What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1
Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII
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HCI is the conference of the British HCI Group, formerly known as British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group. The conference has been held annually since 1985. In 1990 and 1999, HCI was incorporated in the INTERACT conference.
The following articles are from "Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII":
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Lindley, Sian E., Randall, Dave, Sharrock, Wes, Glancy, Maxine, Smyth, Nicola and Harper, Richard (2009): Narrative, memory and practice: tensions and choices in the use of a digital artefact. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 1-9. Available online
This paper reports on research into the use of SenseCam, a wearable automatic camera. Household members were given multiple SenseCams to enable an exploration of how the device would be used in the context of everyday life. We argue that understanding the 'small stories' created by household members based around SenseCam images requires us to pay attention to a complex amalgam of issues. These pertain to narrative, memory and practice in and through both the 'sites of expression' of such work -- the topics that are selected for recall -- and performativity -- the occasions upon which narratives are constructed and the elaborations of identity that are entailed. Finally, we consider how the varied uses of SenseCam that emerged have implications for technologies relating to lifelogging and user-generated content.
Durrant, Abigail, Taylor, Alex S., Frohlich, David, Sellen, Abigail and Uzzell, David (2009): Photo displays and intergenerational relationships in the family home. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 10-19. Available online
In this paper we describe a design-orientated field study in which we deploy a novel digital display device to explore the potential integration of teenage and family photo displays at home, as well as the value of situated photo display technologies for intergenerational expression. This exploration is deemed timely given the contemporary take-up of digital capture devices by teenagers and the unprecedented volume of photographic content that teens generate. Findings support integration and the display of photos on a standalone device, as well as demonstrating the interventional efficacy of the design as a resource for provoking reflection on the research subject. We also draw upon the theoretical concept of Dialogism to understand how our design mediates intergenerational relationships and interaction aesthetics relating to the notion of 'constructive conflict'.
Marco, Javier, Cerezo, Eva, Baldassarri, Sandra, Mazzone, Emanuela and Read, Janet C. (2009): Bringing tabletop technologies to kindergarten children. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 103-111. Available online
Taking computer technology away from the desktop and into a more physical, manipulative space, is known that provide many benefits and is generally considered to result in a system that is easier to learn and more natural to use. This paper describes a design solution that allows kindergarten children to take the benefits of the new pedagogical possibilities that tangible interaction and tabletop technologies offer for manipulative learning. After analysis of children's cognitive and psychomotor skills, we have designed and tuned a prototype game that is suitable for children aged 3 to 4 years old. Our prototype uniquely combines low cost tangible interaction and tabletop technology with tutored learning. The design has been based on the observation of children using the technology, letting them freely play with the application during three play sessions. These observational sessions informed the design decisions for the game whilst also confirming the children's enjoyment of the prototype.
The present aim was to investigate if controlled vibrotactile stimulation can be used to inform users on how to regulate their behavior. 36 stimuli were varied by frequency modulation (i.e., ascending, constant, and descending), duration (i.e., 500, 1750, and 3000 ms), waveform (i.e., sine and sawtooth), and body location (i.e., wrist and chest), and presented to 12 participants. The participants were to evaluate without any training the meaning of each presented stimuli using three response options: 'accelerate your speed', 'keep your speed constant', and 'decelerate your speed'. Participants rated also how emotionally pleasant and arousing the different stimulations were. The results showed that the stimuli were predominantly perceived analogously with the vibration frequency modulation. The best stimuli represented 'accelerate your speed', 'keep your speed constant', and 'decelerate your speed' information in
Sas, Corina, Dix, Alan J., Hart, Jennefer and Su, Ronghui (2009): Dramaturgical capitalization of positive emotions: the answer for Facebook success?. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 120-129. Available online
Although user behavior in the popular Facebook social network site has been intensely investigated since the site came live in 2004, we know little about users' emotions and values weaved in the fabric of their interactions. We report on a diary study for collecting daily accounts of users' most memorable Facebook experiences. Outcomes emphasize the distinction between public and private presentation together with user motivation for engaging in these roles. Findings outline the role of impression management in the capitalization of positive emotions: a process through which people derive associated benefits from sharing them. Outcomes also suggest that at their heart, people's most memorable experiences with Facebook are all about positive emotions, in particular those concerned with connectedness and entertainment. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for experience design and propose design tactics and guidelines integrated into a framework for designing for connectedness and entertainment.
Zufferey, Guillaume, Jermann, Patrick, Do-Lenh, Son and Dillenbourg, Pierre (2009): Using augmentations as bridges from concrete to abstract representations. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 130-139. Available online
We describe a pedagogical approach supporting the acquisition of abstraction skills by apprentices in logistics. Apprentices start with a concrete representation in the form of a small-scale model which aims at engaging them in learning activities. Multiple External Representations are used to progressively introduce more abstract representations displayed on paper-based forms called TinkerSheets. We present the implementation of this approach on the TinkerTable, a tabletop learning environment which is used in two professional schools by four different teachers. We report observations of the use of the environment at different stages of the curriculum with first- and second-year apprentices.
Hassard, Stephen T., Blandford, Ann and Cox, Anna L. (2009): Analogies in design decision-making. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 140-148. Available online
Design is becoming the decisive factor in whether a product is a commercial success, like Windows XP, or a critical failure, like Microsoft Bob. To leverage this factor we need to have a greater understanding of the cognitive processes behind Interaction Design. While there are a wide array of disciplines that fall under the umbrella of design, there are several cognitive processes that are common to all strata of design. Decision Making has been identified as an important factor in the design process but remains woefully under-explored. This paper aims to understand Design Decision-making (DDM) in the light of more recent developments in the wider decision-making field. Two studies were conducted, consisting of an initial theoretical thematic analysis to update the outdated models of design decision-making, and a follow-up quantitative study to validate the findings of the first study. Results indicate that while the current models of DDM do well to explain elements of the decision-making process they do not account for such things as the persistence of analogies across all stages of the decision-making process.
Do-Lenh, Son, Kaplan, Frédéric and Dillenbourg, Pierre (2009): Paper-based concept map: the effects of tabletop on an expressive collaborative learning task. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 149-158. Available online
Augmented tabletops have recently attracted considerable attention in the literature. However, little has been known about the effects that these interfaces have on learning tasks. In this paper, we report on the results of an empirical study that explores the usage of tabletop systems in an expressive collaborative learning task. In particular, we focus on measuring the difference in learning outcomes at individual and group levels between students using two interfaces: traditional computer and augmented tabletop with tangible input. No significant effects of the interface on individual learning gain were found. However, groups using traditional computer learned significantly more from their partners than those using tabletop interface. Further analysis showed an interaction effect of the condition and the group heterogeneity on learning outcomes. We also present our qualitative findings in terms of how group interactions and strategy differ in the two conditions.
