Publication statistics

Pub. period:1999-2012
Pub. count:17
Number of co-authors:16


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Stewart Martin:
Michael Vallance:
Paul Cann:



Productive colleagues

Paul Van Schaik's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jonathan Ling:9
Clive Fencott:2
Effie L.-C. Law:2

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Paul Van Schaik

Has also published under the name of:
"P. Van Schaik"


Publications by Paul Van Schaik (bibliography)

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2012): An Experimental Analysis of Experiential and Cognitive Variables in Web Navigation. In Eminds International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (3) pp. 199-234.

Cognitive and experiential factors in human-computer interaction have been the focus of significant recent attention, but there is a lack of a much needed integrated approach to these issues. The current article proposes such an approach and applies this, combined with the person-task-artifact model (Finneran&Zhang, 2003), to the modeling of web navigation. In an experiment, artifact complexity and task complexity were manipulated. The effects of the experimental manipulations and intrinsic motivation on flow experience, task performance and task outcome were tested. The main effects of the manipulations were confirmed. Further analyses demonstrated that flow was a mediator of the effect of experimental manipulations on task performance, and task performance was a mediator of the effect of flow on task outcome. Overall, the results in the domain of web navigation that are presented here demonstrate the need for taking an integrated cognitive-experiential approach in the modeling of human-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Universidad de Oviedo

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2011): An integrated model of interaction experience for information retrieval in a Web-based encyclopaedia. In Interacting with Computers, 23 (1) pp. 18-32.

An experiment, using two versions of a Web site varying in usability, tested three models of user experience: an interaction experience model, a technology acceptance model and an integrated experience-acceptance model. We found that the perceptions of three product attributes (Pragmatic Quality, Hedonic Quality-stimulation and Hedonic Quality-identification) and technology acceptance variables (the beliefs of Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Usefulness, and Intention to Use) are separate underlying psychological dimensions. A positive effect of usability on task performance, interaction experience and acceptance was found. In the interaction experience model, the evaluation of Goodness (overall interaction quality) was less stable and influenced by both Pragmatic Quality and Hedonic Quality, but the evaluation of Beauty was more stable and only influenced by Hedonic Quality. In the technology acceptance model, Perceived Ease of Use was a determinant of Perceived Enjoyment and Perceived Usefulness, and the latter two were independent determinants of Intention to Use. In the integrated model, perceptions of product attributes were independent determinants of beliefs, but evaluations were not independent determinants of Intention to Use. Future modelling work should address a range of interactive systems, information architecture and individual differences.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Elsevier Science

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Schaik, Paul Van, Radford, Jill and Hogg, Leanne (2010): Modelling the acceptance of internet sites with domestic-violence information. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 29 (6) pp. 615-620.

Both in terms of prevalence and impact, domestic violence is a significant problem in modern society. The current study investigated women's acceptance of internet sites with domestic-violence information as an additional source of support. Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, social influence and awareness of sites were predictors of intention to use sites. However, awareness and experience of domestic violence predicted use of sites. We argue that technology acceptance needs to be studied in the context of a detailed analysis of 'Everyday Life Information Seeking' to better understand acceptance and as a basis for designing effective support sites.

© All rights reserved Schaik et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Law, Effie L.-C. and Schaik, Paul Van (2010): Modelling user experience -- An agenda for research and practice. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 313-322.

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Schaik, Paul Van (2010): Using interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (6) pp. 556-568.

3-D models are often developed to aid the design and development of indoor and outdoor environments. This study explores the use of interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation for outdoor environments. Two visualization techniques (interactive 3-D visualization and static visualization) were compared using the method of individual testing. Visualization technique had no effect on the perception of the represented outdoor environment, but there was a preference for using interactive 3-D. Previously established mechanisms for a preference for interactive 3-D visualization in other domains were confirmed in the perceived strengths and weaknesses of visualization techniques. In focus-group discussion, major preferences included provision of more information through interactive 3-D visualization and wider access to information for public consultation. From a users' perspective, the findings confirm the strong potential of interactive 3-D visualization for public consultation.

© All rights reserved Schaik and/or Elsevier Science

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Vallance, Michael, Martin, Stewart, Wiz, Charles and Schaik, Paul Van (2009): LEGO Mindstorms for informed metrics in virtual worlds. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 159-162.

Science education is the meaningful pursuit of comprehension, knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes. In Vygotskian, social-constructivist learning, personal interpretation, decision making and community cooperation fosters long-term understanding and transference of learned concepts. In short, the construction of knowledge requires learners to be actively involved in the process of learning. For effective science learning an instructor's pedagogical approach must be anchored in meaningful contexts so that students experience science. This research paper assesses and defines effective measurements for evaluating strategies for communicating science using LEGO robots and a Mindstorms RCX controller collaboratively constructed and programmed by students using virtual technologies while physically situated in different locations.

© All rights reserved Vallance et al. and/or their publisher

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2009): The role of context in perceptions of the aesthetics of web pages over time. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (1) pp. 79-89.

