Number of co-authors:11
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Douglas B. Beaudet:Robert C. Williges:Michele M. Martin:
Beverly H. Williges's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Robert C. Williges:23Sung H. Han:9Thomas M. Spine:5
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Beverly H. Williges
Publications by Beverly H. Williges (bibliography)
Han, Sung H., Williges, Beverly H. and Williges, Robert C. (1991): Quantitative Guidelines for Telephone Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th Annual Meeting 1991. pp. 225-229.
The results of four sequential experiments were combined into integrated empirical models using data bridging. The resulting regression models can be viewed as quantitative design guidelines for telephone-based information systems. A total of ten independent variables involving environmental, hardware, dialogue, and user factors were considered across the four sequential studies that evaluated a telephone-based interface. Three dependent variables including total search time, user added keypresses, and message transcription accuracy were evaluated in each separate study. Polynomial regression was used to generate an integrated second-order empirical model for each of the three dependent variables. The major contributors to total search time were the time delay between the presentation of each menu item (input timeout) and the structure of the menus. Age of the user and menu structure were the primary contributors to user added keypresses required to recover from errors. Overall, the accuracy of message transcription was influenced primarily by background music, presentation rate of the synthesized speech and the age of the user. Total search time in this sequential type of information delivery system is primarily dialogue driven. Critical dialogue parameters for this system were input timeout and the number of alternatives in menus. Due to the small number of errors in searching for information, the need to minimize user added keypresses for error correction was not of primary design importance. Accuracy of speech message transcriptions was primarily dependent upon the acoustical environment of the listener. Overall, the use of integrated empirical models offers several advantages including a basis for generalization across several studies and the ability to conduct specific interface design tradeoffs.
© All rights reserved Han et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Martin, Michele M., Williges, Beverly H. and Williges, Robert C. (1990): Improving the Design of Telephone-Based Information Systems. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 198-202.
Telephone information systems using synthetic speech displays have become a common form of communication between a computer and a remote user. The purpose of this study was to examine five variables associated with the design of such telephone information systems: the rate of synthetic speech, the time allowed for user input, the structure of the menu hierarchy, the availability of a diagram of the menu structure, and the amount of augmented feedback provided as the user traversed the menus. Each subject completed 16 searches through the auditory database using the telephone keypad. After each search, the subject transcribed a message presented by synthetic speech. The search task was affected by all variables except feedback. The accuracy of transcription was affected only by the rate of the synthetic speech. Implications for the design of telephone information systems are discussed.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Han, Sung H., Williges, Robert C. and Williges, Beverly H. (1990): Empirical Models Based on Data from Several Experiments. In: D., Woods, and E., Roth, (eds.) Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 34th Annual Meeting 1990, Santa Monica, USA. pp. 1224-1228.
Williges, Robert C. and Williges, Beverly H. (1989): Integrated Research Paradigm for Complex Experimentation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 606-610.
Most human factors design problems involve large data spaces with so many factors that a single experiment investigating all of these factors simultaneously is unreasonable. The design of a computer-based telephone inquiry system is presented as an example interface which required consideration of over 100 independent variables which could affect end-user performance. An integrated research paradigm involving the three major steps of selecting, describing, and optimizing these independent variables is presented. Specific methods and design implications are described for each of these steps. This overall strategy for sequential experimentation is discussed in terms of its usefulness in human factors design applications.
© All rights reserved Williges and Williges and/or Human Factors Society
Herlong, David W. and Williges, Beverly H. (1988): Designing Speech Displays for Telephone Information Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 215-218.
This study used a computer-driven telephone information system as a real-time human-computer interface to simulate applications where synthetic speech is used to access data. Subjects used a telephone keypad to search through an automated department store database to locate and transcribe specific information messages. Because speech provides a sequential and transient information display, users may have difficulty navigating through auditory databases. One issue investigated in this study was whether the alternate use of male and female voices to code different levels of the database would improve user search performance. Other issues investigated were the basic intelligibility of these male and female voices as influenced by different levels of speech rate. All factors were assessed as functions of search or transcription task performance and user preference. Analysis of transcription accuracy, user search efficiency and time, and subjective ratings revealed an overall significant effect of speech rate on all groups of measures but no significant effects for voice type or coding scheme. Results were used to recommend design guidelines for developing speech displays for telephone information systems.