Vallance, Michael, Martin, Stewart, Wiz, Charles and Schaik, Paul Van (2009): LEGO Mindstorms for informed metrics in virtual worlds. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 159-162. Available online
Science education is the meaningful pursuit of comprehension, knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes. In Vygotskian, social-constructivist learning, personal interpretation, decision making and community cooperation fosters long-term understanding and transference of learned concepts. In short, the construction of knowledge requires learners to be actively involved in the process of learning. For effective science learning an instructor's pedagogical approach must be anchored in meaningful contexts so that students experience science. This research paper assesses and defines effective measurements for evaluating strategies for communicating science using LEGO robots and a Mindstorms™ RCX controller collaboratively constructed and programmed by students using virtual technologies while physically situated in different locations.
Stenger, Björn, Woodley, Thomas, Kim, Tae-Kyun and Cipolla, Roberto (2009): A vision-based system for display interaction. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 163-168. Available online
This paper presents a system for interaction with a display via hand pointing, where a single CCD camera on top of the screen is directed towards the viewers. An attention mechanism based on face and hand detection allows one user to take control of the interface. Face recognition is used for identification and customisation. The system allows the user to control the screen pointer by tracking their fist. On-screen items can be selected using one of four activation mechanisms. Current sample applications include browsing image and video collections as well as viewing a gallery of 3D objects. In experiments we demonstrate the performance of the vision components in challenging conditions.
Schrammel, Johann, Köffel, Christina and Tscheligi, Manfred (2009): Personality traits, usage patterns and information disclosure in online communities. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 169-174. Available online
Online communities of different types have become an important part of the daily internet life of many people within the last couple of years. Both research and business have shown interest in studying the possibilities and risks related to these relatively new phenomena. Frequently discussed aspects that are tightly bound to online communities are their implications and effects on privacy issues. Available literature has shown that users generally disclose very much (private) information on such communities, and different factors influencing this behaviour were identified and studied. However, the influence and predictive power of personality traits on information disclosure in online communities has not yet been the subject of analysis. In this paper we report the results of an online survey investigating the relations between personality traits (based on the Fife-Factor Model), usage patterns and information disclosure of participants in different types of online communities.
Cowan, Benjamin R., Vigentini, Lorenzo and Jack, Mervyn A. (2009): Exploring the effects of experience on wiki anxiety and wiki usability: an online study. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 175-183. Available online
Information Technology is now pervasive in Higher Education institutions and developments in IT are changing the technological landscape at Universities. A recent phenomenon shaping such changes is the use of Web 2.0 tools in a pedagogical context. These tools are often included into a University's IT mix without full appreciation of the possible negative emotions student users may have towards these tools. It is generally assumed that experience with the IT system will be enough to reduce any anxious feelings which may manifest in users about such systems. This study firstly aims to observe the relationship that such emotion may have on usability evaluation of a wiki system. It also aims to investigate the effect of experience on students' negative affective reactions towards a wiki tool. Second year undergraduate psychology students (N=92) who were using a wiki to collaborate on course projects completed questionnaires measuring usability evaluation and anxiety towards the wiki both 2 weeks (Time 1) and 12 weeks (Time 2) into their usage of the system. The research found that wiki anxiety was negatively correlated to participants' usability evaluations of the wiki at both time 1 and time 2. Further experience with the system had little effect on users' negative emotions towards the wiki. Users also showed little change in their usability rating of the system with more exposure to the wiki. However any change in wiki anxiety over the study was negatively correlated with a change in usability evaluation. Possible interpretations of the relationship between wiki anxiety, wiki usability and possible effects of the type and quality of user experience on wiki anxiety are discussed.
Lichtenstein, Antje (2009): Task-specificity and resource allocation in information perception in three-dimensional space. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 184-187. Available online
Modern technologies are more and more capable of presenting information in three-dimensional space instead of being limited to a standard two-dimensional desktop workstation. Thus, it becomes necessary to examine whether display location does have an effect on human information perception and processing. This paper presents two studies concerned with this subject. The first study examined whether optimal display location depends on the task, which is being executed. We found evidence for differences in tasks with different cognitive engagement levels. The second study aimed at a) examining task characteristics in more detail and b) answering the basic question whether it is generally beneficial to present concurrent information in dual-task situations in two instead of one perceptual depth plane in order to optimize resource utilization. Results support the notion of a two-plane benefit.
Schmettow, Martin (2009): Controlling the usability evaluation process under varying defect visibility. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 188-197. Available online
In cases where usability is a mission critical system quality it is becoming essential to know whether an evaluation study has identified the majority of existing defects. Previous work has shown that procedures for estimating the progress of evaluation studies have to account for variation in defect visibility; otherwise, harmful bias will happen. Here, a statistical model is introduced for estimating the number of not-yet-identified defects in a study. This approach also supports exact confidence intervals and can easily be adapted to estimate the required number of sessions. The method is evaluated and shown to, in most cases, provide accurate measures. A running example illustrates how practitioners may track the progress of their studies and make quantitatively informed decisions on when to finish.
Lanfranchi, Vita and Ireson, Neil (2009): User requirements for a collective intelligence emergency response system. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 198-203. Available online
This document reports on the HCI experience gained in WeKnowIt, a European project aiming to design, implement and deliver technologies and methodologies enabling both Emergency Response organisation personnel and community citizens to participate in the monitoring of an emergency incident. In order to better capture the richness and complexity of the scenario, user studies were conducted to elicit user requirements from both user groups to understand how their requirements can be met by an application that combines organisational and community intelligence.
Triantafyllakos, George, Palaigeorgiou, George and Tsoukalas, Ioannis A. (2009): Design alter egos: constructing and employing fictional characters in collaborative design sessions. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 20-28. Available online
The paper presents a novel approach to collaborative design of educational software with students, one that asks the participants for the formation and use of fictional characters -- design alter egos -- as a means towards eliciting requirements and design ideas. In order to evaluate the suggested approach, we conducted 12 collaborative design sessions with the participation of 54 undergraduate university students (aged 19 to 24) for eliciting requirements for the design of an ideal course website. The analysis of the results showed that the design alter egos liberated the majority of the students from the fear of straightforwardly exposing themselves, supported and enhanced their introspection, stimulated their creativity and helped to establish an informal and constructive atmosphere throughout the design sessions. We suggest the use of design alter egos as an engaging and effective supportive technique for co-designing educational software with students.