An important aspect of the empirical study of user experience is the process by which users form aesthetic and other judgements of interactive products. The current study extends previous research by presenting test users with a context (mode of use) in which to make their judgements, using sets of web pages from specific domains rather than unrelated pages, studying the congruence of perceptions of aesthetic value over time, including judgements after use of a web site, manipulating the aesthetic design of web pages and studying the relationship between usability and aesthetic value. The results from two experiments demonstrate that context increases the stability of judgements from perceptions after brief exposure to those after self-paced exposure and from perceptions after self-paced exposure to those of after site use. Experiment 1 shows that relatively attractive pages are preferred over relatively unattractive pages after brief exposure, but only if no context is provided. Experiment 2 shows that after brief exposure, classically aesthetic pages that are information oriented are rated as more attractive than expressively aesthetic pages. Perceptions are not correlated with measures of task performance or mental effort. We conclude that context is a pivotal factor influencing the stability of users' perceptions, which must be explicitly addressed in the study of users' product experience. Furthermore, the type of aesthetics that is relevant to users' perceptions appears to depend on the application domain. The principle 'what is beautiful is usable' is not confirmed.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Academic Press

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2008): Modelling user experience with web sites: Usability, hedonic value, beauty and goodness. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (3) pp. 419-432.

Recent research into user experience has identified the need for a theoretical model to build cumulative knowledge in research addressing how the overall quality or 'goodness' of an interactive product is formed. An experiment tested and extended Hassenzahl's model of aesthetic experience. The study used a 2 x 2 x (2) experimental design with three factors: principles of screen design, principles for organizing information on a web page and experience of using a web site. Dependent variables included hedonic perceptions and evaluations of a web site as well as measures of task performance, navigation behaviour and mental effort. Measures, except Beauty, were sensitive to manipulation of web design. Beauty was influenced by hedonic attributes (identification and stimulation), but Goodness by both hedonic and pragmatic (user-perceived usability) attributes as well as task performance and mental effort. Hedonic quality was more stable with experience of web-site use than pragmatic quality and Beauty was more stable than Goodness.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Elsevier Science

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2007): Design parameters of rating scales for web sites. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 14 (1) p. 4.

The effects of design parameters of rating scales on the perceived quality of interaction with web sites were investigated, using four scales (Disorientation, Perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness and Flow). Overall, the scales exhibited good psychometric properties. In Experiment 1, psychometric results generally converged between two response formats (visual analogue scale and Likert scale). However, in Experiment 2, presentation of one questionnaire item per page was better than all items presented on a single page and direct interaction (using radio buttons) was better than indirect interaction (using a drop-down box). Practical implications and a framework for measurement are presented.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or ACM Press

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Ling, Jonathan and Schaik, Paul Van (2006): The influence of font type and line length on visual search and information retrieval in web pages. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (5) pp. 395-404.

Most web sites are heavily text-based. Previous research has indicated that the way in which this text is presented may have a significant impact on usability. This paper reports findings from two experiments that explored the influence of font type and line length on a range of performance and subjective measures. Experiment 1 used a visual search task and Experiment 2 examined information retrieval. Overall, there was little impact of font on task performance, although the effect of line length was significant, with longer line lengths facilitating better scanning (Experiment 1) and shorter line lengths leading to better subjective outcomes (Experiments 1 and 2). Implications of these results for the design of web pages are discussed and recommendations given.

© All rights reserved Ling and Schaik and/or Academic Press

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Schaik, Paul Van, Flynn, Darren, Wersch, Anna Van, Douglass, Andrew and Cann, Paul (2004): The acceptance of a computerised decision-support system in primary care: A preliminary investigation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 23 (5) pp. 321-326.

Within the framework of technology acceptance modelling (Davis 1993), this study investigated the acceptance of a computerised decision-support system in primary care. Thirty general practitioners (GP) completed a questionnaire that

© All rights reserved Schaik et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Pearson, Robert and Schaik, Paul Van (2003): The effect of spatial layout of and link colour in web pages on performance in a visual search task and an interactive search task. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59 (3) pp. 327-353.

This study aimed to investigate the validity of psychological experimental methods within human-computer interaction research (Carroll, 1989) and to examine design guidelines pertaining to hypertext link colour and positioning of navigation menu frames as part of web documents. The results of past research on both link colour and positioning of menus are mixed and guidelines are usually not based on empirical evidence (Tullis, 1997; Shneiderman, 1997). The study used a repeated measures experimental design. Participants carried out both a visual search task and an interactive search task. Task performance on the two tasks did not to correlate (p>0.05), indicating that the visual search task may lack external validity. Results of the interactive search task suggest that the design convention of blue links (Nielsen, 1999a) should be retained as responses for blue were found to be significantly quicker than red, F(1,117)=14.526, p<0.001, MS{sub:colour}=89.866. Furthermore, an effect of presentation position, F(3,117)=8.410, p<0.001, MS{sub:position}=61.015, was found, with support for menus on the left (Nielsen, 1999a; Campbell&Maglio, 1999) or right (Nielsen, 1999a). Evidence was also found to support the conjecture that experienced Internet users might have formed automatic attention responses to specific web page designs. The need for validation of behavioural and psychometric methods with task performance and the use of cognitive-perceptual-motor modelling are discussed.

