Upcoming Courses

go to course
Quality Web Communication: The Beginner's Guide
Starts tomorrow LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
88% booked. Starts in 7 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Quality Web Communication: The Beginner's Guide
Starts tomorrow LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
88% booked. Starts in 7 days
 
 

Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference


 
Time and place:
New Orleans, Louisiana
April 28 - June 5, 1991
Editors:
Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S.
Conf. description:
The annual CHI conference is the leading international forum for the exchange of ideas and information about human-computer interaction (HCI).
Help us!
Do you know when the next conference is? If yes, please add it to the calendar!
Series:
This is a preferred venue for people like Ravin Balakrishnan, Brad A. Myers, Hiroshi Ishii, James A. Landay, and Shumin Zhai. Part of the CHI - Human Factors in Computing Systems conference series.
Other years:
Publisher:
ACM Press
EDIT

References from this conference (1991)

The following articles are from "Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference":

 what's this?

Articles

p. 1-6

Baecker, Ronald M., Small, Ian and Mander, Richard (1991): Bringing Icons to Life. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 1-6. Available online

Icons are used increasingly in interfaces because they are compact "universal" pictographic representations of computer functionality and processing. Animated icons can bring to life symbols representing complete applications or functions within an application, thereby clarifying their meaning, demonstrating their capabilities, and even explaining their method of use. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an iterative design of a set of animated painting icons that appear in the HyperCard tool palette. The design discipline restricted the animations to 10 to 20 second sequences of 22x20 pixel bit maps. User testing was carried out on two interfaces - one with the static icons, one with the animated icons. The results showed significant benefit from the animations in clarifying the purpose and functionality of the icons.

© All rights reserved Baecker et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 105-112

Helm, Richard, Marriott, Kim and Odersky, Martin (1991): Building Visual Language Parsers. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 105-112. Available online

Notepad computers promise a new input paradigm where users communicate with computers in visual languages composed of handwritten text and diagrams. A key problem to be solved before such an interface can be realized is the efficient and accurate recognition (or parsing) of handwritten input. We present techniques for building visual language parsers based on a new formalism, constrained set grammars. Constrained set grammars provide a high-level and declarative specification of visual languages and support the automatic generation of efficient parsers. These techniques have been used to build parsers for several representative visual languages.

© All rights reserved Helm et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 113-118

Howes, Andrew and Young, Richard M. (1991): Predicting the Learnability of Task-Action Mappings. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 113-118. Available online

Programmable User Models (PUMs) are tools based on psychological theory that enable interface designers to predict the usability of a proposed design. This paper presents a variant in which the PUM, implemented in Soar and incorporating the constraints of Display-based Task-Action Grammars, learns the task-action mapping by being guided by the designer during performance. We show that the more consistent and interactive the interface, the easier it is for the designer to teach the PUM the necessary task-action mapping.

© All rights reserved Howes and Young and/or ACM Press

p. 119-124

Jeffries, Robin, Miller, James R., Wharton, Cathleen and Uyeda, Kathy M. (1991): User Interface Evaluation in the Real World: A Comparison of Four Techniques. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 119-124. Available online

A user interface (UI) for a software product was evaluated prior to its release by four groups, each applying a different technique: heuristic evaluation, software guidelines, cognitive walkthroughs, and usability testing. Heuristic evaluation by several UI specialists found the most serious problems with the least amount of effort, although they also reported a large number of low-priority problems. The relative advantages of all the techniques are discussed, and suggestions for improvements in the techniques are offered.

© All rights reserved Jeffries et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 125-130

Koenemann, Jurgen and Robertson, Scott P. (1991): Expert Problem Solving Strategies for Program Comprehension. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 125-130. Available online

Program comprehension is a complex problem solving process. We report on an experiment that studies expert programmers' comprehension behavior in the context of modifying a complex PASCAL program. Our data suggests that program comprehension is best understood as a goal-oriented, hypotheses-driven problem-solving process. Programmers follow a pragmatic as-needed rather than a systematic strategy, they restrict their understanding to those parts of a program they find relevant for a given task, and they use bottom-up comprehension only for directly relevant code and in cases of missing, insufficient, or failing hypotheses. These findings have important consequences for the design of cognitively adequate computer-aided software engineering tools.

© All rights reserved Koenemann and Robertson and/or ACM Press

p. 13-19

Borning, Alan and Travers, Michael (1991): Two Approaches to Casual Interaction Over Computer and Video Networks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 13-19. Available online

We describe two systems that use interactive computer-controlled video for shared awareness and casual communication. Polyscope lets users monitor a large number of video sources simultaneously. Observers are provided with a window containing a collection of frame-grabbed bitmap images or animations. These images can be used to access additional video services, such as videophone. Vrooms is a follow-on system, which employs a strong spatial metaphor. Users can enter and leave virtual rooms. Once in a virtual room, users can see and be seen by all the other occupants, and have easy access to other video, audio, and text-based communication tools.

