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Susanne Bødker is professor of Human Computer Interaction at the Computer Science Department, University of Aarhus. Her research areas include participatory design, computer-supported cooperative work and human-computer interaction. Her PhD thesis, Through the Interface - a Human Activity Approach to User Interface Design was an early attempt to present activity theoretical HCI to an international audience. Much of her research since can be seen as consolidation and expansion of this theoretical frame.
Susanne Bødker has been co-managing a national research center of human-machine interaction, and several projects where HCI researchers have cooperated with industrial partners and with users of the future technology. Her scientific production includes over 60 internationally published papers and a book. She is associate editor of ACM ToCHI and International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.
Susanne Bødker has been a key person in building up HCI teaching at the University of Aarhus, at undergraduate as well as graduate levels.
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Boedker, Susanne, Klokmose, Clemens N. (2011): The Human-Artifact Model: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Artifact Ecologies. In Human–Computer Interaction, 26 (4) pp. 315-371. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/07370024.2011.626709
Boedker, Susanne, Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2011): The Human -- Artifact Model: An Activity Theoretical Approach to Artifact Ecologies. In Human Computer Interaction, 26 (4) pp. 315-371. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07370024.2011.626709
Boedker, Susanne, Sundblad, Yngve (2008): Usability and interaction design -- new challenges for the Scandinavian tradition. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 27 (4) pp. 293-300. http://www.informaworld.com/10.1080/01449290701760682
Boedker, Susanne, Christiansen, Ellen (2006): Computer Support for Social Awareness in Flexible Work. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 15 (1) pp. 1-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10606-005-9011-y
Boedker, Susanne, Andersen, Peter B. (2005): Complex Mediation. In Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (4) pp. 353-402. http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327051hci2004_1
Boedker, Susanne, Kristensen, Jannie F., Nielsen, Christina, Sperschneider, Werner (2003): Technology for boundaries. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M., Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 311-320. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/958160.958210
Boedker, Susanne, Buur, Jacob (2002): The design collaboratorium: a place for usability design. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (2) pp. 152-169. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/513665.513670
Boedker, Susanne (2000): Scenarios in User-Centred Design -- Setting the Stage for Reflection and Action. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (1) pp. 61-75.
Boedker, Susanne (1998): Understanding Representation in Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (2) pp. 107-125.
Boedker, Susanne (1998): Understanding Representation in Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (2) pp. 107-125.
Boedker, Susanne, Madsen, Kim Halskov (1998): Methods&tools: Context: An Active Choice in Usability Work. In Interactions, 5 (4) pp. 17-25. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/interactions/1998-5-4/p17-bodker/p17-bodker.pdf
Bannon, Liam, Boedker, Susanne (1997): Constructing Common Information Spaces. In: Hughes, John F., Prinz, Wolfgang, Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 7-11 September, 1997, Lancaster, UK. pp. 81-96.
Boedker, Susanne (1996): Creating Conditions for Participation: Conflicts and Resources in Systems Development. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (3) pp. 215-236.
Trigg, Randall H., Boedker, Susanne (1994): From Implementation to Design: Tailoring and the Emergence of Systematization in CSCW. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 45-54. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/cscw/192844/p45-trigg/p45-trigg.pdf
Boedker, Susanne (1989): A Human Activity Approach to User Interfaces. In Human-Computer Interaction, 4 (3) pp. 171-195.
Boedker, Susanne, Groenbaek, Kaj (1989): Cooperative prototyping experiments. In: EC-CSCW 89 - Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 13-15 September, 1989, Gatwick, London. pp. 343-357.
Boedker, Susanne, Knudsen, Jørgen L., Kyng, Morten, Ehn, Pelle, Madsen, Kim Halskov (1988): Computer Support for Cooperative Design. In: Greif, Irene (eds.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 377-394.
Bohoej, Morten, Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup, Bouvin, Niels Olof, Boedker, Susanne, Zander, Pär-Ola (2010): Timeline collaboration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2010, . pp. 523-532. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1753326.1753404
Brodersen, Christina, Boedker, Susanne, Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2007): Ubiquitous Substitution. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio, Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 179-192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74796-3_18
Boedker, Susanne, Halskov, Kim (2012): Participation: basic concepts and research challenges. In: Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 2 Exploratory Papers, Workshop Descriptions, Industry Cases , 2012, . pp. 149-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2348144.2348194
33.8 Commentary by Susanne Boedker
Let me start this comment by saying that I'm in total agreement with the comments made by Bjørn Erik Munkvold in his commentary (see below). Instead of repeating his arguments I will dig a little deeper into some details in the arguments and history outlined by Kock.
