Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2012
Pub. count:43
Number of co-authors:72


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jacek Gwizdka:
Steve B. Cousins:
Michelle Q. Wang Ba..:



Productive colleagues

Andreas Paepcke's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Terry Winograd:59
Hector Garcia-Moli..:47
Scott R. Klemmer:38

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Publications by Andreas Paepcke (bibliography)

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Kandel, Sean, Parikh, Ravi, Paepcke, Andreas, Hellerstein, Joseph M. and Heer, Jeffrey (2012): Profiler: integrated statistical analysis and visualization for data quality assessment. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 547-554. Available online

Data quality issues such as missing, erroneous, extreme and duplicate values undermine analysis and are time-consuming to find and fix. Automated methods can help identify anomalies, but determining what constitutes an error is context-dependent and so requires human judgment. While visualization tools can facilitate this process, analysts must often manually construct the necessary views, requiring significant expertise. We present Profiler, a visual analysis tool for assessing quality issues in tabular data. Profiler applies data mining methods to automatically flag problematic data and suggests coordinated summary visualizations for assessing the data in context. The system contributes novel methods for integrated statistical and visual analysis, automatic view suggestion, and scalable visual summaries that support real-time interaction with millions of data points. We present Profiler's architecture -- including modular components for custom data types, anomaly detection routines and summary visualizations -- and describe its application to motion picture, natural disaster and water quality data sets.

© All rights reserved Kandel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kandel, Sean, Paepcke, Andreas, Hellerstein, Joseph and Heer, Jeffrey (2011): Wrangler: interactive visual specification of data transformation scripts. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3363-3372. Available online

Though data analysis tools continue to improve, analysts still expend an inordinate amount of time and effort manipulating data and assessing data quality issues. Such "data wrangling" regularly involves reformatting data values or layout, correcting erroneous or missing values, and integrating multiple data sources. These transforms are often difficult to specify and difficult to reuse across analysis tasks, teams, and tools. In response, we introduce Wrangler, an interactive system for creating data transformations. Wrangler combines direct manipulation of visualized data with automatic inference of relevant transforms, enabling analysts to iteratively explore the space of applicable operations and preview their effects. Wrangler leverages semantic data types (e.g., geographic locations, dates, classification codes) to aid validation and type conversion. Interactive histories support review, refinement, and annotation of transformation scripts. User study results show that Wrangler significantly reduces specification time and promotes the use of robust, auditable transforms instead of manual editing.

© All rights reserved Kandel et al. and/or their publisher

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Paepcke, Andreas, Soto, Bianca, Takayama, Leila, Koenig, Frank and Gassend, Blaise (2011): Yelling in the hall: using sidetone to address a problem with mobile remote presence systems. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 107-116. Available online

In our field deployments of mobile remote presence (MRP) systems in offices, we observed that remote operators of MRPs often unintentionally spoke too loudly. This disrupted their local co-workers, who happened to be within earshot of the MRP system. To address this issue, we prototyped and empirically evaluated the effect of sidetone to help operators self regulate their speaking loudness. Sidetone is the intentional, attenuated feedback of speakers' voices to their ears while they are using a telecommunication device. In a 3-level (no sidetone vs. low sidetone vs. high sidetone) within-participants pair of experiments, people interacted with a confederate through an MRP system. The first experiment involved MRP operators using headsets with boom microphones (N=20). The second experiment involved MRP operators using loudspeakers and desktop microphones (N=14). While we detected the effects of the sidetone manipulation in our audio-visual context, the effect was attenuated in comparison to earlier audio-only studies. We hypothesize that the strong visual component of our MRP system interferes with the sidetone effect. We also found that engaging in more social tasks (e.g., a getting-to-know-you activity) and more intellectually demanding tasks (e.g., a creativity exercise) influenced how loudly people spoke. This suggests that testing such sidetone effects in the typical read-aloud setting is insufficient for generalizing to more interactive, communication tasks. We conclude that MRP application support must reach beyond the time honored audio-only technologies to solve the problem of excessive speaker loudness.

