of 1990s, automated face expression analysis started focusing on posed video sequences and exploiting temporal information in the displayed face expressions. In parallel to the automatic emotion recognition from visual input, works focusing on audio input emerged. Rosalind Picard's award­winning book, Affective Computing, was published in 1997, laying the groundwork for giving machines the skills of emotional intelligence. The book triggered an explosion of interest in the emotional side of computers and their users and a new research area called affective computing emerged. Affective computing advocated the idea that it might not be essential for machines to posses all the emotional intelligence and skills humans do. However, for natural and effective human­computer interaction, computers still needed to look intelligent to some extent (Picard, 1997). Experiments conducted by Reeves and Nass showed that for an intelligent interaction, the basic human­human issues should hold (Reeves and Nass 1996).

One major limitation of affective computing has been that most of the past research had focused on emotion recognition from one single sensorial source, or modality. However, as natural human­human interaction (HHI) is multimodal, the single sensory observations are often ambiguous, uncertain, and incomplete. It was not till 1998 that computer scientists attempted to use multiple modalities for recognition of emotions/affective states. The combined use of multiple modalities for sensing affective states in itself triggered another research area. What channels to use? And how to combine them? The initial interest was on fusing visual and audio data. The results were promising, using multiple modalities improved the overall recognition accuracy helping the systems function in a more efficient and reliable way. Starting from the work of Picard in 2001, interest in detecting emotions from physiological signals emerged. Moreover, researchers moved their focus from posed to spontaneous visual data (Braathen et al. 2002). Although a fundamental study by Ambady and Rosenthal suggested that the most significant channels for judging behavioural cues of humans appear to be the visual channels of face expressions and body gestures (Ambady and Rosenthal 1992), the existing literature on automatic emotion recognition did not focus on the expressive information that body gestures carry till 2003 (Hudlicka, 2003). Following the new findings in psychology, some researchers advocate that a reliable automatic affect recognition system should attempt to combine face expressions and body gestures. Accordingly, a number of approaches have been proposed for such sensorial sources (Gunes and Piccardi 2007), (Kapoor et al. 2007), (Karpouzis et al. 2007), (Lisetti and Nasoz 2002) and (Martin et al. 2006). With all these new areas, a number of new challenges have arisen.

Overall, the interest in affective computing has grown significantly in the last three years. In Europe (EU), Human­Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) was created as a Network of Excellence in the EU's Sixth Framework Programme, under the Information Society Technologies (IST) programme (Humaine 2007). The HUMAINE Network started on 1st January 2004, and is funded to run for four years. In parallel to this the First international Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction was organized in 2005 bringing together researchers from diverse fields of research (ACII 2005).

Currently, every research group agrees that multiple modalities should be explored in order to understand which channels provide better information for automatic affect/emotion recognition. If a monomodal affect recognition system is compared to a multimodal one some of the assumptions made when building monomodal affect recognisers still hold (e.g., affect data collection is still needed). However, specific problems exist for multimodal affect recognition (e.g., multiple sensors are now required).Therefore, some new assumptions need to be taken into consideration.

The final stage affective computing has reached today is, combining multiple channels for affect recognition and moving from posed data towards spontaneous data. Achieving these aims is an open challenge. At this stage, scientists expect emotion recognition to be solvable by machine in the near future, at least as well as people can label such patterns (Picard 2003). A significant issue to note here is that, the focus of affective computing research field is gradually moving from just developing more efficient and effective automated techniques to concentrating on more context­/culture­/user­related aspects. In order to achieve the smooth transition aimed, it should be realised and understood that machine learning for human­computer applications is distinctively different from the conventional machine learning field. Issues such as loads of data, spatial coherence, and the large variety of appearances make affective behaviour analysis in particular, a special challenge for machine learning algorithms.

Today, the term affective computing has many aims in common with the recently emerging research field called human computing. Human computing is an interdisciplinary research field focusing on computing and computational artefacts as they relate to the human condition. As defined in (Pantic et al. 2007), human computing focuses on the human portion of the HCI context, going beyond the traditional keyboard and mouse to include natural, human­like interactive functions including understanding and emulating behavioural and social signalling. Human computing research field is interested in devising automated analysis algorithms that aim to extract, efficiently describe, and organise information regarding the state or state transition of individuals (identity, emotional state, activity, position and pose, etc), interactions between individuals (dialogue, gestures, engagement into collaborative or competitive activities like sports), and physical characteristics of humans (anthropometric characteristics, 3D head/body models) (Pantic et al. 2007).

