Intellectual Property and Copyright Policy

Scope and Purpose

The Interaction Design Foundation (hereinafter referred to as “IxDF“), is a non-governmental, privately held organization. During IxDF’s normal course of its activities, IxDF receives, creates and collects content, for the purposes set forth in this Intellectual Property and Copyright Policy (hereinafter referred to as the “IP Policy“), by means of IxDF’s website located at and/or other websites used and/or controlled by IxDF from time to time (collectively referred to as the “Site“).

Suppletory to this IP Policy will be IxDF’s Privacy Policy and Terms of Use. Such documents also govern the Services (as defined under Section 2 of IxDF’s Terms of Use) provided by IxDF to you.

When publishing books, videos, and other educational materials, IxDF encourages the dissemination of knowledge and gives its authors freedom to choose the course of disclosure of their work, along with the approach to copyright thereof and, thus, freedom to choose which licensing terms should be applied to the authors work. With that said, IxDF encourages its authors to use the Creative Commons Attribution-No Derivs License (the “License“).

Under this License, authors:

  • remain in control.
  • allow (and encourage) people to copy and distribute their work in any medium or format, for any purpose, even commercially, provided they give authors visible credit.
  • cannot revoke this License as long as you follow the license terms.

Please be advised, however, that under the License:

  • authors do not allow anyone to alter their work in any way or make derivative works without asking for their express permission.
  • authors do not allow anyone to use, remix, transform or build upon ― but you can change the format ― their work in a way that suggests that authors endorse the person/organisation using their work.
  • you are obliged, if supplied, to provide the name of the creator and attribution parties, a copyright notice, license notice, disclaimer notice, and a link to the material.

All materials on the Site as well as all materials produced by IxDF, are not covered by the License. For example, a book or chapter may contain materials where the copyright is owned by another publisher or an author different from the author who is writing the book or chapter. In this case, the copyright status may be all rights reserved - used with permission‘. Please see Section 6 titled Exceptions‘ below for additional information in this regard.

Subject to your compliance with this IP Policy, IxDF’s Privacy Policy and Terms of Use and your payment of any applicable charges and/or fees, IxDF and/or its licensors, members, partners, sponsors, affiliates, contributors users, or other content providers, hereby grant you a limited, non-exclusive, non-transferable, non-sublicensable, revocable and paid right to access and make personal, limited and non-commercial use of the books, eBooks, videos, and other educational materials published by IxDF via the Site. Such right will also be governed under the terms of the respective license included in such books, eBooks, videos, and other educational materials (including length of license, allowed devices and other digital management rights thereof) or, in the absence of any other express dispositions, by the public terms of the License referred to above. This right does not include any resale or commercial use of any of IxDF’s Services or any derivative use of any other service. All rights not expressly granted to you in this IP Policy, IxDF’s Privacy Policy, IxDF’s Terms of Use, the License or any other policy, terms or license therefrom are reserved and retained by IxDF or its licensors, members, partners, sponsors, affiliates, contributors, users, or other content providers. No Service or content provided by IxDF, nor any part of the Site, may be reproduced, duplicated, copied, sold, resold, visited, or otherwise exploited for any commercial purpose without express consent of IxDF or its licensors, members, partners, sponsors, affiliates, contributors, users, or other content providers. You may use the content provided to you by IxDF only as permitted by law. The licenses granted by IxDF shall automatically terminate without prior notice if you do not comply with this IP Policy, IxDF’s Privacy Policy, Terms of Use, the License or any other policy, terms or license therefrom.

About Creative Commons

The License is widely used by different organizations such as the White House, Google, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The License defines the spectrum of possibilities between full copyright (all rights reserved) and the public domain (no rights reserved). The License will help authors keep their copyright while inviting certain uses of their work - a some rights reserved’ copyright. No warranties regarding the License are given by IxDF. The License may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use (i.e., other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material). For more information, please review the latest version of the License, currently located at the webpage

Trademarks and Other Rights

All trademarks, logos, service marks, collective marks, design rights, personality rights or similar rights that are mentioned, used or cited by IxDF and its authors are the property of their respective owners/licensors. As such, the use of any trademark in our materials does not vest in the author or IxDF any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of IxDF and its authors by such owners/licensors. As such, IxDF cannot grant any rights to use any otherwise protected materials. Your use of any such or similar incorporeal property is at your own risk. Words which IxDF has reason to believe constitute trademarks may or may not have been labelled as such. However, neither the presence nor absence of such labels should be regarded as affecting the legal status of any trademarks.

While most materials produced by IxDF are free to use under its respective License as outlined above, some materials may be subject to additional legal restrictions when they are used in particular circumstances or ways. These limitations may arise from laws related to trademarks, patents, personality rights, political censorship, or any of many other legal causes which are entirely independent from the copyright status of the work. For example, if you use a public domain image (i.e., un-copyrighted) of an apple to sell computers, you may violate the trademark rights of Apple Computer, Inc.

In addition, content linked from a page/chapter/book (in online versions) is not covered by one of IxDF’s licenses, unless specifically noted. For example, pages may link to videos or slide decks that are not covered. The design of the Site (e.g., graphics, html, client-side scripts) is copyright all rights reserved.