© All rights reserved Paepcke et al. and/or ACM Press

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Wang, Qianying, Hsieh, Tony and Paepcke, Andreas (2009): Piles across space: Breaking the real-estate barrier on small-display devices. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (4) pp. 349-365. Available online

We describe an implementation that has users 'flick' notes, images, audio, and video files onto virtual, imaginary piles beyond the display of small-screen devices. Multiple sets of piles can be maintained in persistent workspaces. Two user studies yielded the following: Participants developed mental schemes to remember virtual pile locations, and they successfully reinstated pile locations after several days, while situated in varying environments. Alignment of visual cues on screen with surrounding physical cues in situ accelerated a sorting task when compared to other, non-aligned visual cues. The latter, however, yielded better long-term retention.

© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or Academic Press

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Kandel, Sean, Paepcke, Andreas, Theobald, Martin, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Abelson, Eric (2008): Photospread: a spreadsheet for managing photos. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1749-1758. Available online

PhotoSpread is a spreadsheet system for organizing and analyzing photo collections. It extends the current spreadsheet paradigm in two ways: (a) PhotoSpread accommodates sets of objects (e.g., photos) annotated with tags (attribute-value pairs). Formulas can manipulate object sets and refer to tags. (b) Photos can be reorganized (tags and location changed) by drag-and-drop operations on the spreadsheet. The PhotoSpread design was driven by the needs of field biologists who have large collections of annotated photos. The paper describes the PhotoSpread functionality and the design choices made.

© All rights reserved Kandel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Theobald, Martin, Siddharth, Jonathan and Paepcke, Andreas (2008): SpotSigs: robust and efficient near duplicate detection in large web collections. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2008. pp. 563-570. Available online

Motivated by our work with political scientists who need to manually analyze large Web archives of news sites, we present SpotSigs, a new algorithm for extracting and matching signatures for near duplicate detection in large Web crawls. Our spot signatures are designed to favor natural-language portions of Web pages over advertisements and navigational bars. The contributions of SpotSigs are twofold: 1) by combining stopword antecedents with short chains of adjacent content terms, we create robust document signatures with a natural ability to filter out noisy components of Web pages that would otherwise distract pure n-gram-based approaches such as Shingling; 2) we provide an exact and efficient, self-tuning matching algorithm that exploits a novel combination of collection partitioning and inverted index pruning for high-dimensional similarity search. Experiments confirm an increase in combined precision and recall of more than 24 percent over state-of-the-art approaches such as Shingling or I-Match and up to a factor of 3 faster execution times than Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), over a demonstrative "Gold Set" of manually assessed near-duplicate news articles as well as the TREC WT10g Web collection.

© All rights reserved Theobald et al. and/or ACM Press

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Prasad, Jyotika and Paepcke, Andreas (2008): Coreex: content extraction from online news articles. In: Shanahan, James G., Amer-Yahia, Sihem, Manolescu, Ioana, Zhang, Yi, Evans, David A., Kolcz, Aleksander, Choi, Key-Sun and Chowdhury, Abdur (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2008 October 26-30, 2008, Napa Valley, California, USA. pp. 1391-1392. Available online

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Kumar, Manu, Klingner, Jeff, Puranik, Rohan, Winograd, Terry and Paepcke, Andreas (2008): Improving the accuracy of gaze input for interaction. In: Rih, Kari-Jouko and Duchowski, Andrew T. (eds.) ETRA 2008 - Proceedings of the Eye Tracking Research and Application Symposium March 26-28, 2008, Savannah, Georgia, USA. pp. 65-68. Available online

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Yeh, Ron B., Paepcke, Andreas and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Iterative design and evaluation of an event architecture for pen-and-paper interfaces. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 111-120. Available online

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Kumar, Manu, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2007): EyePoint: practical pointing and selection using gaze and keyboard. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 421-430. Available online

We present a practical technique for pointing and selection using a combination of eye gaze and keyboard triggers. EyePoint uses a two-step progressive refinement process fluidly stitched together in a look-press-look-release action, which makes it possible to compensate for the accuracy limitations of the current state-of-the-art eye gaze trackers. While research in gaze-based pointing has traditionally focused on disabled users, EyePoint makes gaze-based pointing effective and simple enough for even able-bodied users to use for their everyday computing tasks. As the cost of eye gaze tracking devices decreases, it will become possible for such gaze-based techniques to be used as a viable alternative for users who choose not to use a mouse depending on their abilities, tasks and preferences.