Starting from the survey by Pantic, Pentland, Nijholt and Huang (Pantic et al. 2007), special sessions have already been organised and special journal issues have been proposed in this field:

  • Special session on Human Computing at the ACM International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces, November 2006.
  • Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Human Computing in conjunction with the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, January 2007.
  • International Workshop on Human­Centered Multimedia in Conjunction with ACM Multimedia 2007.
  • International Journal of Image and Video Processing, special issue on Anthropocentric Video Analysis: Tools and Applications, 2007.
  • Lecture Notes on Artificial Intelligence (LNAI), special volume on AI for Human Computing, 2007.
  • IEEE Computer Magazine, Special Issue on Human­Centered Computing, 2007.
  • IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part B, special issue on Human Computing, 2007.

Although research fields such as affective computing, human computing and multimodal interfaces seem to be detached and have their own research community/conferences/audience, as prophesied by some researchers (e.g., Pantic et al. 2007), future progress in these fields is likely to bring them together and merge them into one single most widespread research area within computer science, artificial intelligence and CHI research communities. The future direction in these research fields is to advance further by making computers/machines/devices/environments more human­like rather than forcing humans to act machine­like. Further progress is mandatory in order to achieve this common goal.

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Interaction-Design.org is run by The Interaction Design Foundation, a privately held corporation residing in Aarhus, Denmark. You agree that these Terms and your use of Interaction-Design.org and the materials produced by The Interaction Design Foundation are governed by the laws of Denmark. You hereby consent to the exclusive jurisdiction and venue of the courts, tribunals, agencies and other dispute resolution organizations in Denmark in all disputes

  1. arising out of, relating to, or concerning Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms
  2. in which Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms is an issue or a material fact
  3. or in which Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and/or these Terms is referenced in a paper filed in a court, tribunal, agency or other dispute resolution organization.

The Interaction Design Foundation has endeavoured to comply with all legal requirements known to it in creating and maintaining Interaction-Design.org and The Interaction Design Foundation, but makes no representation that materials on Interaction-Design.org or produced by The Interaction Design Foundation are appropriate or available for use in any particular jurisdiction. You are responsible for compliance with applicable laws. Any use in contravention of this provision or any provision of these Terms is at your own risk and, if any part of these Terms is invalid or unenforceable under applicable law, the invalid or unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most closely matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of these Terms shall govern such use.

2. Liability

Your use of and browsing Interaction-Design.org is at your own risk. The Interaction Design Foundation does not warrant that the software used for Interaction-Design.org, and the information, material, and content on it, or any other services and materials provided by means of Interaction-Design.org or by The Interaction Design Foundation are error-free, or that their use will be uninterrupted. The Interaction Design Foundation expressly disclaims all warranties related to the above-mentioned subject matter, including, without limitation, those of accuracy, condition, merchantability and fitness for particular purpose. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary on Interaction-Design.org, in no event shall The Interaction Design Foundation be liable for any loss of profits, revenues, indirect, special, incidental, consequential, or other similar damages arising out of or in connection with Interaction-Design.org or out of the use of any of the services proposed by means of Interaction-Design.org.

3. Updates

Internet technology, publishing technology, and the applicable laws, rules, and regulations change frequently. Accordingly, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the unilateral right to update, modify, change and alter its Site Terms and Conditions as well as Copyright Terms at any time. All such updates, modifications, changes and alterations are binding on all users and browsers of Interaction-Design.org, readers of electronic and non-eletronic versions of the publications produced by The Interaction Design Foundation. Such updates will be posted on Interaction-Design.org.

4. Legal Disclaimer

The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors make no representations as to accuracy, completeness, currentness, suitability, or validity of any information, material, or content on Interaction-Design.org.

THE MATERIAL AND CONTENT POSTED ON INTERACTION-DESIGN.ORG AND ANY CONTENT PROUDCED BY - OR PUBLISHED THROUGH THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS WARRANTY OR IMPLIED WARRANTY OF ANY KIND INCLUDING WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, NON-INFRINGEMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION BE LIABLE FOR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF INFORMATION) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE THE MATERIALS, EVEN IF THE INTERACTION DESIGN FOUNDATION HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.

Because some jurisdictions prohibit the exclusion or limitation of liability for consequential and or incidental damages, the above limitation may not apply to you. Furthermore, The Interaction Design Foundation does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of information of links or other items contained within these materials that have been provided by third parties.