Joly, Ana Vitoria, Pemberton, Lyn and Griffiths, Richard (2009): Card sorting activities with preschool children. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 204-213. Available online
Preschoolers' categorization differs from adults'; therefore it is beneficial to involve them in the design process to create appropriate information architecture for this age group. In this paper, we describe three card sorting activities conducted with a total of fifty six preschool children in five nurseries. We conclude that a closed card sorting task can be combined with a match-to-sample activity to offer insight into children's categorization knowledge, contributing significantly to the design of technology for young children.
Lumsden, Jo (2009): Triggering trust: to what extent does the question influence the answer when evaluating the perceived importance of trust triggers?. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 214-223. Available online
Trust is a critical component of business to consumer (B2C) e-Commerce success. In the absence of typical environmental cues that consumers use to assess vendor trustworthiness in the offline retail context, online consumers often rely on trust triggers embedded within e-Commerce websites to contribute to the establishment of sufficient trust to make an online purchase. This paper presents and discusses the results of a series of studies which took an initial look at the extent to which the context or manner in which trust triggers are evaluated may exert influence on the perceived importance attributed to individual triggers. We hope that our investigations will help inform the evaluation approaches adopted to assess consumer trust.
Xu, Diana Yifan, Read, Janet C., Sim, Gavin, McManus, Barbara and Qualter, Pam (2009): Children and 'smart' technologies: can children's experiences be interpreted and coded?. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 224-231. Available online
This paper has a focus on young children and their emerging new technologies. It examines children's drawings as an evaluation tool for capturing their experiences of different novel interfaces. A recent evaluation study with children and two follow-up expert coding sessions were used to demonstrate how drawings could be used and coded and how the intercoder reliability could be improved. Usability and User Experience (UX) factors: Fun (F), Goal Fit (GF) and Tangible Magic (TM) were included in the coding scheme and they were the factors that have been looked at in the coding sessions. Our studies show the thoroughness and ease-of-use of the drawing method. The method was effective and reliable in conveying the user experience form the drawings. It also shows some of the limitation of the method: e.g. resource intensive and open to evaluator's interpretation. From the result of the study, a number of the drawings conveyed information pertaining to user experiences: F, GF and TM, and the method was particularly reliable at capturing fun. The result also led to the correlation found on the GF and TM.
Wilkie, Katie, Holland, Simon and Mulholland, Paul (2009): Evaluating musical software using conceptual metaphors. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 232-237. Available online
An open challenge for interaction designers is to find ways of designing software to enhance the ability of novices to perform tasks that normally require specialized domain expertise. This challenge is particularly demanding in areas such as music analysis, where complex, abstract, domain-specific concepts and notations occur. One promising theoretical foundation for this work involves the identification of conceptual metaphors and image schemas, found by analyzing discourse. This kind of analysis has already been applied, with some success, both to musical concepts and, separately, to user interface design. The present work appears to be the first to combine these hitherto distinct bodies of research, with the aim of devising a general method for improving user interfaces for music. Some areas where this may require extensions to existing method are noted. This paper presents the results of an exploratory evaluation of Harmony Space, a tool for playing, analysing and learning about harmony. The evaluation uses conceptual metaphors and image schemas elicited from the dialogues of experienced musicians discussing the harmonic progressions in a piece of music. Examples of where the user interface supports the conceptual metaphors, and where support could be improved, are discussed. The potential use of audio output to support conceptual metaphors and image schemas is considered.
Jomhari, N., Gonzalez, V. M. and Kurniawan, S. H. (2009): See the apple of my eye: baby storytelling in social space. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 238-243. Available online
People use media-sharing web sites to document their lives and those of their children for maintaining and strengthening social ties with people living away. It is clear then that people can and like to create narratives as a form of expression. This study presents an analysis of the characteristics and type of baby stories written by young mothers. Nine mothers from Malaysia living in the UK participated in the study. The participants used a variety of media-sharing web sites to prepare and share the narratives. Most of them (seven) used photo-sharing web sites (Fotopages or Flickr), two used text-based blogs (Blogger). Two of them also uploaded videos of their babies in content sharing sites (YouTube). Within the period of three months, we identified 166 stories created, with 94 percent of them focusing on their baby. The stories present a number of topics such as skills demonstrations, outings, domestic activities, and social events. Based on the analysis of the data and interviews with participants, we found a significant positive correlation between the type of story and the type of media used. The result also shows there was a significant positive relationship between the type of story and the baby's age.
Rode, Jennifer A. (2009): Digital parenting: designing children's safety. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 244-251. Available online
In this paper, I describe an ethnographic study of children and parents looking at issues of domestic privacy and security. I will provide an overview of parental rules and strategies for keeping children safe and briefly discuss children's perspective on their online safety and how their parents shared the domestic work and responsibility for protecting them. As part of the discussion, I will present implications for design, and reflect on the problematic state of ethics, privacy, ethics review boards when working with children.
Laqua, Sven and Sasse, M. Angela (2009): Exploring blog spaces: a study of blog reading experiences using dynamic contextual displays. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 252-261. Available online
In this paper we report on an eye-tracking experiment conducted with 60 participants to gain an understanding of how people interact with blog environments. We compared a standard blog interface with a novel contextual blog interface, which dynamically adjusts its contextual navigation to a selected article. We measured task performance and interaction behaviour for explorative tasks and goal-oriented search tasks. We further collected subjective feedback to evaluate user preferences. We found that participants using the contextual blog interface completed search tasks 19% faster and made 80% fewer errors. Moreover, participants using the contextual blog interface interacted more with the provided information during the exploration tasks. We did not find significant differences in user preference overall between both blog interfaces. However, a more detailed analysis of our results suggests significant demographic differences for performance, behavioural and subjective measures.
Ruddle, Roy A. (2009): How do people find information on a familiar website?. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 262-268. Available online
Previous research has investigated how people either navigate the web as a whole, or find information on websites of which they have little previous knowledge. However, it is now common for people to make frequent use of one site (e.g., their employer's intranet). This paper reports how participants recalled and navigated a familiar website they had used for 8-20 months. Sketch maps showed that participants' memory for the site's content and structure was very limited in extent, but generally accurate. Navigation data showed that participants had much more difficulty finding the region of the site that contained a piece of information, than then finding the information itself. These data highlight the need for directly accessed pages to be given greater prominence in browser history mechanisms and designers to make information regions memorable. Finally, two navigational path metrics (stratum and percentage of revisit actions) that correlated with participants' performance were identified.