© All rights reserved Kumar et al. and/or ACM Press

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Phan, Doantam, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2007): Progressive multiples for communication-minded visualization. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Graphics Interface 2007. pp. 225-232. Available online

This paper describes a communication-minded visualization called progressive multiples that supports both the forensic analysis and presentation of multidimensional event data. We combine ideas from progressive disclosure, which reveals data to the user on demand, and small multiples [21], which allows users to compare many images at once. Sets of events are visualized as timelines. Events are placed in temporal order on the x-axis, and a scalar dimension of the data is mapped to the y-axis. To support forensic analysis, users can pivot from an event in an existing timeline to create a new timeline of related events. The timelines serve as an exploration history, which has two benefits. First, this exploration history allows users to backtrack and explore multiple paths. Second, once a user has concluded an analysis, these timelines serve as the raw visual material for composing a story about the analysis. A narrative that conveys the analytical result can be created for a third party by copying and reordering timelines from the history. Our work is motivated by working with network security administrators and researchers in political communication. We describe a prototype that we are deploying with administrators and the results of a user study where we applied our technique to the visualization of a simulated epidemic.

© All rights reserved Phan et al. and/or Canadian Information Processing Society

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Yeh, Ron, Liao, Chunyuan, Klemmer, Scott R., Guimbretiere, Francois, Lee, Brian, Kakaradov, Boyko, Stamberger, Jeannie and Paepcke, Andreas (2006): ButterflyNet: a mobile capture and access system for field biology research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 571-580. Available online

Through a study of field biology practices, we observed that biology fieldwork generates a wealth of heterogeneous information, requiring substantial labor to coordinate and distill. To manage this data, biologists leverage a diverse set of tools, organizing their effort in paper notebooks. These observations motivated ButterflyNet, a mobile capture and access system that integrates paper notes with digital photographs captured during field research. Through ButterflyNet, the activity of leafing through a notebook expands to browsing all associated digital photos. ButterflyNet also facilitates the transfer of captured content to spreadsheets, enabling biologists to share their work. A first-use study with 14 biologists found this system to offer rich data capture and transformation, in a manner felicitous with current practice.

© All rights reserved Yeh et al. and/or ACM Press

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Morris, Meredith Ringel, Huang, Anqi, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2006): Cooperative gestures: multi-user gestural interactions for co-located groupware. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1201-1210. Available online

Multi-user, touch-sensing input devices create opportunities for the use of cooperative gestures -- multi-user gestural interactions for single display groupware. Cooperative gestures are interactions where the system interprets the gestures of more than one user as contributing to a single, combined command. Cooperative gestures can be used to enhance users' sense of teamwork, increase awareness of important system events, facilitate reachability and access control on large, shared displays, or add a unique touch to an entertainment-oriented activity. This paper discusses motivating scenarios for the use of cooperative gesturing and describes some initial experiences with CollabDraw, a system for collaborative art and photo manipulation. We identify design issues relevant to cooperative gesturing interfaces, and present a preliminary design framework. We conclude by identifying directions for future research on cooperative gesturing interaction techniques.