© All rights reserved Herlong and Williges and/or Human Factors Society
Casali, Sherry P., Dryden, Robert D. and Williges, Beverly H. (1988): The Effects of Recognition Accuracy and Vocabulary Size of a Speech Recognition System on Task Performance and User Acceptance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 232-236.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of recognizer accuracy and vocabulary size on system performance of a speech recognition system. Subjects, ranging in age from 20 to 55 years, performed a data entry task using a simulated speech recognizer which simulated three accuracy levels and three levels of available vocabulary. Task completion times and subjective measures of acceptability were recorded. Results indicated that the accuracy level at which the recognizer was performing significantly influenced the task completion time and the user's acceptability ratings. Vocabulary size also significantly affected task completion time, however, its affect on the acceptability ratings was negligible. Older subjects in general required longer times to complete the tasks, however, they consistently rated the speech input systems more favorably than the younger subjects.
© All rights reserved Casali et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Merkle, P. Jay, Beaudet, Douglas B., Williges, Robert C., Herlong, David W. and Williges, Beverly H. (1988): A Systematic Method for the Selection of Independent Variables in the Investigation of Complex Systems. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 1179-1182.
This paper describes a systematic methodology for selecting independent variables to be considered in large-scale research problems. Five specific procedures including brainstorming, prototype interface representation, feasibility/relevance analyses, structured literature reviews, and user subjective ratings are evaluated and incorporated into an integrated strategy. This methodology is demonstrated in the context of designing the user interface for a telephone-based information inquiry system. The procedure was successful in reducing an initial set of 95 independent variables to a subset of 19 factors that warrant subsequent detailed analysis. These results are discussed in terms of a comprehensive sequential research methodology useful for investigating human factors problems.
© All rights reserved Merkle et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Merva, Monica A. and Williges, Beverly H. (1987): Context, Repetition and Synthesized Speech Intelligibility. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 961-965.
Two studies were conducted to explore the effects of various parameters on rule-based synthetic speech intelligibility. Experiment I examined the effect of situational context clues and speech rate on synthesized speech intelligibility. Subjects who received pragmatic context information prior to each message had transcription error rates 50% lower than those who received no context information. Speech rates of 250 words per minute (wpm) yielded significantly more transcription errors than rates of 180 wpm. In Experiment II, the effects of speech rate, message repetition, and location of information in a message were examined. Transcription accuracy was best for messages spoken at 150 or 180 wpm and for messages repeated either twice or three times. Words at the end of messages were transcribed more accurately than words at the beginning of messages. Subjective ratings indicated that subjects were aware of errors when incorrectly transcribing a message even though no feedback was provided.
© All rights reserved Merva and Williges and/or Human Factors Society
Williges, Beverly H. (1987): Analyzing Human-Computer Dialogue Interfaces. In: Salvendy, Gavriel (ed.) HCI International 1987 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 10-14, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp. 67-74.
Spine, Thomas M., Williges, Beverly H. and Maynard, Joseph F. (1984): An Economical Approach to Modeling Speech Recognition Accuracy. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21 (3) pp. 191-202.
Accuracy of speech recognizer decisions is an important criterion for maintaining both system effectiveness and user satisfaction. A central-composite design methodology is recommended as an economical means to develop empirical prediction equations for speech recognizer performance incorporating a number of influential factors. Factors manipulated in the central-composite design included number of training passes, reject threshold, difference score, and size of the active vocabulary. The factorial combination of two noncontinuous variables, sex of the speaker and inter-word confusability, was also investigated by replicating the central-composite design to create four sets of data. Standard least-squares multiple regression analysis was used to develop the four sets of prediction equations, each of which accounted for at least 50% of the variance in recognizer performance. A cross-validation study revealed that shrinkage was not excessive. Subsequently, these empirical models were incorporated into an interactive design tool for a dialogue author where the percentage of correct recognition is automatically optimized when the dialogue author enters the size of the vocabulary to be used or both the vocabulary size and desired number of training passes. The design tool can also be used to make predictions anywhere within the response surface. Use of these efficient data collection procedures along with the interactive design tool should greatly assist the dialogue author in predicting the impact of various language, task, environmental, algorithmic, human, and performance evaluation factors on speech recognition accuracy.
© All rights reserved Spine et al. and/or Academic Press
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