Asimakopoulos, Stavros, Fildes, Robert and Dix, Alan J. (2009): Forecasting software visualizations: an explorative study. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 269-277. Available online
A qualitative explorative evaluation considered the effects of six visualization interfaces of sales forecasting systems on 60 university students. The study builds on earlier research from the domain of business forecasting in supply chain industries. The evaluation generates exemplar interfaces derived from the theoretical framework and task analysis of interviews with 20 expert users and designers of forecasting systems. The implications for information visualization and interaction design are discussed.
Aberg, Johan (2009): An evaluation of a meal planning system: ease of use and perceived usefulness. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 278-287. Available online
Unhealthy eating is an increasingly important problem in the western society. Our approach to this problem is to provide a meal planning system giving recommendations of suitable food recipes, taking important factors such as nutrient content, cost, variation, etc into account. A user controls how the system takes these factors into account through settings after which the system creates an optimal meal plan. The user can then iteratively refine the settings until a satisfactory meal plan is produced. The system is evaluated empirically in terms of ease of use and perceived usefulness, factors crucial for eventual user acceptance. The results are positive, and several interesting possibilities for future system improvements are discussed.
Read, Janet C. and Beale, Russell (2009): Under my pillow: designing security for children's special things. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 288-292. Available online
This paper describes a novel design activity that was used to gather insights into security requirements for a mobile application for children. The general aim of the study was to understand how to design for security in an application for children rather than to specifically generate design solutions. To gather this information, a novel design activity, referred to here as Participatory Analogy, was devised. The study is described and design solutions that emerged following analysis of the children's contributions are presented.
Iacovides, Ioanna (2009): Exploring the link between player involvement and learning within digital games. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 29-34. Available online
Digital games are becoming increasingly popular with the latest generation of consoles bringing games to an even wider audience . Academic interest in the educational potential of video games is also growing and seems to stem from the fact that they are considered motivating [10; 13]. However, while there is some research on what makes games engaging, there is a need to further our understanding of the link between player involvement and learning, and to develop methods to evaluate these aspects of the user experience. This paper aims to report on a study that explored this relationship through a qualitative case-study approach. The methods consisted of a combination of observed game-play and a post-play cued interview in which a video recording of the game-play was reviewed. The Digital Game Experience Model [1; 2] was then used to analyse critical instances and themes within these episodes. Two examples are presented to illustrate how the method was implemented. The findings indicate a very close relationship between learning and involvement and suggest that a certain amount of learning is required before deeper levels of involvement can be experienced. However, further research is required in order to see whether these findings can be generalised and to consider whether different forms of interaction can be incorporated into this model of game play.
Kano, Akiyo and Read, Janet C. (2009): Text input error categorisation: solving character level insertion ambiguities using Zero Time analysis. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 293-302. Available online
A review of literature on text input error categorisation revealed the need for a formal method to assist in solving ambiguities. This paper proposes a method of solving one such set of ambiguities, those caused by insertion of an extra letter. The method uses two rules: the Zero Time rule and Impossible NT/CT-Mu rule to establish whether the extra letter was inserted with another letter, or inserted individually. The method was applied to two large studies conducted to gather typing errors from students and children. The results show that the method is able to solve 100% of all insertion-only ambiguities and in doing so it helps reduce ambiguities in 75-85% of the remaining ambiguities.
Pereira, Rui (2009): TüISt (transformable über interface for stardom). In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 303-308. Available online
This project is an emotionally driven interface taking on our inner desires and fantasies of instantaneously becoming superstars (and momentarily living under the skin of our idols) and on our instinctive imitation of the musical performers gestures as expressions of sounds. TüISt is a multi-instrument interface based on a single object with minimal gesture input surfaces and various modes of use through different positioning and orientation towards the user's body. Multi-track gesture recording and playback/looping features also enable for multi-arrangement and composition by allowing the user to record and interact with his own performances in time. The objective was to develop an intuitive and playful interface for novices, an interface capable of providing explorative interactions in an enjoyable experience inspired by our significant mimicking gestures of 'real' musicians and our private ambitions of creating music.
Holzinger, Andreas, Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D. and Ebner, Martin (2009): Interactive technology for enhancing distributed learning: a study on weblogs. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 309-312. Available online
In this study, it was investigated whether, and to what extent, Web 2.0 technologies, actually Weblogs, can be a suitable instrument for enhancing the practice of distributed learning. In educational settings, which are based on traditional lectures many students begin serious study shortly before the exam. However, from previous empirical research, it is known that the practice of distributed learning is much more conducive to retaining knowledge than that of massed learning. A 2x2 factorial design (within -- repeated measures) with pre-test and post-test in a real life setting was applied; the study lasted for the whole summer term 2007. Participants were N=28 computer science undergraduates of Graz University of Technology. We randomly assigned them to two groups of equal size: The experimental group given the Weblog treatment are referred to as Group W; whereas the control group with no access are referred to as Group C. Students of group W were instructed to use the Weblog for developing their paper and studying during the lecture and they were requested not to reveal their group affiliation. The results showed that performance scores of group W were significantly higher than that of group C. This demonstrates that Weblogs can be an appropriate instrument to supplement a classical lecture in order to enable deeper processing of information over a longer period of time, consequently resulting in enhanced learning performance.
Bradley, Jay, Mival, Oli and Benyon, David (2009): Wizard of Oz experiments for companions. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 313-317. Available online
Wizard of Oz experiments allow designers and developers to see the reactions of people as they interact with to-be-developed technologies. At the Centre for Interaction Design at Edinburgh Napier University we are developing a Wizard of Oz system to inform and further the design and development of Companion based technologies. Companions are intelligent, persistent, personalised, multimodal, natural language interfaces to the Internet and resources such as photo or music collections. They have the potential of turning our current human-machine interactions into human-machine relationships. In particular, a Companion prototype for reminiscing about a photo collection, called PhotoPal, is being used in our experiments. Several Wizard of Oz experiments have been run to assess people's reactions and thoughts about using a Companion interface. The feedback from these experiments has informed both the design direction and choice of development technologies going forward. The Wizard of Oz system has also been put to use in a classroom of young pupils and to aid adults make more productive use of the Internet for learning. Further experiments to investigate the appropriateness of Companion dialogue are planned.
Deiml-Seibt, Tina, Pschetz, Larissa and Müller, Boris (2009): A conversational model to display user activity. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 318-323. Available online
The creation of mechanisms to motivate user participation became a necessary strategy for evolution and sustainability of many online systems. Nowadays, most of these mechanisms are based on a form of displaying user activity, e.g. through badges or ranking scores. In this paper we discuss the current use of activity displays as incentives for user participation, and present IntroText, an alternative conversational approach. Based on the metaphor of introducing someone, IntroText sketches a behavioral portrait of users in an individual and non-competitive way. We describe the implementation of this feature pointing out to its potential to influence online behavior.