© All rights reserved Morris et al. and/or ACM Press

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Morris, Meredith Ringel, Paepcke, Andreas, Winograd, Terry and Stamberger, Jeannie (2006): TeamTag: exploring centralized versus replicated controls for co-located tabletop groupware. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1273-1282. Available online

We explore how the placement of control widgets (such as menus) affects collaboration and usability for co-located tabletop groupware applications. We evaluated two design alternatives: a centralized set of controls shared by all users, and separate per-user controls replicated around the borders of the shared tabletop. We conducted this evaluation in the context of TeamTag, a system for collective annotation of digital photos. Our comparison of the two design alternatives found that users preferred replicated over shared controls. We discuss the cause of this preference, and also present data on the impact of these interface design variants on collaboration, as well as the role that orientation, co-touching, and the use of different regions of the table played in shaping users' behavior and preferences.

© All rights reserved Morris et al. and/or ACM Press

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Yu, YuanYuan, Stamberger, Jeannie A., Manoharan, Aswath and Paepcke, Andreas (2006): EcoPod: a mobile tool for community based biodiversity collection building. In: JCDL06: Proceedings of the 6th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2006. pp. 244-253. Available online

Biological studies rely heavily on large collections of species observations. All of these collections cannot be compiled by biology professionals alone. Skilled amateurs can assist by contributing observations they make in the field. The challenge with such contributions is their potentially questionable quality. We present our PDA-based application EcoPod, which replaces traditional paper field guides with a mobile computing platform. EcoPod aims both to increase the efficiency of the identification process and its reliability. The application solicits as little information from the user as possible. At the same time it places no restrictions on the sequencing of the identification process. This approach is to make our solution attractive to both skilled amateurs and professionals. The tool creates a record of the identification process, thereby providing an audit trail for quality assurance. EcoPod's user interface driver computes information gain over identification metadata to maximize screen utilization. The tool ingests SDD, an international standard for XML datasets that describe organisms.

© All rights reserved Yu et al. and/or ACM Press

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Morris, Meredith Ringel, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2006): TeamSearch: Comparing Techniques for Co-Present Collaborative Search of Digital Media. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 97-104. Available online

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Cho, Junghoo, Garcia-Molina, Hector, Haveliwala, Taher H., Lam, Wang, Paepcke, Andreas, Raghavan, Sriram and Wesley, Gary (2006): Stanford WebBase components and applications. In ACM Trans. Internet Techn., 6 (2) pp. 153-186. Available online

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Morris, Meredith Ringel, Cassanego, Anthony, Paepcke, Andreas, Winograd, Terry, Piper, Anne Marie and Huang, Anqi (2006): Mediating Group Dynamics through Tabletop Interface Design. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (5) pp. 65-73. Available online

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Wang, Q., Harada, S., Hsieh, T. and Paepcke, Andreas (2005): Visual Interface and Control Modality: An Experiment About Fast Photo Browsing on Mobile Devices. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 240-252. Available online

We examined the strengths and weaknesses of three diverse scroll control modalities for photo browsing on personal digital assistants (PDAs). This exploration covered nine alternatives in a design space that consisted of three visual interfaces and three control modalities. The three interfaces were a traditional thumbnail layout, a layout that placed a single picture on the screen at a time, and a hybrid that placed one large photo in the center of the display, while also displaying a row of neighboring thumbnails at the top and bottom of the screen. In a user experiment we paired each of these interfaces with each of the following three scroll control modalities: a jog dial, a squeeze sensor, and an on-screen control that was activated by tapping with a stylus. We offer a simple model that classifies our experiment's interfaces by how much they provide visual context within the photo collection. The model also classifies the scroll modalities by how tightly they correlate scroll input actions to effects on the screen. Performance and attitudinal results from the user experiment are presented and discussed.

© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Paepcke, Andreas, Wang, Qianying, Patel, Sheila, Wang, Matthew and Harada, Susumu (2004): A cost-effective three-in-one personal digital assistant input control. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 60 (5) pp. 717-736.