5. Provision regarding change in attribution of copyrighted materials

Please contact us at mads@interaction-design.org if you, or your organization, wish to correct or change attribution or presentation of any image/material used on Interaction-Design.org, which you, or your organization, are the rightful copyright holder of. We will request that you submit proof of your ownership of the copyright on this material but will act immediately on any reasonable request.

6. Notice and prodecure for claims of copyright infringement

Every effort has been made by the individual contributing authors as well as The Interaction Design Foundation to discover and contact copyright holders of artwork/illustrations/content used on Interaction-Design.org. To the extent that a copyright holder could not be found or an inadvertent permissions or copyright error was made, The Interaction Design Foundation stands ready to remove content upon notice and request by a copyright holder. In the case that you believe that any content or other material provided through Interaction-Design.org infringes your copyright, you should notify The Interaction Design Foundation of your infringement claim in accordance with the procedure set forth below.

We will process each notice of alleged infringement which The Interaction Design Foundation receives and take appropriate action in accordance with applicable intellectual property laws. A notification of claimed copyright infringement should be emailed to mads@interaction-design.org (subject: "Takedown Request"). You may also contact us by mail at:

The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

To be effective, the notification must be in writing and contain the following information:

  1. an electronic or physical signature of the copyright owner or the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest
  2. a description of the copyrighted work that you claim has been infringed
  3. a description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on Interaction-Design.org that is reasonably sufficient to enable us to identify and locate the material;
  4. how The Interaction Design Foundation can contact you, such as your address, telephone number, and email address
  5. a written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law
  6. if you represent a publisher, a written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the material has not been placed in the public domain, or licenced under another licence, before you acquired the copyright as this would possibly invalidate your copyright
  7. and a statement by you, made under penalty of perjury, that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner's behalf.

7. Trademarks and other rights

All trademarks, logos, service marks, collective marks, design rights, personality rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used or cited by The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in our materials does not vest in the author or The Interaction Design Foundation any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of The Interaction Design Foundation and its authors by such owners. As such The Interaction Design Foundation can not grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk. Words which we have reason to believe constitute trademarks may or may not have been labelled as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such labels should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademarks.

8. Screenshots

Screenshots of copyrighted computer software, for which the copyright is held by the author(s) or the company that created the software, is believed to fall under the fair use doctrine in the US (and similar laws in other countries). It is believed that reproduction for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research is not copyright infringement. If you reuse screenshots, as well as any other information provided by The Interaction Design Foundation, you do so at your own risk and under the copyright laws of your country.

9. Copyright of Abstracts

Abstracts in the Wiki Bibliography (/references/) are submitted by their authors who use the wiki to make their research as accessible as possible. When a page on Interaction-Design.org cites/references/lists a work from the bibliography, its abstract is included. However, abstracts have varying copyrights depending which publisher the work is published through. You should assume that an abstract is copyright, all rights reserved, of its publisher and/or author and therefore always use/cite abstracts according to Fair Use. You may visit the publisher's website to learn about the specific copyright terms (e.g. ACM, IEEE, or Springer) or contact the author directly. Bottom line: Cite/use abstracts according to the principles of fair use as it may otherwise be construed as a copyright infringement and subject to legal action.

10. User Submissions / User Content

You understand and acknowledge that additions to the Wiki Bibliography (including article abstracts), additions the Conference Calendar (including conference descriptions), user-contributed notes on each page (including text, photographs, graphics), or other materials posted by users on Interaction-Design.org ("Content") are the sole responsibility of the person from whom such Content originated. This means that you, and not The Interaction Design Foundation, are entirely responsible for all Content that you upload, post or otherwise make available to other users of Interaction-Design.org.

When submitting content to Interaction-Design.org, you agree to not:

  1. impersonate any person or entity or falsely state or otherwise misrepresent your affiliation with a person or entity;
  2. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that you do not have a right to make available under any law or under contractual or fiduciary relationships (such as inside information, proprietary and confidential information learned or disclosed as part of employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements);
  3. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that infringes any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright or other proprietary rights ("Rights") of any party;
  4. upload, post or otherwise make available any Content that is unlawful, harmful, threatening, abusive, harassing, tortious, defamatory, vulgar, obscene, libelous, invasive of another's privacy, hateful, or racially, ethnically or otherwise objectionable;

You acknowledge that The Interaction Design Foundation shall have the right to remove any Content that violates these Site Terms and Conditions or is otherwise objectionable.