Screenshots of copyrighted computer software, for which the copyright is held by the author(s) or the company that created the software, is believed to fall under the Fair Use’ doctrine in the US (and similar laws in other countries). It is believed that reproduction for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, or research is not copyright infringement. If you reuse screenshots, as well as any other information provided by IxDF, you do so at your own risk and under the copyright laws of your country.

Copyright of Abstracts

Abstracts in the Wiki Bibliography ( are submitted by their authors who use the wiki to make their research as accessible as possible. When a page on the Site cites/references/lists a work from the bibliography, its abstract is included. However, abstracts have varying copyrights depending which publisher the work is published through. You should assume that an abstract is copyright, all rights reserved, of its publisher and/or author and therefore always use/cite abstracts according to Fair Use. You may visit the publisher’s website (e.g., ACM, IEEE, or Springer) to learn about the specific copyright terms or contact the author directly. Bottom line: Cite/use abstracts according to the principles of fair use as it may otherwise be construed as a copyright infringement and subject to legal action.

If you are the copyright owner of an abstract and you believe that your copyright has been plagiarized by an author ― who has unrightfully included the abstract on his/her author page ― you may solve the problem through these steps:

  • go to the author’s page or profile within the Site;
  • find the publication/abstract and click edit‘;
  • erase the abstract and provide a brief explanation in the comment field; and
  • click submit for approval‘. IxDF’s editorial board will take care of the correction as soon as reasonably possible.


Many materials published by IxDF ― both in print and electronically ― may contain materials where the copyright is owned by a third-party (e.g., another publisher). In this case, the copyright status depends on the copyright owner, and may for example be all rights reserved ― use with permission‘. At the moment of download of each material, you will be informed of the kind of license you are entering into, its term, territory, extent and limitations (or not). While copyright notices are optional in many jurisdictions, when this is the case, IxDF will clearly label the content. For images, IxDF will both write the specific copyright label (including attribution) underneath the caption in both electronic and print copies as well as include the copyright label (including attribution) inside the image file (i.e., the full-resolution version) in metadata types like EXIF, IPTC, and XMP. For eBooks and books, IxDF will both include electronic and written copyright disclaimers.

Therefore, IxDF will only include and label content with the following copyright terms:

Public Domain: Public Domain (information that is common property and contains no original authorship).

Composite Work with Multiple Copyright Terms: Work that is derived from or composed of multiple works with varying copyright terms and/or copyright holders.

Fair Use: Copyrighted materials that meet the legal criteria for the doctrine known as Fair Use’, when used by IxDF. The most common cases of Fair Use are: (i) cover art: cover art from various items, for identification only in the context of critical commentary of that item (not for identification without critical commentary); (ii) team and corporate logos for identification; (iii) other promotional material: posters, programs, billboards, and ads for critical commentary; (iv) film and television screen shots: for critical commentary and discussion of the cinema and television; (v) screenshots from software products for critical commentary; (vi) paintings and other works of visual art for critical commentary (including images illustrative of a particular technique or school); (vii) images with iconic status or historical importance as subjects of commentary; and (viii) images that are themselves subject of commentary.

All Rights Reserved Used Without Permission: The materials are used without permission of the copyright holder because the materials meet the legal criteria for Fair Use and/or because IxDF has not been able to contact the copyright holder.

All Rights Reserved: Permission to use has been granted exclusively to IxDF and/or the author of the given work/chapter, in which the copyrighted material is used. This permission constitutes a non-transferable license and, as such, only applies to IxDF. Therefore, no part of this material may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, recording or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder.

CC-Att-1: Creative Commons Attribution 1.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-3:Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-2: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-ND-3: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-ND-2: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-ND-1: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 1.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-ND: Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-SA-1: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-NC-SA-3: Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-SA-3: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-SA-2: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

CC-Att-SA: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Legal Code (full license text):

Unknown: Copyright status of a work currently unknown, to the best knowledge of IxDF.

Notice and Procedure for Claims of Copyright Infringement

IxDF has made every reasonable effort to communicate with the Site’s individual contributing authors as well as copyright holders of artwork/illustrations/content used on the Site. To the extent that a copyright holder could not be found, or an inadvertent permission or copyright error was made, IxDF shall remove such content upon written notice and request by a copyright holder. In the case that you believe that any content or other material provided through the Site allegedly infringes upon your copyright, please notify IxDF immediately of your infringement claim in accordance with the procedure set forth below.

We will process each written notice of alleged infringement and take the appropriate action in accordance with applicable intellectual property laws. A notification of claimed copyright infringement should be emailed (with the subject matter stated as: Takedown Request’).

Your written notification must contain the following information:

  • An electronic or physical signature of the copyright owner or the person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of the copyright interest.
  • A description of the copyrighted work that you allegedly claim has been infringed.
  • A description of where the material that you claim is infringing is located on the Site that is reasonably sufficient to enable us to identify and locate the material.
  • Means for IxDF to contact you, such as your address, telephone number, and email address.
  • A written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the disputed use is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.
  • If you represent a publisher, a written statement by you that you have a good faith belief that the material has not been placed in the public domain, or licensed under another license, before you acquired the copyright as this would possibly invalidate your copyright.
  • A statement by you indicating that the above information in your notice is accurate and that you are the copyright owner or authorized to act on the copyright owner’s behalf.

Date of last revision of Terms: July 01st, 2022.