We attach an inexpensive pressure sensor to the side of a personal digital assistant and use it as three input devices at once. Users can squeeze the device to provide near-continuous input to applications. At the same time the drivers interpret a sudden full squeeze as the push of a virtual button. A user's sudden pressure release while squeezing is detected as the push of a second virtual button. We briefly describe our hardware and signal processing techniques. The remainder of the writing describes an experiment that explores whether users can cope cognitively with the 3-in-1 control. We compare against a three-control setup consisting of a jog wheel and two physical buttons. We show that the three-in-one control enables a 13% faster reaction time over the three-control one, but that the three-in-one control suffers a 4% penalty in the accuracy of users choosing between the two buttons in response to cues from an application. We show that a good choice of application cue is more important for assuring accuracy in the 3-in-1 than in the more traditional set of separate controls.

© All rights reserved Paepcke et al. and/or Academic Press

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Naaman, Mor, Song, Yee Jiun, Paepcke, Andreas and Garcia-Molina, Hector (2004): Automatic organization for digital photographs with geographic coordinates. In: JCDL04: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2004. pp. 53-62. Available online

We describe PhotoCompas, a system that utilizes the time and location information embedded in digital photographs to automatically organize a personal photo collection PhotoCompas produces browseable location and event hierarchies for the collection. These hierarchies are created using algorithms that interleave time and location to produce an organization that mimics the way people think about their photo collections. In addition, our algorithm annotates the generated hierarchy with geographical names. We tested our approach in case studies of three real-world collections and verified that the results are meaningful and useful for the collection owners.

© All rights reserved Naaman et al. and/or ACM Press

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Harada, Susumu, Naaman, Mor, Song, Yee Jiun, Wang, Qianying and Paepcke, Andreas (2004): Lost in memories: interacting with photo collections on PDAs. In: JCDL04: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2004. pp. 325-333. Available online

We developed two browsers to support large personal photo collections on PDAs. Our first browser is based on a traditional, folder-based layout that utilizes either the user's manually created organization structure, or a system-generated structure. Our second browser uses a novel interface that is based on a vertical, zoomable timeline. This timeline browser does not require users to organize their photos, but instead, relies solely on system-generated structure. Our system creates a hierarchical structure of the user's photos by applying time-based clustering to identify subsets of photos that are likely to be related. In a user experiment, we compared users' searching and browsing performance across these browsers, using each user's own photo collection. Photo collection sizes varied between 500 and 3000 photographs Our results show that our timeline browser is at least as effective for searching and browsing tasks as a traditional browser that requires users to manually organize their photos.

© All rights reserved Harada et al. and/or ACM Press

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Naaman, Mor, Harada, Susumu, Wang, Qianying, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (2004): Context data in geo-referenced digital photo collections. In: Schulzrinne, Henning, Dimitrova, Nevenka, Sasse, Martina Angela, Moon, Sue B. and Lienhart, Rainer (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th ACM International Conference on Multimedia October 10-16, 2004, New York, NY, USA. pp. 196-203. Available online

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Naaman, Mor, Song, Yee Jiun, Paepcke, Andreas and Garcia-Molina, Hector (2004): Automatically generating metadata for digital photographs with geographic coordinates. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2004. pp. 244-245. Available online

Given location information on digital photographs, we can automatically generate an abundance of photo-related metadata using off-the-shelf and web-based data sources. These metadata can serve as additional memory cues and filters when browsing a personal or global collection of photos.

© All rights reserved Naaman et al. and/or ACM Press

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Buyukkokten, Orkut, Kaljuvee, Oliver, Garcia-Molina, Hector, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2002): Efficient web browsing on handheld devices using page and form summarization. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 20 (1) pp. 82-115. Available online

We present a design and implementation for displaying and manipulating HTML pages on small handheld devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs), or cellular phones. We introduce methods for summarizing parts of Web pages and HTML forms. Each Web page is broken into text units that can each be hidden, partially displayed, made fully visible, or summarized. A variety of methods are introduced that summarize the text units. In addition, HTML forms are also summarized by displaying just the text labels that prompt the use for input. We tested the relative performance of the summarization methods by asking human subjects to accomplish single-page information search tasks. We found that the combination of keywords and single-sentence summaries provides significant improvements in access times and number of required pen actions, as compared to other schemes. Our experiments also show that our algorithms can identify the appropriate labels for forms in 95% of the cases, allowing effective form support for small screens.