Back in the beginning of the 1990s Bannon (1991) identified the move from first wave, cognitivist HCI to the second wave, which was theoretically more diverse, focusing more on the active role of users. In his writing about the move "from human factors to human actors" he pointed both towards a different way of thinking about users, as active human beings, and towards the roles that these users may play in design and research.
In the second wave, focus was on groups working with a collection of applications. Theory focused on work settings and interaction within well-established communities of practice. Rigid guidelines, formal methods, and systematic testing were mostly abandoned for proactive methods such as a variety of participatory design workshops, prototyping and contextual inquiries (Bødker 2008). With this picture in mind, and at this quite general level, I have difficulties recognizing the picture of the past 20 years of HCI painted by Kock: "the vast majority of the research on HCI produced in the last 15 years has employed experimental research methods followed by survey and case research methods." Part of my problem in this is perhaps my own lack of ease of making such clear distinctions.
As pointed out in Bjørn Erik Munkvold's commentary, an important source of inspiration for the second wave of HCI was a number of Scandinavian projects, applying participatory design with future users of technology (in the workplace) and action research with systems developers to improve their ways of working. Without going into the intrinsic details about the genealogy of these projects and their methodological roots, it feels safe to say that they were in turn inspired by Nordic work researchers like Thomas Mathiesen and Bjørn Gustavsen, who in turn were inspired by Kurt Lewin. When looking at Kock's historical line-up, however, these projects approached action research largely by taking an active stance against a positivistic view. This was in parts a result of significant influence from Marxist thinking, but also of influence by activists like Paulo Freire, who gets mentioned by Kock.
In Finland a parallel development happened leading to Engeström's focus on work development research (1987), where Lewin's thinking has been important together with activity theory. This development had further strong parallels in Germany. Not being a researcher in the history of ideas I will leave this discussion, except for saying that in my view it has been through this lineage that action research has had the strongest impact on HCI, in all modesty e.g. through my own work.
Kock's characteristics of the current state of affairs in HCI does not match with Bannon's characteristics of the second wave of HCI, and with the current development into the third wave (Bødker 2006, Harrison et al 2007). As a matter of fact, lab studies have played a very insignificant role in conferences like ACM CHI or Interact over the past 20 years, and it is not many lab papers I see in my everyday life as editor of ACM ToCHI and IJHCS. Given that, Kock may well be right that what gets applied are experimental research methods followed by survey and case research methods, but they are applied in much more mixed manners than suggested by Kock. This is largely due to the quite significant impact of qualitative, interpretative, and even radical humanist methods (Burell & Morgan 1979) in second wave HCI (e.g. ethnomethodology through Suchman (1987), activity theory through Kaptelinin, Nardi, Kuutti and Bødker). Actually one could probably argue that there is too little systematic research and too little theory in contemporary HCI in general, and with this statement I strongly sympathize with Kock's attempt to more rigorously outline the methods and outcomes of different research approaches in HCI.
I am however confused by Kock's comment about HCI's current lack of real-world appeal and its accompanying difficulties for the impact of action research. Having just come back from the DIS 2010 conference where Yvonne Rogers talked about HCI's "turn to the wild" while numerous researchers talked about the role of design in HCI research, I am convinced that Kock is wrong in this analysis:
At a time when use contexts and application types are broadened, and intermixed across private and public spheres; where technology spreads from the workplace to our homes and everyday lives and culture; where new elements of human life are included in the human-computer interaction such as culture, emotion and experience, there is more than ever a need for action-based approaches and interventions in HCI. But more than ever, these need to take an active stance against positivistic thinking.