Naghsh, Amir M. and Roast, Chris R. (2009): User interfaces for robots swarm assistance in emergency settings. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 324-328. Available online
In this paper, we describe the development processes adopted for effective human centred design in the context of developing a human robot interface. The human robot interactive setting represents a significant development challenge on two counts: interaction is to be with a swarm of autonomous robots, and; the robots are to assist the process of search and rescue as carried out by fire fighters committed into the-field of incident. The paper goes on to illustrate an approach to design evaluation motivated by user centred design objectives. The conclusion from studies illustrate that the complex nature of professional practice in the high risk settings has significant influences upon the fitness for purpose. Overall we are able to show that despite the complexity of effective user engagement in development we are able to apply user centred principles productively.
Cockton, Gilbert, Kirk, Dave, Sellen, Abigail and Banks, Richard (2009): Evolving and augmenting worth mapping for family archives. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 329-338. Available online
We describe the process of developing worth maps from field research and initial design sketches for a digital Family Archive, which resulted in a more simple and flexible worth map format. Worth maps support designing as connecting by forming explicit associations between designs and human values. Two supporting worth-centred design resources were developed: one to organize field materials (a worth board) and another to simplify worth map structure (user experience frames). During this process, we identified and refined a range of design elements and relevant human values for initial conceptual exploration of an innovative table top computer application. We end with an evaluation of the process and outcomes, complemented with insights from subsequent applications of worth maps that support recommendations on worth mapping practices. The resulting worth maps and associated resources were (and still remain) valuable, but experiences during this and other uses indicate that further improvements are needed.
Leal, Anamary, Wingrave, Chadwick A. and LaViola, Joseph J. (2009): Initial explorations into the user experience of 3D file browsing. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 339-344. Available online
Morrison, Cecily and Blackwell, Alan (2009): Hospital user research using new media arts. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 345-353. Available online
This paper presents a comparative analysis of group interaction around two display types, shared and individual, using a 'new media' arts application as a way to explore the physical technology setup for an intensive care unit in a hospital. We propose this method for laboratory settings when the research questions derive from socially complex environments, but real-world interventions are not possible. While users solve an 'interaction problem' that is posed through the 'new media' arts application for their own expressive purposes, researchers can analyse and collate the results to understand the solution space. We present a study with the bodyPaint application to address a design issue that we discovered when assessing the merits of an electronic patient record system.
Kirk, David, Sellen, Abigail, Taylor, Stuart, Villar, Nicolas and Izadi, Shahram (2009): Putting the physical into the digital: issues in designing hybrid interactive surfaces. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 35-44. Available online
Hybrid surfaces are interactive systems combining techniques of direct-manipulation multi-touch surface interaction with elements of tangible user interfaces (TUIs). The design space for such complex hands-on computing experiences is sufficiently broad that it can be difficult to decide when interface elements should be given either a physical or digital instantiation, and the extent to which different interface functions should be made to model real-world interactions. In this paper we present two case studies of hybrid surface systems we are developing and discuss how we have reasoned through these kinds of design decisions. From this, we derive a set of observations about properties of physical and digital elements, and offer them as a design resource.
Papakonstantinou, Christina, Panagiotou, Ioannis and Verbeek, Fons (2009): The TicTag application: towards tag-based meta-search for browsing the web. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 354-361. Available online
The Web has developed as an enormous information resource. Especially in the last few years with the thriving of the so-called web2.0 services allowing user-generated content easily to be entered in -- and shared by -- typical web 2.0 databases. Bookmarking systems enable users to label their resources with tags, which in aggregation give rise to dynamic categorization schemes, i.e. folksonomies. Web querying through folksonomies presents an interesting potential in contrast to traditional search engines, such as the suggestion of relevant topics that may refine or even define the original search term. Both approaches are in wide use, each appreciated for their own qualities. However, it is possible for the methods to be used complementary, making use of the specific advantages of each of them. In this paper we specifically introduce the notions of tags and folksonomies and we present a method of using these notions in a tag based search technique. We discuss and elaborate results on the basis of preliminary experiments with our tag-based search engine.
McEwan, Tom (2009): Human centred university commercialisation. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 362-369. Available online
Universities in the UK need to develop commercial revenue streams to fill funding gaps, and also, to help justify continued public funding, to stimulate innovation and enhance the economy. Information technology (IT) is the source or catalyst for much innovation, historically this been based on much university input. Human-centred design (HCD) approaches, based on research from Human-Computer Interaction and related fields have been shown to be more effective than technically-driven approaches to achieve sustainable innovation based on IT. However commercialisation requires IT academics to acquire new expertise in business innovation and while sources of this are undoubtedly market- and customer-focused, they tend not be human-centred. At the same time, individual academics may simply not engage with efforts to stimulate commercialisation as they see many personal risks they often feel unable to manage. If commercialisation is to take place, these human factors also need to be addressed. This paper reflects on successful experiences of applying HCD over ten years of collaboration with industry and considers how to extend these approaches into commercialisation (where, in many ways, universities will now compete with industry). Unexpectedly, a need emerges to clarify the definitions of terms such as innovation and research and development (R&D), in order to meet the varied expectations and requirements of policy makers, public funders and potential investors. Based on engagement over two years with around forty academics on a range of commercialisation ideas, a PACT analysis  illustrates the human factors involved in university commercialisation. Further studies are proposed.
Afzal, Shazia, Morrison, Cecily and Robinson, Peter (2009): Intentional affect: an alternative notion of affective interaction with a machine. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 370-374. Available online
Affective Computing envisages truly effective human-machine interactions as being affect-sensitive. The field is both motivated and influenced by an understanding of emotion in an environment, that of person to person, that differs from its eventual application, person to machine. Analysing data obtained in a potential application environment -- computer-assisted learning -- we highlight the limitations of such an understanding and propose an alternative stance to affect, that of intentional affective interaction.
Otjacques, Benoît, Krier, Marc, Feltz, Fernand, Ferring, Dieter and Hoffmann, Martine (2009): Helping older people to manage their social activities at the retirement home. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 375-380. Available online
This paper discusses the early results of the multidisciplinary project TIVIPOL aiming to propose digital technologies to enhance the social life of older people in a retirement home. A prototype combining a tactile color screen, a RFID reader and a ticket printer is described. It allows the older people to manage their participation to the social activities organized by the home staff. A first evaluation has shown the usability as well as the good acceptance of this system.