© All rights reserved Buyukkokten et al. and/or ACM Press

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Graham, Adrian, Garcia-Molina, Hector, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2002): Time as essence for photo browsing through personal digital libraries. In: JCDL02: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2002. pp. 326-335. Available online

We developed two photo browsers for collections with thousands of time-stamped digital images. Modern digital cameras record photo shoot times, and semantically related photos tend to occur in bursts. Our browsers exploit the timing information to structure the collections and to automatically generate meaningful summaries. The browsers differ in how users navigate and view the structured collections. We conducted user studies to compare the two browsers and an un-summarized image browser. Our results show that exploiting the time dimension and appropriately summarizing collections can lead to significant improvements. For example, for one task category, one of our browsers enabled a 33% improvement in speed of finding given images compared to the commercial browser. Similarly, users were able to complete 29% more tasks when using this same browser.

© All rights reserved Graham et al. and/or ACM Press

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Buyukkokten, Orkut, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (2001): Accordion Summarization for End-Game Browsing on PDAs and Cellular Phones. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 213-220. Available online

We demonstrate a new browsing technique for devices with small displays such as PDAs or cellular phones. We concentrate on end-game browsing, where the user is close to or on the target page. We make browsing more efficient and easier by Accordion Summarization. In this technique the Web page is first represented as a short summary. The user can then drill down to discover relevant parts of the page. If desired, keywords can be highlighted and exposed automatically. We discuss our techniques, architecture, interface facilities, and the result of user evaluations. We measured a 57% improvement in browsing speed and 75% reduction in input effort.

© All rights reserved Buyukkokten et al. and/or ACM Press

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Buyukkokten, Orkut, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (2001): Seeing the whole in parts: text summarization for web browsing on handheld devices. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2001. pp. 652-662. Available online

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Kaljuvee, Oliver, Buyukkokten, Orkut, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (2001): Efficient Web form entry on PDAs. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2001. pp. 663-672. Available online

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Arasu, Arvind, Cho, Junghoo, Garcia-Molina, Hector, Paepcke, Andreas and Raghavan, Sriram (2001): Searching the Web. In ACM Trans. Internet Techn., 1 (1) pp. 2-43. Available online

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Buyukkokten, Orkut, Garcia-Molina, Hector, Paepcke, Andreas and Winograd, Terry (2000): Power Browser: Efficient Web Browsing for PDAs. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 430-437. Available online

We have designed and implemented new Web browsing facilities to support effective navigation on Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with limited capabilities: low bandwidth, small display, and slow CPU. The implementation supports wireless browsing from 3Corn's Palm Pilot. An HTTP proxy fetches web pages on the client's behalf and dynamically generates summary views to be transmitted to the client. These summaries represent both the link structure and contents of a set of web pages, using information about link importance. We discuss the architecture, user interface facilities, and the results of comparative performance evaluations. We measured a 45% gain in browsing speed, and a 42% reduction in required pen movements.

© All rights reserved Buyukkokten et al. and/or ACM Press

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Melnik, Sergey, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (2000): A Mediation Infrastructure for Digital Library Services. In: DL00: Proceedings of the 5th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 2000. pp. 123-132. Available online

Digital library mediators allow interoperation between diverse information services. In this paper we describe a flexible and dynamic mediator infrastructure that allows mediators to be composed from a set of modules ("blades"). Each module implements a particular mediation function, such as protocol translation, query translation, or result merging. All the information used by the mediator, including the mediator logic itself, is represented by an RDF graph. We illustrate our approach using a mediation scenario involving a Dienst and a Z39.50 server, and we discuss the potential advantages and weaknesses of our framework.

