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User-Centred Design - Module 1
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Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

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Georg Apitz


Publications by Georg Apitz (bibliography)

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Apitz, Georg, Guimbretiere, Francois and Zhai, Shumin (2010): Foundations for designing and evaluating user interfaces based on the crossing paradigm. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (2) p. 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1746259.1746263

Traditional graphical user interfaces have been designed with the desktop mouse in mind, a device well characterized by Fitts' law. Yet in recent years, hand-held devices and tablet personal computers using a pen (or fingers) as the primary mean of interaction have become more and more popular. These new interaction modalities have pushed the traditional focus on pointing to its limit. In this paper we explore whether a different paradigm -- goal crossing-based on pen strokes -- may substitute or complement pointing as another fundamental interaction method. First we describe a study in which we establish that goal crossing is dependent on an index of difficulty analogous to Fitts' law, and that in some settings, goal crossing completion time is shorter or comparable to pointing performance under the same index of difficulty. We then demonstrate the expressiveness of the crossing-based interaction paradigm by implementing CrossY, an application which only uses crossing for selecting commands. CrossY demonstrates that crossing-based interactions can be more expressive than the standard point and click approach. We also show how crossing-based interactions encourage the fluid composition of commands. Finally after observing that users' performance could be influenced by the general direction of travel, we report on the results of a study characterizing this effect. These latter results led us to propose a general guideline for dialog box interaction. Together, these results provide the foundation for the design of effective crossing-based interactions.

© All rights reserved Apitz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Hinckley, Ken, Guimbretiere, Francois, Agrawala, Maneesh, Apitz, Georg and Chen, Nicholas (2006): Phrasing techniques for multi-stroke selection gestures. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on Graphics Interface 2006. pp. 147-154. http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1143079.1143104

Pen gesture interfaces have difficulty supporting arbitrary multiple-stroke selections because lifting the pen introduces ambiguity as to whether the next stroke should add to the existing selection, or begin a new one. We explore and evaluate techniques that use a non-preferred-hand button or touchpad to phrase together one or more independent pen strokes into a unitary multi-stroke gesture. We then illustrate how such phrasing techniques can support multiple-stroke selection gestures with tapping, crossing, lassoing, disjoint selection, circles of exclusion, selection decorations, and implicit grouping operations. These capabilities extend the expressiveness of pen gesture interfaces and suggest new directions for multiple-stroke pen input techniques.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or Canadian Information Processing Society

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Apitz, Georg and Guimbretiere, Francois (2004): CrossY: a crossing-based drawing application. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 3-12. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1029632.1029635

We introduce CrossY, a simple drawing application developed as a benchmark to demonstrate the feasibility of goal crossing as the basis for a graphical user interface. We show that crossing is not only as expressive as the current point-and-click interface, but also offers more flexibility in interaction design. In particular, crossing encourages the fluid composition of commands which supports the development of more fluid interfaces. While crossing was previously identified as a potential substitute for the classic point-and-click interaction, this work is the first to report on the practical aspects of implementing an interface based on goal crossing as the fundamental building block.

© All rights reserved Apitz and Guimbretiere and/or ACM Press

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