Boedker, Susanne, Christiansen, Ellen, Nyvang, Tom, Zander, Pär-Ola (2012): Personas, people and participation: challenges from the trenches of local government. In: Proceedings of the 12th Participatory Design Conference. Volume 1 Research Papers , 2012, . pp. 91-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2347635.2347649
Boedker, Susanne (2011): Use is everywhere and changing: analysis and design with the human-artifact model. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics , 2011, . pp. 3-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2074712.2074714
Borchorst, Nikolaj Gandrup, Boedker, Susanne, Zander, Pär-Ola (2009): The boundaries of participatory citizenship. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2009, . pp. 1-20. http://www.ecscw.org/2009/4-BorchorstBodkerZander.pdf
Kaptelinin, Victor, Nardi, Bonnie A., Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Hollan, James D., Hutchins, Edwin, Winograd, Terry (2003): Post-cognitivist HCI: second-wave theories. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Extended abstracts of the 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003 April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 692-693. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/765891.765933
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg, Boedker, Susanne (2011): Experiencing security in interaction design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems , 2011, . pp. 2325-2334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978942.1979283
Schraefel, M. C., Kellog, Wendy, Ackerman, Mark S., Marsden, Gary, Boedker, Susanne, Wyche, Susan, Reddy, Madhu, Rouncefield, Mark (2012): Domain crossing: how much expertise is enough?. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work , 2012, . pp. 29-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2141512.2141529
Boedker, Susanne (2006): When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges. In: Moerch, Anders, Morgan, Konrad, Bratteteig, Tone, Ghosh, Gautam, Svanaes, Dag (eds.) NordiCHI Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 14-18, 2006, Oslo, Norway. pp. 1-8. http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1182476
Brodersen, Christina, Boedker, Susanne, Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted (2007): Quality of learning in ubiquitous interaction. In: Brinkman, Willem-Paul, Ham, Dong-Han, Wong, B. L. William (eds.) ECCE 2007 - Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics August 28-31, 2007, London, UK. pp. 121-128. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1362550.1362575
Bannon, Liam, Boedker, Susanne (1991): Beyond the Interface - Encountering Artifacts in Use. In: Norman, Donald A., Bannon, Liam, Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Kellogg, Wendy A., Rosson, Mary Beth, diSessa, Andrea A. (eds). "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface" Cambridge University Press .
Boedker, Susanne, Christiansen, Ellen (2004): Designing for ephemerality and prototypicality. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2004, . pp. 255-260. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1013115.1013151
Boedker, Susanne (1999): Scenarios in User-Centered Design - Setting the Stage for Reflection and Action. In: HICSS 1999 , 1999, . http://csdl.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/03/00013053abs.htm
Boedker, Susanne, Iversen, Ole Sejer (2002): Staging a professional participatory design practice: moving PD beyond the initial fascina. In: Proceedings of the Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 19-23, 2002, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 11-18. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/572020.572023
Bertelsen, Olav W., Boedker, Susanne (2003): Activity Theory. In: Dix, Alan J., Ware, Colin, MacKenzie, I. Scott, Blackwell, Alan, Green, T. R. G., Payne, Stephen J., Perry, Mark, Bertelsen, Olav W., Boedker, Susanne, Carroll, John M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Kraut, Robert E. (eds). "HCI Models, Theories, and Frameworks" Morgan Kaufman Publishers .
Bertelsen, Olav W., Boedker, Susanne, Kuutti, Kari (eds.) Nordichi 2002 - Proceedings of the Second Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 19-23, 2002, Aarhus, Denmark.
Groenbaek, Kaj, Grudin, Jonathan, Boedker, Susanne, Bannon, Liam (1993): Achieving Co-operative System Design - shifting from product to process focus. In: Groenbaek, Kaj, Grudin, Jonathan, Boedker, Susanne, Bannon, Liam (eds). "Participatory Design: Perspectives of Systems Design" .
Boedker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten, Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Petersen, Anja Bechmann, Boedker, Susanne (2005): Mediating the co-production of complex media products. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 338-339. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1099203.1099267
Boedker, Susanne, Ehn, Pelle, Sjogren, Dan, Sundblad, Yngve (2000): Cooperative Design Perspectives on 20 years with \"the Scandinavian IT Design Model. In: Proceedings of the First Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 2000, .
Boedker, Susanne (2006): When second wave HCI meets third wave challenges. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 2006, . pp. 1-8. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1182475.1182476
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg, Boedker, Susanne (2008): Threats or threads: from usable security to secure experience?. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction , 2008, . pp. 283-289. http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1463160.1463191
Boedker, Susanne, Nielsen, Christina, Petersen, Marianne Graves (2000): Creativity, Cooperation and Interactive Design. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2000, . pp. 252-261. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/347642/p252-bodker/p252-bodker.pdf
Buur, Jacob, Boedker, Susanne (2000): From Usability Lab to \"Design Collaboratorium\": Reframing Usability Practice. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques , 2000, . pp. 297-307. http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/chi/347642/p297-buur/p297-buur.pdf
Boedker, Susanne (1991): Through the Interface - A Human Activity Approach to User Interface Design, ,
Bertelsen, Olav W., Boedker, Susanne (2001): Cooperation in massively distributed information space. In: Ecscw 2001 - Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16-20 September, 2001, Bonn, Germany. pp. 1-18.
Boedker, Susanne (1993): Historical Analysis and Conflicting Perspectives -- Contextualizing HCI. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 , 1993, . pp. 132-142.
Korn, Matthias, Boedker, Susanne (2012): <i>Looking ahead</i>: how field trials can work in iterative and exploratory design of ubi. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing , 2012, . pp. 21-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2370216.2370221