© All rights reserved Melnik et al. and/or ACM Press

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Baldonado, Michelle Q. Wang, Cousins, Steve B., Gwizdka, Jacek and Paepcke, Andreas (2000): Notable: At the Intersection of Annotations and Handheld Technology. In: Thomas, Peter J. and Gellersen, Hans-Werner (eds.) Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing - Second International Symposium - HUC 2000 September 25-27, 2000, Bristol, UK. pp. 100-113. Available online

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Chang, Chen-Chuan K., Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (1999): Predicate rewriting for translating Boolean queries in a heterogeneous information system. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 17 (1) pp. 1-39. Available online

Searching over heterogeneous information sources is difficult in part because of the nonuniform query languages. Our approach is to allow users to compose Boolean queries in one rich front-end language. For each user query and target source, we transform the user query into a subsuming query that can be supported by the source but that may return extra documents. The results are then processed by a filter query to yield the correct final results. In this article we introduce the architecture and associated mechanism for query translation. In particular, we discuss techniques for rewriting predicates in Boolean queries into native subsuming forms, which is a basis of translating complex queries. In addition, we present experimental results for evaluating the cost of postfiltering. We also discuss the drawbacks of this approach and cases when it may not be effective. We have implemented prototype versions of these mechanisms and demonstrated them on heterogeneous Boolean systems.

© All rights reserved Chang et al. and/or ACM Press

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Paepcke, Andreas, Baldonado, Michelle Q. Wang, Chang, Kevin Chen-Chuan, Cousins, Steve B. and Garcia-Molina, Hector (1999): Using Distributed Objects to Build the Stanford Digital Library Infobus. In IEEE Computer, 32 (2) pp. 80-87.

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Baldonado, Michelle, Katz, Seth, Paepcke, Andreas, Chang, Chen-Chuan K., Garcia-Molina, Hector and Winograd, Terry (1998): An Extensible Constructor Tool for the Rapid, Interactive Design of Query Synthesizers. In: DL98: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1998. pp. 19-28. Available online

We describe an extensible constructor tool that helps information experts (e.g., librarians) create specialized query synthesizers for heterogeneous digital-library environments. A query synthesizer produces a graphical user interface in which a digital-library patron can specify a high-level, fielded, multi-source query. Furthermore, a query synthesizer interacts with a query translator and an attribute translator to transform high-level queries into sets of source-specific queries. In this paper, we discuss how our tool for constructing synthesizers can facilitate the discovery of available attributes (e.g., 'title'), the collation of schemas from different sources, the selection of input widgets for a synthesizer (e.g., a drop-down list widget to support input of controlled vocabulary), and other design aspects. We also describe the user interface of our prototype constructor, which is implemented based on the Stanford InfoBus and metadata architecture.

© All rights reserved Baldonado et al. and/or ACM Press

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Paepcke, Andreas, Chang, Kevin Chen-Chuan, Garcia-Molina, Hector and Winograd, Terry (1998): Interoperability for Digital Libraries Worldwide. In Communications of the ACM, 41 (4) pp. 33-43.

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Baldonado, Michelle, Chang, Chen-Chuan K., Gravano, Luis and Paepcke, Andreas (1997): Metadata for Digital Libraries: Architecture and Design Rationale. In: DL97: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1997. pp. 47-56. Available online

In a distributed, heterogeneous, proxy-based digital library, autonomous services and collections are accessed indirectly via proxies. To facilitate metadata compatibility and interoperability in such a digital library, we have designed a metadata architecture that includes four basic component classes: attribute model proxies, attribute model translators, metadata facilities for search proxies, and metadata repositories. Attribute model proxies elevate both attribute sets and the attributes they define to first-class objects. They also allow relationships among attributes to be captured. Attribute model translators map attributes and attribute values from one attribute model to another (where possible). Metadata facilities for search proxies provide structured descriptions both of the collections to which the search proxies provide access and of the search capabilities of the proxies. Finally, metadata repositories accumulate selected metadata from local instances of the other three component classes in order to facilitate global metadata queries and local metadata caching. In this paper, we outline further the roles of these component classes, discuss our design rationale, and analyze related work.