11. Third Party Websites

If we provide links or pointers to other websites, no inference or assumption should be made that The Interaction Design Foundation operates, controls, or is otherwise connected with these websites. When you click on a link within Interaction-Design.org, we will not warn you that you have left a Site and are subject to the terms and conditions (including privacy policies) of the destination website. In some cases it may be less obvious than others that you have left a Site and reached another website. Please be careful to read the terms of use and privacy policy of any website before you provide any confidential information or engage in any transactions. You should not rely on these Terms for another website. The Interaction Design Foundation is not responsible for the content or practices of any other website. By using Interaction-Design.org, you acknowledge and agree that The Interaction Design Foundation is not responsible or liable to you for any content or other materials hosted and served from any third party website.

12. Email communication: Confidential and proprietary information notice

Email messages sent from members of The Interaction Design Foundation, including emails generated from the use of the interaction-design.org website, are proprietary to The Interaction Design Foundation, and are intended solely for the use of the individual to whom they are addressed. Such messages may contain privileged or confidential information and should not be circulated or used for any purpose other than for what they are intended. If you receive a message from a member of The Interaction Design Foundation in error, please notify the sender immediately. If you are not the intended recipient, you are hereby notified that you are strictly prohibited from using, copying, altering, or disclosing the contents of the message. The Interaction Design Foundation accepts no responsibility for loss or damage arising from the use of the information transmitted by email message including damage from virus.

13. Usage conditions

Please make sure that you understand that the information provided by The Interaction Design Foundation is being provided freely, and that no kind of agreement or contract is created between you and the owners, partners, users, or authors of this site, the owners of the servers upon which it is housed, the individual contributors of the The Interaction Design Foundation, any project administrators, sysops or anyone else who is in any way connected with this project. If you choose to use or copy anything from from this site it does not create or imply any contractual or extracontractual liability on the part of The Interaction Design Foundation or any of its members, partners, sponsors, contributors or other users. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk.

14. Termination

The Interaction Design Foundation will have the right to terminate your access to the Web Site if it reasonably believes you have breached any of the terms and conditions of these Terms. Following termination, you will not be permitted to use the Web Site. If your access to the Web Site is terminated, The Interaction Design Foundation reserves the right to exercise whatever means it deems necessary to prevent unauthorized access to the Web Site, including, but not limited to, technological barriers, IP mapping, and direct contact with your Internet Service Provider. These Terms will survive indefinitely unless and until The Interaction Design Foundation chooses to terminate them, regardless of whether any account you open is terminated by you or The Interaction Design Foundation or if you have the right to access or use the Web Site.

15. Force Majeure, website downtime, and service outages

The Interaction Design Foundation will not be liable for failing to perform under these Terms because of any event beyond its reasonable control, including, without limitation, a labor disturbance, an Internet outage or interruption of service, a communications outage, failure by a service provider to The Interaction Design Foundation to perform, fire, terrorism, natural disaster, or war.

16. Limitation of Actions

You acknowledge and agree that, regardless of any statute or law to the contrary, any claim or cause of action you may have arising out of, relating to, or connected with your use of the Web Site, must be filed within one calendar year after such claim or cause of action arises, or forever be barred.

17. Payments

Online payment is accepted by Paypal. The Interaction Design Foundation does not process credit card payments directly or ever see, retain, or use your credit card information.

18. Taxes and VAT

In the name of Simplicity for our members/clients and the online User Experience, our prices always include VAT when applicable. The Interaction Design Foundation is based in Denmark so we pay 25% VAT of payments - depending on which originating country the member or customer is from.

19. Ownership of Interaction-Design.org, The Interaction Design Foundation, and its services

Interaction-Design.org is owned and operated by The Interaction Design Foundation, an LLC incorporated under the laws of Denmark, with office in Aarhus, Denmark.

Address:
The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

20. Changes to the Web Site

The Interaction Design Foundation may, in its sole discretion, change, modify, suspend, make improvements to, or discontinue any aspect of the Web Site, temporarily or permanently, at any time without notice to you, and The Interaction Design Foundation will not be liable for doing so.

21. Additional Terms

These Terms contain the entire understanding of you and The Interaction Design Foundation regarding the use of the Web Site and the services of The Interaction Design Foundation, and supersedes all prior and contemporaneous agreements and understandings between you and The Interaction Design Foundation relating thereto. These Terms will be binding upon each party hereto and its successors and permitted assigns. These Terms and all of your rights and obligations under them may not be assignable or transferable by you without the prior written consent of The Interaction Design Foundation. No failure or delay by a party in exercising any right, power, or privilege under these Terms will operate as a waiver thereof, nor will any single or partial exercise of any right, power or privilege preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any other right, power, or privilege under these Terms. You and The Interaction Design Foundation are independent contractors, and no agency, partnership, joint venture, employee-employer relationship is intended or created by these Terms. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Terms will not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision of these Terms, all of which will remain in full force and effect.