Sweeney, Breen and Adams, Anne (2009): Virtual world users evaluated according to environment design, task based and affective attention measures. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 381-387. Available online
This paper presents research that engages with virtual worlds for education users to understand design of these applications for their needs. An in-depth multi-method investigation from 12 virtual worlds participants was undertaken in three stages; initially a small scale within-subjects eye-tracking comparison was made between the role playing game 'RuneScape' and the virtual social world 'Second Life', secondly an in-depth evaluation of eye-tracking data for Second Life tasks (i.e. avatar, object and world based) was conducted, finally a qualitative evaluation of Second Life tutorials in comparative 3D situations (i.e. environments that are; realistic to surreal, enclosed to open, formal to informal) was conducted. Initial findings identified increased users attention within comparable gaming and social world interactions. Further analysis identified that 3D world focused interactions increased participants' attention more than object and avatar tasks. Finally different 3D situation designs altered levels of task engagement and distraction through perceptions of comfort, fun and fear. Ultimately goal based and environment interaction tasks can increase attention and potentially immersion. However, affective perceptions of 3D situations can negatively impact on attention. An objective discussion of the limitations and benefits of virtual world immersion for student learning is presented.
Renaud, Karen and Maguire, Joseph (2009): Armchair authentication. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 388-397. Available online
Alphanumeric authentication, by means of a secret, is not only a powerful mechanism, in theory, but prevails over all its competitors in practice. However, it is clearly inadequate in a world where increasing numbers of systems and services require people to authenticate in a shared space, while being actively observed. This new reality places pressure on a password mechanism never intended for use in such a context. Asterisks may obfuscate alphanumeric characters on entry but popular systems, e.g. Apple iPhone and Nintendo Wii, regularly require users to use an on-screen keyboard for character input. This may not be a real concern within the context of secluded space but inadvertly reveals a secret within shared space. Such a secret has an economic cost in terms of replacement, recall and revenue, all of which affect the financial return of the offending systems and services. In this paper, we present and evaluate a graphical authentication mechanism, Tetrad, which appears to have the potential to address these specific concerns.
Jepsen, Kathrin, Glass, Gregor and Englert, Roman (2009): When 'one fits all' does not fit: study of visualization types for mobile help systems. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 398-404. Available online
An open question today is how the visualization of a mobile assistance interface should look like, e.g. if it should disappear automatically after some seconds or a user interaction is required. In this paper a survey is conducted that has the goal to gather practice-oriented interaction design guidelines to support design decisions of mobile help visualizations. The survey is based on four different visualization strategies in order to find the most appropriate. Five usage scenarios from the field of mobile messaging were selected. The study shows the first time that users have a concept of criticality for usage problems and that 'one fits all' solutions fail for (huge) user groups.
Chatting, David J. and Sutton, Jon S. (2009): Visible imagination: projected play. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 405-409. Available online
This paper presents a system for the exploration of projected interfaces. We describe our Visible Imagination (VI) platform combining a camera, projector and torch (flashlight) allowing interaction with the torchlight and shape capture. We describe six application sketches that demonstrate different interaction styles using the platform, reflecting on their success and how they may be applied to play.
Díaz, Javier, Hu, Keyun and Tory, Melanie (2009): An exploratory study of tag-based visual interfaces for searching folksonomies. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 410-417. Available online
Aesthetic features such as animation, 3D interaction, and visual metaphors are becoming commonplace in multimedia search interfaces. However, it is unclear which attributes are needed to encourage people to use these interfaces on an ongoing basis. To design a visual interface that will elicit continual use, we first need to establish a better understanding of users' goals and strategies, in order to determine which features are critical to support those tasks. This paper reports on an exploratory study of individuals engaging with five different image and video search interfaces. Our study helped us to understand users' experiences with a variety of features and design elements, as well as categorize their common search tasks and strategies. We identified four distinct types of search: Search Known Objects + Known Keywords, Search Known Objects + Unknown Keywords, Search Unknown Objects + Known Keywords, and Search Unknown Objects + Unknown Keywords. We also identified common strategies used to accomplish each of these search types. Our findings suggest that search interfaces should maximize screen space used for visual representations of the media, provide on-demand access to titles, tags, and other metadata, and provide contextual information about previously viewed items, current keywords, and alternate keyword possibilities.
Bond, Matthew and Beale, Russell (2009): What makes a good game?: using reviews to inform design. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 418-422. Available online
The characteristics that identify a good game are hard to define and reproduce, as demonstrated by the catalogues of both successes and failures from most games companies. We have started to address this by undertaking a grounded theoretical analysis of reviews garnered from games, both good and bad, to distil from these common features that characterize good and bad games. We have identified that a good game is cohesive, varied, has good user interaction and offers some form of social interaction. The most important factor to avoid is a bad pricing. Successfully achieving some of these good factors will also outweigh problems in other areas.
Sloan, David, Macaulay, Catriona, Forbes, Paula and Loynton, Scott (2009): User research in a scientific software development project. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 423-429. Available online
The Usable Image project provides usability and user-centred design support to a scientific software development project. OMERO is a complex software application aimed at supporting the management, analysis and processing of microscopy images and associated data. In order to gather a richer understanding of the diversity and similarities of scientific practice and the role technology plays in supporting the work of scientists using images and image-related data, a range of user-research techniques have been applied, including design ethnography and surveys. This work has provided insights that have informed the development team, increasing knowledge and understanding of what is a complex usage environment, and helping in the process of creating a more usable and useful scientific tool. This paper discusses the insights gained from the ethnographic work and from user surveys, in terms of attitudes to and usage patterns of technology amongst life science researchers, and considers the implications of these insights on the user-centred design and development of OMERO.
Heerink, Marcel, Kröse, Ben, Wielinga, Bob and Evers, Vanessa (2009): Measuring the influence of social abilities on acceptance of an interface robot and a screen agent by elderly users. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 430-439. Available online
Personal robots and screen agents can be equipped with social abilities to facilitate interaction. This paper describes our research on the influence of these abilities on elderly user's acceptance of such a system. Experiments were set up in eldercare institutions where a robotic and screen agent with simulated conversational capabilities were used in a Wizard of Oz experiment. Both agents were used with two conditions: a more socially communicative (the agent made use of a larger set of social abilities in interaction) and a less socially communicative interface. Results show that participants who were confronted with the more socially communicative version of the robotic agent felt more comfortable and were more expressive in communicating with it. This suggests that the more socially communicative condition would be more likely to be accepted as a conversational partner. This effect was less strong however, with the screen agent, suggesting that embodiment plays a role in this. Furthermore, results did show a correlation between social abilities as perceived by participants and some aspects of technology acceptance for both systems, but this did not relate to the more and less socially communicative conditions. Evaluating the experiments and specifically the use of our acceptance model we suggest that this particular context of robotic and screen agents for elderly users requires the development of a more appropriate acceptance model which not only features technology acceptance, but also conversational acceptance.