© All rights reserved Baldonado et al. and/or ACM Press

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Ketchpel, Steven P., Garcia-Molina, Hector and Paepcke, Andreas (1997): Shopping Models: A Flexible Architecture for Information Commerce. In: DL97: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1997. pp. 65-74. Available online

In a digital library, there are many different interaction models between customers and information providers or merchants. Subscriptions, sessions, pay-per-view, shareware, and pre-paid vouchers are different models that each have different properties. A single merchant may use several of them. Yet if a merchant wants to support multiple models, there is a substantial amount of work to implement each one. In this paper, we formalize the shopping models which represent these different modes of consumer to merchant interaction. In addition to developing the overall architecture, we define the application program interfaces (API) to interact with the models. We show how a small number of primitives can be used to construct a wide range of shopping models that a digital library can support, and provide examples of the shopping models in operation, demonstrating their flexibility. Two models have been implemented as part of the Stanford Digital Library Project, to begin validating re-usability of key architectural components.

© All rights reserved Ketchpel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Cousins, Steve, Paepcke, Andreas, Winograd, Terry, Bier, Eric A. and Pier, Ken (1997): The Digital Library Integrated Task Environment (DLITE). In: DL97: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1997. pp. 142-151. Available online

We describe a case study in the design of a user interface to a digital library. Our design stems from a vision of a library as a channel to the vast array of digital information and document services that are becoming available. Based on published studies of library use and on scenarios, we developed a metaphor called workcenters, which are customized for users' tasks. Due to our scenarios and to prior work in the CHI community, we chose a direct-manipulation realization of the metaphor. Our system, called DLITE, is designed to make it easy for users to interact with many different services while focusing on a task. Users have reacted favorably to the interface design in pilot testing. We conclude by describing our approaches to this problem.

© All rights reserved Cousins et al. and/or ACM Press

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Paepcke, Andreas (1996): Information Needs in Technical Work Settings and Their Implications for the Design of Computer Tools. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 5 (1) pp. 63-92.

We interviewed information workers in multiple technical areas of a large, diverse company, and we describe some of the unsatisfied information needs we observed during our study. Two clusters of issues are described. The first covers how loosely coupled work groups use and share information. We show the need to structure information for multiple, partly unanticipated uses. We show how the construction of information compounds helps users accomplish some of this restructuring, and we explain how structuring flexibility is also required because of temperamental differences among users. The second cluster of issues revolves around collections of tightly coupled work groups. We show that information shared within such groups differs from information shared across group boundaries. We present the barriers to sharing which we saw operating both within groups and outside, and we explain the function of resource and contact broker which evolved in the settings we examined. For each of these issues we propose implications for information tool design.

© All rights reserved Paepcke and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

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Paepcke, Andreas, Cousins, Steve B., Garcia-Molina, Hector, Hassan, Scott W., Ketchpel, Steven P., Roscheisen, Martin and Winograd, Terry (1996): Using Distributed Objects for Digital Library Interoperability. In IEEE Computer, 29 (5) pp. 61-68.

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Berlin, Lucy M., Jeffries, Robin, O'Day, Vicky L., Paepcke, Andreas and Wharton, Cathleen (1993): WHERE Did You Put It? Issues in the Design and Use of a Group Memory. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 23-30. Available online

Collaborating teams of knowledge workers need a common repository in which to share information gathered by individuals or developed by the team. This is difficult to achieve in practice, because individual information access strategies break down with group information -- people can generally find things that are on their own messy desks and file systems, but not on other people's. The design challenge in a group memory is thus to enable low-effort information sharing without reducing individuals' finding effectiveness. This paper presents the lessons from our design and initial use of a hypertext-based group memory, TeamInfo. We expose the serious cognitive obstacles to a shared information structure, discuss the uses and benefits we have experienced, address the effects of technology limitations, and highlight some unexpected social and work impacts of our group memory.

© All rights reserved Berlin et al. and/or ACM Press

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