© All rights reserved Pearson and Schaik and/or Academic Press

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2003): Using on-line surveys to measure three key constructs of the quality of human-computer interaction in web sites: psychometric properties and implications. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 59 (5) pp. 545-567.

On-line surveys are now an important tool for data collection on the World Wide Web (the Web). Determining the psychometric properties of key constructs such as disorientation, ease of use and flow is of paramount importance in establishing the quality of users' interactions with web sites. The current study used techniques of experimental research and on-line surveys to investigate the psychometric properties of existing instruments for measuring these constructs using two response formats: visual analogue scale and Likert scale. A 2x2 design with response format and orientation support as independent variables was used. Ninety participants carried out an information retrieval task using an experimental on-line shopping site before completing the scales. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of three distinct scales that possessed high reliability. Evidence for validity, and to a lesser extent, sensitivity, was found. Although psychometric results generally converged, some differences between the two response formats were found. A framework for the comprehensive investigation of response formats of on-line questionnaires is proposed as a basis for future research. Practical implications for the on-line measurement of the quality of users' interactions with web-based systems are discussed.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Academic Press

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Fencott, Clive, Schaik, Paul Van, Ling, Jonathan and Shafiullah, Mohammed (2003): The effects of movement of attractors and pictorial content of rewards on users' behaviour in virtual environments: an empirical study in the framework of perceptual opportunities. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (1) pp. 121-140.

Technological developments in Virtual Reality (VR) appear to outpace progress in design methodology of VR. The theory of Perceptual Opportunities (POs) has previously been proposed as a basis of such a design methodology (Blade and Padgett, 2002). This paper presents the first empirical study investigating the effect of representation of POs on users' behaviour in Virtual Environments (VEs). The current study has a methodological focus, using POs as a framework and desktop VR as a experimental environment. The application of an experimental paradigm is illustrated with two experiments. Evidence was found for an effect of movement type on choice of objects in a simple VE. Implications for VE design and the methodology of empirical research in the framework of POs are discussed.

© All rights reserved Fencott et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Schaik, Paul Van, Bettany-Saltikov, J. A. and Warren, J. G. (2002): Clinical acceptance of a low-cost portable system for postural assessment. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 21 (1) pp. 47-57.

The drive towards evidence-based practice in health-care requires changes in work practices and supporting technology. In response to the requirement to provide evidence, the current research proposes a new low-cost system for 3-D postural assessment. The aims of the study were (1) to assess the technology acceptance model (Davis 1993) for the new system and (2) to derive user requirements with user involvement early in the development process. A prototype system was developed and demonstrated to physiotherapists. Technology acceptance was assessed using standardized questions (Davis and Venkatesh 1996) and user needs were assessed with open-ended questions. Relations between the technology acceptance components confirmed findings of previous research, with perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness identified as pivotal factors in clinical acceptance, and implications for design were drawn. Specific user requirements for system development were derived from the qualitative results. The prospects for computer-aided quantitative assessment of posture are discussed.

© All rights reserved Schaik et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Schaik, Paul Van and Ling, Jonathan (2001): The Effects of Frame Layout and Differential Background Contrast on Visual Search Performance in Web Pages. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (5) pp. 513-525.

Usability is paramount for the success of Web sites. This study aims to contribute towards Web design guidelines for usability through an empirical investigation into two Web page design parameters. Using a 2x4 mixed measures experimental design, we studied the effects of frame layout and background contrast on visual search performance. One hundred and eighty-nine undergraduates carried out a visual search task using mock Web pages. Analysis showed an effect of layout both on accuracy and speed measures, with frames located at the top or left of the screen leading to better performance. No main effect of contrast was found, although there was an interaction between layout and contrast in reaction time for hits. Preference for frame layout was dependent on background contrast. The results are discussed in terms of visual search processes and design recommendations are given.

© All rights reserved Schaik and Ling and/or Elsevier Science

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Schaik, Paul Van (1999): Involving Users in the Specification of Functionality Using Scenarios and Model-Based Evaluation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 18 (6) pp. 455-466.

The research investigated how input from users can be used to inform system design at an early stage. The study was conducted in the context of a smart card project in an educational organization. Scenarios of smart card system use were developed based on claims analysis. For the purpose of evaluating the scenarios, a model of system acceptance was devised. Evaluation questionnaires based on the acceptance model were developed and used by potential system users to evaluate the scenarios. Multiple regression analysis of the questionnaire responses indicated which causal links in the acceptance model were significant, and enabled the elements of system functionality likely to have an impact on acceptance to be identified. This approach enables the importance of particular system functions to be assessed at an early stage of system design.

© All rights reserved Schaik and/or Taylor and Francis

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