Lao, Songyang, Heng, Xiangan, Zhang, Guohua, Ling, Yunxiang and Wang, Peng (2009): A gestural interaction design model for multi-touch displays. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 440-446. Available online
Media platforms and devices that allow an input from a user's finger/hand touch are becoming more ubiquitous, such as Microsoft Surface and DiamondTouch, as well as numerous experimental systems in research labs. Currently the definition of touch styles is application-specific and each device/application has its own set of available touch types to be recognized as input. In this paper we attempt a comprehensive understanding of all possible touch types for touch-sensitive devices by constructing a design model for touch interaction and clarifying their characteristics. The model is composed of three structural levels (action level, motivation level and computing level) and the relationships between them (mapping). In action level, we construct a unified definition and description of all possible touch gestures, first by analyzing how a finger/hand touch on a surface can cause a particular event that can be recognized as a legitimate action, and then using this analysis we define all possible touch gestures, resulting in touch gesture taxonomy. In motivation level, we analyze and describe all the direct interactive motivation according to applications. Then we define the general principles for mapping between the action and motivation levels. In computing level, we realize the motivation and response to gestural inputs using computer languages. The model is then used to illustrate how it can be interpreted in the context of a photo management application based on DiamondTouch and iPod Touch. It allows to reuse touch types in different platforms and applications in a more systematic and generic manner than how touch has been designed so far.
Santos, G. J. D. dos, Dijk, E. M. A. G. van and Vyas, D. M. (2009): Paper-based mixed reality sketch augmentation as a conceptual design support tool. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 447-452. Available online
This undergraduate student paper explores usage of mixed reality techniques as support tools for conceptual design. A proof-of-concept was developed to illustrate this principle. Using this as an example, a small group of designers was interviewed to determine their views on the use of this technology. These interviews are the main contribution of this paper. Several interesting applications were determined, suggesting possible usage in a wide range of domains. Paper-based sketching, mixed reality and sketch augmentation techniques complement each other, and the combination results in a highly intuitive interface.
Lehtinen, Vilma, Näsänen, Jaana and Sarvas, Risto (2009): "A little silly and empty-headed": older adults' understandings of social networking sites. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 45-54. Available online
This study suggests reasons for the absence of a growing proportion of the population, the so-called baby boomers, from the otherwise highly popular social networking sites. We explore how people of this age group understand social networking sites and how these understandings fit certain aspects of their life. Designing social networking sites that match older adults' life would increase their possibilities of coping with the changes related to their age and of contributing to the information society. In a qualitative study involving use of an existing social networking site, and group and personal interviews, we found that understanding the internet as a dangerous place, and social networking sites as places of socially unacceptable behavior, hinders the use of these technologies. To include older adults, we propose arrangement of social events for getting familiarized with these services and offering of clear and simple privacy management on the sites. These actions have implications for users of all ages.
Bach, Kenneth Majlund, Jæger, Mads Gregers, Skov, Mikael B. and Thomassen, Nils Gram (2009): Interacting with in-vehicle systems: understanding, measuring, and evaluating attention. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 453-462. Available online
In-vehicle systems research is becoming a significant field as the market for in-vehicle systems continue to grow. As a consequence, researchers are increasingly concerned with opportunities and limitations of HCI in a moving vehicle. Especially aspects of attention constitute a challenge for in-vehicle systems development. This paper seeks to remedy this by defining and exemplifying attention understandings. 100 papers were classified in a two-fold perspective; under what settings are in-vehicle systems evaluated and how is driver attention measured in regard to in-vehicle systems HCI. A breakdown of the distribution of driving settings and measures is presented and the impact of driver attention is discussed. The classification revealed that most of the studies were conducted in driving simulators and real traffic driving, while lateral and longitudinal control and eye behaviour were the most used measures.
In this paper, a method of generating appropriate user interfaces at runtime is investigated. It is proposed to use the established formalism of Situation Calculus to describe and specify user interfaces. It is shown how specific features of the formalism provide many desirable properties in the design and specification of user interfaces that are adaptable to context and composed at runtime. The formalism provides a provably correct deployment, whilst giving a means of deliberation on the optimum configuration that is directly compiled through a developed Neptune scripting language. The major features of the formalism and programming language are described together with an illustration of how this has been used in an implemented e-health case study for decision support with partner institutions in breast cancer care. It is shown how pluggable decision models may be introduced and system adaptation to clinician context achieved, whilst system integrity is maintained.
Selvaraj, Nallini and Fields, Bob (2009): A grounded theory approach towards conceptualizing CIS for heterogeneous work communities. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 471-479. Available online
The notion of Common Information Space (CIS) is an area that has been gaining attention in the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) over the last few years. This paper discusses one aspect of the investigation being undertaken to develop the conceptualization of CIS pertaining to heterogeneous work communities. This is based on empirical study of collaborative decision making involving different work communities in an airport of the air traffic control setting. The theory development is founded on the Grounded Theory approach. We present some of the findings of the ongoing analysis. In particular we discuss how the Grounded Theory methodological process has been adapted to this investigation by presenting illustrations of emergent theory development at the theoretical coding phase of the process.
This paper is about the evolution of a system prototype called Pensieve whose goal is to support people's reminiscing practices. A number of technologies exist to manage memory-related content; however, these technologies tend to take a model of memory as information that leads to a focus on capture and access. Pensieve is instead based on reusing memory-laden content people already create in social media services. This idea is supported by theories of autobiographical memory, insights from interviews with eight subjects, and experiences with two prototypes deployed to ten users. These interviews and experiences suggest that people value even simple tools that support reminiscence, as well as providing both design goals and research questions around the design of tools that support people in reminiscing.
Sheridan, Jennifer G., Tompkin, James, Maciel, Abel and Roussos, George (2009): DIY design process for interactive surfaces. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 485-493. Available online
This paper charts the design and build of two interactive tabletops that use infrared (IR) illumination techniques. One table implements fiducial tracking, whilst the other implements multi-touch tracking. Trade-offs in both designs are discussed to highlight key considerations when building an interactive table. Using three key dimensions from lessons learned, we conduct a comparative analysis of both approaches. Finally, we propose a DIY Design Process to assist designers in building their own interactive table.
