Publication statistics

Pub. period:2002-2011
Pub. count:8
Number of co-authors:28


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

David Hutchful:
William Thies:
Takashi Suzuki:



Productive colleagues

Lakshminarayanan Subramanian's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Kentaro Toyama:22
Yan Chen:12
Jay Chen:4

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Lakshminarayanan Subramanian


Publications by Lakshminarayanan Subramanian (bibliography)

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Chen, Jay, Hutchful, David, Thies, William and Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan (2011): Analyzing and accelerating web access in a school in peri-urban India. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2011. pp. 443-452. Available online

While computers and Internet access have growing penetration amongst schools in the developing world, intermittent connectivity and limited bandwidth often prevent them from being fully utilized by students and teachers. In this paper, we make two contributions to help address this problem. First, we characterize six weeks of HTTP traffic from a primary school outside of Bangalore, India, illuminating opportunities and constraints for improving performance in such settings. Second, we deploy an aggressive caching and prefetching engine and show that it accelerates a user's overall browsing experience (apart from video content) by 2.8x. Our accelerator leverages innovative techniques that have been proposed, but not evaluated in detail, including the effectiveness of serving stale pages, cached page highlighting, and client-side prefetching. Unlike proxy-based techniques, our system is bundled as an open-source Firefox plugin and runs directly on client machines. This allows easy installation and configuration by end users, which is especially important in developing regions where a lack of permissions or technical expertise often prevents modification of internal network settings.

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Chen, Jay, Power, Russell, Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan and Ledlie, Jonathan (2011): Design and implementation of contextual information portals. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2011. pp. 453-462. Available online

This paper presents a system for enabling offline web use to satisfy the information needs of disconnected communities. We describe the design, implementation, evaluation, and pilot deployment of an automated mechanism to construct Contextual Information Portals (CIPs). CIPs are large searchable information repositories of web pages tailored to the information needs of a target population. We combine an efficient classifier with a focused crawler to gather the web pages for the portal for any given topic. Given a set of topics of interest, our system constructs a CIP containing the most relevant pages from the web across these topics. Using several secondary school course syllabi, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our system for constructing CIPs for use as an education resource. We evaluate our system across several metrics: classification accuracy, crawl scalability, crawl accuracy and harvest rate. We describe the utility and usability of our system based on a preliminary deployment study at an after-school program in India, and also outline our ongoing larger-scale pilot deployment at five schools in Kenya.

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Chakraborty, Sunandan and Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan (2011): Location specific summarization of climatic and agricultural trends. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2011. pp. 463-472. Available online

Climate change can directly impact agriculture. Failure in different aspects of agriculture due to climate change and other influencing factors, are extremely rampant in several agrarian economies, most of which go unnoticed. In this paper, we describe the design of a system that mines disparate information sources on the Web to automatically summarize important climatic and agricultural trends for any specific location and construct a location-specific climatic and agricultural information portal. We have evaluated the system across 605 different districts in India. The results revealed a pan-India scenario of different problem affected areas. The key findings from this work include, around 64.58% of the districts of India suffer from soil related issues and 76.02% have water related problems. We have also manually validated the authenticity of our information sources and validated our summarized results for specific locations with findings in reputed journals and authoritative sources.

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Paisios, Nektarios, Rubinsteyn, Alex, Vyas, Vrutti and Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan (2011): Recognizing currency bills using a mobile phone: an assistive aid for the visually impaired. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 19-20. Available online

Despite the rapidly increasing use of credit cards and other electronic forms of payment, cash is still widely used for everyday transactions due to its convenience, perceived security and anonymity. However, the visually impaired might have a hard time telling each paper bill apart, since, for example, all dollar bills have the exact same size and, in general, currency bills around the world are not distinguishable by any tactile markings. We propose the use of a broadly available tool, the camera of a smart-phone, and an adaptation of the SIFT algorithm to recognize partial and even distorted images of paper bills. Our algorithm improves memory efficiency and the speed of SIFT key-point classification by using a k-means clustering approach. Our results show that our system can be used in real-world scenarios to recognize unknown bills with a high accuracy.

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Paisios, Nektarios, Rubinsteyn, Alex, Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan, Tierney, Matt and Vyas, Vrutti (2011): Tracking indoor location and motion for navigational assistance. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 83-84. Available online

Visually impaired people have a harder time remembering their way around complex unfamiliar buildings, whilst obtaining the help of a sighted guide is not always possible or desirable. By sensing the users location and motion, however, mobile phone software can provide navigational assistance in such situations, obviating the need of human guides. We present a simple to operate and highly usable mobile navigational guide that uses Wi-Fi and accelerometer sensors to help the user repeat paths that were already walked once.

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Chen, Jay, Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan and Toyama, Kentaro (2009): Web search and browsing behavior under poor connectivity. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3473-3478. Available online

Web search and browsing have been streamlined for a comfortable experience when the network connection is fast. Existing tools, however, are not optimized for scenarios where connectivity is poor, as is the case for many users in developing regions where fast connections are expensive, rare, or unavailable. This study examined how users' web search and browsing behavior differs when the connection is slow, and whether users employ techniques to alleviate the problem. In a preliminary study involving 15 subjects on a university campus in Kerala, India, we identify unique mitigating behaviors of users who routinely suffer low-bandwidth or intermittent connections. We examine the challenges faced by these users and find that existing web search and browsing infrastructure is simply incapable of providing a good experience. Finally we outline potential design improvements.

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Chen, Jay, Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan and Li, Jinyang (2009): RuralCafe: web search in the rural developing world. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2009. pp. 411-420. Available online

The majority of people in rural developing regions do not have access to the World Wide Web. Traditional network connectivity technologies have proven to be prohibitively expensive in these areas. The emergence of new long-range wireless technologies provide hope for connecting these rural regions to the Internet. However, the network connectivity provided by these new solutions are by nature intermittent due to high network usage rates, frequent power-cuts and the use of delay tolerant links. Typical applications, especially interactive applications like web search, do not tolerate intermittent connectivity. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of RuralCafe, a system intended to support efficient web search over intermittent networks. RuralCafe enables users to perform web search asynchronously and find what they are looking for in one round of intermittency as opposed to multiple rounds of search/downloads. RuralCafe does this by providing an expanded search query interface which allows a user to specify additional query terms to maximize the utility of the results returned by a search query. Given knowledge of the limited available network resources, RuralCafe performs optimizations to prefetch pages to best satisfy a search query based on a user's search preferences. In addition, RuralCafe does not require modifications to the web browser, and can provide single round search results tailored to various types of networks and economic constraints. We have implemented and evaluated the effectiveness of RuralCafe using queries from logs made to a large search engine, queries made by users in an intermittent setting, and live queries from a small testbed deployment. We have also deployed a prototype of RuralCafe in Kerala, India.

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Raman, Bhaskaran, Agarwal, Sharad, Chen, Yan, Caesar, Matthew, Cui, Weidong, Johansson, Per, Lai, Kevin, Lavian, Tal, Machiraju, Sridhar, Mao, Zhuoqing Morley, Porter, George, Roscoe, Timothy, Seshadri, Mukund, Shih, Jimmy S., Sklower, Keith, Subramanian, Lakshminarayanan and Suzuki, Takashi (2002): The SAHARA Model for Service Composition across Multiple Providers. In: Mattern, Friedemann and Naghshineh, Mahmoud (eds.) Pervasive 2002 - Pervasive Computing, First International Conference August 26-28, 2002, Zrich, Switzerland. pp. 1-14. Available online

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