22. Legal Disputes

Any dispute arising from the use of Interaction-Design.org or the interpretation of the terms is governed by the laws of Denmark, and shall be settled by the courts of Denmark. All communications regarding legal matters must be made in writing to

The Interaction Design Foundation
Chr. Molbechs Vej 4
DK-8000 Aarhus C.
Denmark

iv. Site Privacy Policy

1. Summary

The Interaction Design Foundation collects no more data about you than most other websites.

Any membership information you provide to us will be used by us in order to maintain a register of members and supply you with any goods and services you have requested from our web site.

Edits, comments, commentaries and other contributions are published, and except in very limited circumstances, will be a permanent part of this site. If you decide contribute, you must keep this in mind. Your contributions will be subject to the Site Terms and Conditions and our Site IP/Copyright policy.

Under "The Act on Processing of Personal Data", incorporated under Danish law, you may request a copy of the information we hold on you (for which we may charge a fee to offset our administration costs) by writing to us .

This privacy policy will be reviewed, and may be revised, from time to time. You may wish to revisit it regularly.

2. No selling of information

We do not share or sell email addresses, obtained via communication with visitors, with anyone. Neither will any identifying data be disclosed or sold to any third party for any purpose. Data we collect through logging visits to our site (orginating IP, referral data, browser and platform type, traffic flows, geographical area of request, etc.) is only used in an aggregated form, which means we will not make any effort to identify users of Interaction-Design.org. The data is only used for server administration, fault finding, site improvement, etc. - as is done on most websites.

Aggregate (and thus completely non-identifying) statistics generated from these logs may be reported as part of research results or may be published on this site as a curiosity.

3. Cookies

Our sites may use cookies. This is often as a convenience for you to enable certain site features.

You may wish to clear these cookies and the browser cache if you wish to refrain from revealing any identifying information, especially if you are using a public or shared computer. You may also wish to disable your browser from accepting cookies.

4. Private logging

Any time you visit a page on the internet, you send quite a bit of information to the server. The webservers that host this site maintain access logs with the information that you send. This information is used to provide site statistics and to get an idea of popular pages and what sites link here. We do not intend to use these logs to identify legitimate users.

The data logged may be used by us to solve technical problems with the site and, in cases of abuse of this site, to investigate the abuse.

We also use web analytics services to get a general idea of the kinds of traffic our websites get in order to provide better services and to set benchmarks for how we are doing in meeting the OKFN's goals.

Again, if you are concerned about attempts to match your IP address to your identity, you may wish to use an anonymous browsing service or attempt some means to obfuscate your real IP address.

5. Data release policy

Our policy is only to release the data we collect in the following circumstances:

  • As required by law, such as in response to a valid request from law enforcement.
  • To designated third parties to resolve or investigate abuse complaints.
  • When the information is related to spiders or bots, usually when investigating technical issues.
  • For abusive users, we may release information to assist in attempting to block the abusive user or to complain to that user's Internet Service Provider.
  • If necessary to defend legal claims against us by third parties.
  • When we deem it necessary to protect the property or rights of the user community, or this website.

6. Public data and publishing

Browsing this site doesn't reveal your identity publicly, though see Private Logging later in this document for more information.

7. Author identification

When making contributions to this site (e.g. posting a comment, commentaries, editing a page in the wiki, etc), a name and email address may be required. You do not have to select your real name or use your regular email address. If you are concerned, you may wish to get a free email account or attempt to use a remail service.

Your activity on our website may be identified by your IP address. These numbers could potentially be traceable to identifying information about you, whether it is your home ISP or the University or Work account where the IP address is registered. Your IP address could potentially be used in conjunction with other data to identify you.

If you are concerned about attempts to match your IP address to your identity, you may wish to use an anonymous browsing service or attempt some means to obfuscate your real IP address.

If so, you might like to try Tor, an anonymous browsing service.

8. Information security

We make no guarantee that the information that you provide us will be secure.

About the author

Hatice Gunes

Picture of Hatice Gunes.
Dr Hatice Gunes is a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) at the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London (QMUL), UK. She received her Ph.D. degree in Computer Science from University of Technology Sydney (UTS), Australia, in September 2007 for her multi-cue and multi-sensory approach to automatic recognition of emotions from face-and-body express...   
 
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