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Jacob Wobbrock


Publications by Jacob Wobbrock (bibliography)

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Azenkot, Shiri, Rector, Kyle, Ladner, Richard and Wobbrock, Jacob (2012): PassChords: secure multi-touch authentication for blind people. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 159-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2384916.2384945

Blind mobile device users face security risks such as inaccessible authentication methods, and aural and visual eavesdropping. We interviewed 13 blind smartphone users and found that most participants were unaware of or not concerned about potential security threats. Not a single participant used optional authentication methods such as a password-protected screen lock. We addressed the high risk of unauthorized user access by developing PassChords, a non-visual authentication method for touch surfaces that is robust to aural and visual eavesdropping. A user enters a PassChord by tapping several times on a touch surface with one or more fingers. The set of fingers used in each tap defines the password. We give preliminary evidence that a four-tap PassChord has about the same entropy, a measure of password strength, as a four-digit personal identification number (PIN) used in the iPhone's Passcode Lock. We conducted a study with 16 blind participants that showed that PassChords were nearly three times as fast as iPhone's Passcode Lock with VoiceOver, suggesting that PassChords are a viable accessible authentication method for touch screens.

© All rights reserved Azenkot et al. and/or ACM Press

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Goel, Mayank, Wobbrock, Jacob and Patel, Shwetak (2012): GripSense: using built-in sensors to detect hand posture and pressure on commodity mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 545-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2380116.2380184

We introduce GripSense, a system that leverages mobile device touchscreens and their built-in inertial sensors and vibration motor to infer hand postures including one- or two-handed interaction, use of thumb or index finger, or use on a table. GripSense also senses the amount of pres-sure a user exerts on the touchscreen despite a lack of direct pressure sensors by inferring from gyroscope readings when the vibration motor is "pulsed." In a controlled study with 10 participants, GripSense accurately differentiated device usage on a table vs. in hand with 99.67% accuracy and when in hand, it inferred hand postures with 84.26% accuracy. In addition, GripSense distinguished three levels of pressure with 95.1% accuracy. A usability analysis of GripSense was conducted in three custom applications and showed that pressure input and hand-posture sensing can be useful in a number of scenarios.

© All rights reserved Goel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hurst, Amy, Gajos, Krzysztof, Findlater, Leah, Wobbrock, Jacob, Sears, Andrew and Trewin, Shari (2011): Dynamic accessibility: accommodating differences in ability and situation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 41-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979589

Human abilities and situations are idiosyncratic and may change frequently. Static one-size-fits-many accessibility solutions miss the opportunities that arise from careful consideration of an individual's abilities and fail to address the sometimes dynamic aspect of those abilities, such as when a user's activity or context causes a "situational impairment." The goal of this workshop is to bring together researchers and practitioners in accessibility, mobile HCI, and interactive intelligent systems who are pursuing agile, data-driven approaches that enable interactive systems to adapt or become adapted to the needs and abilities of a particular individual in a particular context.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or their publisher

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