Biswas, Pradipta and Robinson, Peter (2009): Modelling perception using image processing algorithms. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 494-503. Available online
User modeling is widely used in HCI but there are very few systematic HCI modelling tools for people with disabilities. We are developing user models to help with the design and evaluation of interfaces for people with a wide range of abilities. We present a perception model that can work for some kinds of visually-impaired users as well as for able-bodied people. The model takes a list of mouse events, a sequence of bitmap images of an interface and locations of different objects in the interface as input, and produces a sequence of eye-movements as output. Our model can predict the visual search time for two different visual search tasks with significant accuracy for both able-bodied and visually-impaired people.
McAdam, Christopher and Brewster, Stephen A. (2009): Distal tactile feedback for text entry on tabletop computers. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 504-511. Available online
In this paper we present an initial study into the feasibility of using a mobile phone as a personal tactile display when interacting with a tabletop computer. There has been an increase in recent years in large touchscreen computers that use soft keyboards for text input. Text entry performance on such keyboards can be poor due to the lack of tactile feedback from the keys. Our approach is to use the vibration motor in a user's mobile phone to provide personal haptic feedback for interactions with the touchscreen computer. We ran an experiment to compare text entry on a touchscreen device with the tactile feedback being presented at different distal locations on the body (locations at which a user might keep a mobile device. The conditions were: no tactile feedback, feedback directly on the device, feedback at the wrist, upper arm, chest, belt and trouser pocket). The results showed that distal tactile feedback significantly increased text entry rates when presented to the wrist and upper arm. This was not at the expense of a reduction in text entry accuracy. This shows that the concept of presenting tactile feedback on a user's phone is an effective one and can improve interaction and text entry on tabletop computers.
Alsudani, Farah and Casey, Matthew (2009): The effect of aesthetics on web credibility. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 512-519. Available online
Credibility influences a user's interest in a web site. Once users perceive the credibility of a web site they will be more likely to use it. A combination of factors affects such credibility -- such as the provider, content, aesthetics, accessibility and solution of technical problems. The aesthetics of a web site can affect a user's first impressions of credibility. Experiments have shown that users can judge a web site's credibility in as little as 3.42 seconds merely on the basis of its aesthetic appeal. But what are the aesthetic factors that influence immediate judgment on web credibility? A study was conducted to ascertain these factors; first a framework of factors was suggested to develop a method focusing on the users' actual perceptions in judging credibility based on aesthetics. This was done with 30 subjects viewing 13 pairs of images of recruitment agency web sites. 'Unity' in design with its elements of balance, harmony, contrast and dominance was found to be an effective aesthetic factor resulting in immediate judgments on web credibility. These factors were presented for beginner web designers in online tutorials. This work is a result of MSc project.
Gámez, Eduardo H. Calvillo, Cairns, Paul and Cox, Anna L. (2009): From the gaming experience to the wider user experience. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 520-523. Available online
In this paper we discuss the different elements of the gaming experience and their relation to other concepts within HCI. The objective is to showcase how the different elements that form the gaming experience can be used to understand further issues regarding user experience. The objectives of games are, after all, to provide players with a positive experience. Understanding the elements that eventually lead players to have a positive experience should provide feedback about the wider user experience concept. Although video-games and non-game applications seem to be two different domains of study, in terms of experience, they both aim to improve the individual's experience.
Bird, Jon, Marshall, Paul and Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Low-fi skin vision: a case study in rapid prototyping a sensory substitution system. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 55-64. Available online
We describe the design process we have used to develop a minimal, twenty vibration motor Tactile Vision Sensory Substitution (TVSS) system which enables blind-folded subjects to successfully track and bat a rolling ball and thereby experience 'skin vision'. We have employed a low-fi rapid prototyping approach to build this system and argue that this methodology is particularly effective for building embedded interactive systems. We support this argument in two ways. First, by drawing on theoretical insights from robotics, a discipline that also has to deal with the challenge of building complex embedded systems that interact with their environments; second, by using the development of our TVSS as a case study: describing the series of prototypes that led to our successful design and highlighting what we learnt at each stage.
Craft, Brock and Cairns, Paul (2009): Sketching sketching: outlines of a collaborative design method. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 65-72. Available online
In this paper, we describe three key areas in the literature where sketching has been seen as being beneficial to designers. We applied this knowledge in the user interface design of a visualization system, conducting a qualitative study using sketching and design patterns. Our findings help to identify why sketching was useful in this context and we relate these to the literature on the efficacy of sketching in the design process.
Harper, R. (2009): From tele presence to human absence: the pragmatic construction of the human in communications systems research. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 73-82. Available online
This paper reflects on the views of the human that were oriented to in two distinct research labs and which have been used to populate an inventive landscape over the past twenty years. It suggests that there are commonalities to the views in question, making them essentially the same. Both emphasise body movement at the expense of expression and both, one could reasonably claim, derive from a conceptual dualism as regards human nature associated with Descartes and then adopted by the computer scientist, Alan Turing. The paper will argue that, whatever conceptual dualists in philosophy or computer science might want to claim or emphasise, the use of this view by the researchers in question was not because it offered an adequate ontology but because it was a pragmatically useful way of looking at the world that enabled and helped drive inventiveness. The paper will report on how this was applied in the domain of communication technologies, particularly telepresence type systems. It will remark on the benefits and limitations of this view for the inventiveness in question and how this view led to many technological innovations that have not been widely adopted and to an indifference to innovation in textually mediated communication, amongst other things. The paper will remark on the value this view might have for future research.
Edge, Darren and Ding, Xianghua (2009): Directed manipulation with respect to focal rings. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 83-92. Available online
In this paper we describe the notion of a focal ring interface: an interface comprising a centrally-located graphical ring that provides a visual focus for interaction with respect to itself and its associated representation (such as a map, media collection, or information hierarchy). Our focal rings provide an opportunity to assign independent effects to the two dimensions of a display surface, creating implicit gestural modes (e.g. navigation versus scaling) that can be dynamically switched between in the context of a single continuous stroke. A focal ring can define the origin of a Polar or Cartesian frame of reference, interpreting touch gestures directed either through and around, or horizontal and vertical to itself. We illustrate the potential for such directed manipulation with respect to focal rings through the design and evaluation of ring-centric interfaces based on a variety of physical metaphors.
Robinson, Simon, Eslambolchilar, Parisa and Jones, Matt (2009): Evaluating haptics for information discovery while walking. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 93-102. Available online
In this article we describe and evaluate a novel, low interaction cost approach to supporting the spontaneous discovery of geo-tagged information while on the move. Our mobile haptic prototype helps users to explore their environment by providing directional vibrotactile feedback based on the presence of location data. We conducted a study to investigate whether users can find these targets while walking, comparing their performance when using only haptic feedback to that when using an equivalent visual system. The results are encouraging, and here we present our findings, discussing their significance and issues relevant to the design of future systems that combine haptics with location awareness.
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1