© All rights reserved Borning and Travers and/or ACM Press

p. 131-136

Lewis, J. Bryan, Koved, Larry and Ling, Daniel T. (1991): Dialogue Structures for Virtual Worlds. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 131-136. Available online

We describe a software architecture for virtual worlds, built on a base of multiple processes communicating through a central event-driven user interface management system. The virtual world's behavior is specified by a dialogue composed of modular subdialogues or rule sets. In order to achieve high flexibility, device remappability and reusability, the rule sets should be written as independent modules, each encapsulating its own state. Each should be designed according to its purpose in a conceptual hierarchy: it can transform a specific device into a generic device, or transform a generic device into an interaction technique, or, at the top level, map interaction techniques to actions.

© All rights reserved Lewis et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 137-144

Lohse, Jerry (1991): A Cognitive Model for the Perception and Understanding of Graphs. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 137-144. Available online

Despite the increasing importance of graphics in the design of information systems, we have only a partial understanding of how people perceive and process graphic information. This paper describes a computer program, UCIE, that simulates graphical perception. The goal of the program is to model the underlying perceptual and cognitive processes people use to decode information from a graph. The model predicts reaction time from assumptions about the logical sequence of eye fixations, STM capacity and duration limitations, and the relative level of difficulty to acquire information in each glance. The model summarizes a large body of empirical results and can be the core of an expert advisor for the construction of graphs.

© All rights reserved Lohse and/or ACM Press

p. 145-151

Lundell, Jay and Notess, Mark (1991): Human Factors in Software Development: Models, Techniques, and Outcomes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 145-151. Available online

We present the results of a survey designed to identify ways that human factors engineers have been successfully involved in software projects. Surveys describing successful and unsuccessful outcomes were returned by 14 human factors engineers and 21 software and documentation engineers at Hewlett Packard. In addition to describing the type of involvement and techniques used, respondents were also asked to define what they considered to be a successful outcome and give their views on what factors contribute to success or failure. The results of this study suggest ways in which the human factors/R&D partnership can be more effective in current development scenarios.

© All rights reserved Lundell and Notess and/or ACM Press

p. 153-160

Mackay, Wendy E. (1991): Triggers and Barriers to Customizing Software. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 153-160. Available online

One of the properties of a user interface is that it both guides and constrains the patterns of interaction between the user and the software application. Application software is increasingly designed to be "customizable" by the end user, providing specific mechanisms by which users may specify individual preferences about the software and how they will interact with it over multiple sessions. Users may thus encode and preserve their preferred patterns of use. These customizations, together with choices about which applications to use, make up the unique "software environment" for each individual. While it is theoretically possible for each user to carefully evaluate and optimize each possible customization option, this study suggests that most people do not. In fact, since time spent customizing is time spent not working, many people do not take advantage of the customization features at all. I studied the customization behavior of 51 users of a Unix software environment, over a period of four months. This paper describes the process by which users decide to customize and examines the factors that influence when and how users make those decisions. These findings have implications for both the design of software and the integration of new software into an organization.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

p. 161-166

MacKenzie, I. Scott, Sellen, Abigail and Buxton, Bill (1991): A Comparison of Input Devices in Elemental Pointing and Dragging Tasks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 161-166. Available online

An experiment is described comparing three devices (a mouse, a trackball, and a stylus with tablet) in the performance of pointing and dragging tasks. During pointing, movement times were shorter and error rates were lower than during dragging. It is shown that Fitts' law can model both tasks, and that within devices the index of performance is higher when pointing than when dragging. Device differences also appeared. The stylus displayed a higher rate of information processing than the mouse during pointing but not during dragging. The trackball ranked third for both tasks.

© All rights reserved MacKenzie et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 167-172

MacLean, Allan, Bellotti, Victoria, Young, Richard M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Reaching Through Analogy: A Design Rationale Perspective on Roles of Analogy. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 167-172. Available online

A powerful way of reaching through technology is to use analogy to make the technology transparent by exploiting the user's familiarity with other situations. However, analogy has a number of roles in user interface design in addition to the one of helping the user understand the system. In this paper we consider some of these roles and their relationship to our Design Rationale (DR) framework (MacLean et al., 1989). Our goals are to develop the DR framework by exploring the implications of explicitly taking account of analogy, and to articulate an account of the roles of analogy in design by organising them around DR concepts.

© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 173-179

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 173-179. Available online

Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efficient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective Wall for visualizing linear information by smoothly integrating detailed and contextual views. It uses hardware support for 3D interactive animation to fold wide 2D layouts into intuitive 3D visualizations that have a center panel for detail and two perspective panels for context. The resulting visualization supports efficient use of space and time.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 181-188

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1991): The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 181-188. Available online

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its rationale. The system is based on (1) the use of 3D/Rooms for increasing the capacity of immediate storage available to the user, (2) the Cognitive Co-processor scheduler-based user interface interaction architecture for coupling the user to information agents, and (3) the use of information visualization for interacting with information structure.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 189-194

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 189-194. Available online

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Emerging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive animation offer potential solutions to this problem, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualization techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The hierarchy is presented in 3D to maximize effective use of available screen space and enable visualization of the whole structure. Interactive animation is used to shift some of the user's cognitive load to the human perceptual system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 195-202

Wroblewski, Dave, McCandless, Tim and Hill, William C. (1991): DETENTE: Practical Support for Practical Action. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 195-202. Available online

Complex tasks consist of many threads of activity to remember and coordinate. Managing these threads is a significant part of problem solving. Our research attempts to find ways to assist this process. In this paper we present DETENTE, an object-oriented system to embed agendas in complex application interfaces.

© All rights reserved Wroblewski et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 203-208

Mantei, Marilyn, Baecker, Ronald M., Sellen, Abigail, Buxton, Bill, Milligan, Thomas and Wellman, Barry (1991): Experiences in the Use of a Media Space. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 203-208. Available online

A media space is a system that uses integrated video, audio, and computers to allow individuals and groups to work together despite being distributed spatially and temporally. Our media space, CAVECAT (Computer Audio Video Enhanced Collaboration And Telepresence), enables a small number of individuals or groups located in separate offices to engage in collaborative work without leaving their offices. This paper presents and summarizes our experiences during initial use of CAVECAT, including unsolved technological obstacles we have encountered, and the psychological and social impact of the technology. Where possible we discuss relevant findings from the psychological literature, and implications for design of the next-generation media space.

© All rights reserved Mantei et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 209-215

McCarthy, Joe, Miles, Victoria C. and Monk, Andrew (1991): An Experimental Study of Common Ground in Text-Based Communication. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 209-215. Available online

An experiment was performed to examine predictions from Clark's contribution theory of discourse. Pairs were asked to use a text-based synchronous messaging system to solve a problem involving the layout of a bank. Contribution theory suggests that in such text-only communication common ground will be difficult to achieve. This was shown to be the case. A parallel system, where participants could use a common report space in addition to the messaging space, significantly reduced these problems. The implications for design are discussed in terms of providing additional channels for communicating the results of discussion separate from the conversation itself.

© All rights reserved McCarthy et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 21-26

Chalfonte, Barbara L., Fish, Robert S. and Kraut, Robert E. (1991): Expressive Richness: A Comparison of Speech and Text as Media for Revision. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 21-26. Available online

Both theory and data suggest that richer, more informal, and more interactive media should be better suited for handling the more complex, equivocal, and emotional aspects of collaborative tasks. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an experiment in which participants were required to make either written or spoken annotations to a document to help a fictional co-author revise it. We seeded relatively error-free texts with errors of different scope. The results provide strong evidence that a richer -- in the sense of a more expressive -- medium is especially valuable for the more complex, controversial, and social aspects of a collaborative task. Subjects stated that they preferred to use voice to comment on higher-level issues in a document and to use text to deal with lower-level problems of spelling and grammar. When subjects' annotation modalities were restricted, using written annotations led them to comment on more local problems in the text, while using speech led them to comment on higher level concerns. When they did use written annotations to comment on global problems, they were less successful than when they used spoken annotations. Finally, when they offered spoken annotations, they were more likely to add features, such as personal pronouns and explanation, that made their comments more equivocal and socially communicative. These results indicate the uses to which systems that provide voice annotation are likely to be put.

© All rights reserved Chalfonte et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 217-224

Minneman, Scott and Bly, Sara A. (1991): Managing a trois: A Study of a Multi-User Drawing Tool in Distributed Design Work. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 217-224. Available online

A multi-user drawing tool was used by participants in a distributed design exercise conducted in a multi-media working environment. The goal of the study was to explore how observations from our earlier studies of shared drawing in two-person design activity would hold up when three participants worked together. Additionally, the study provided opportunities to contrast video/audio connections with audio-only connections and to discover new behaviors that emerge in the use of new technologies. Participants successfully used the shared drawing system with no observed difficulties attributable to the addition of a third user. Audio-only connections appeared to adequately support this work activity, but details of the participants' interactions in the exercise raised questions that deserve further study. Finally, observations suggest that drawing tools such as the one reported here may offer support for alternative forms of participation in collaborative work.

© All rights reserved Minneman and and/or ACM Press

p. 225-231

Muller, Michael J. (1991): PICTIVE - An Exploration in Participatory Design. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 225-231. Available online

This paper describes PICTIVE, an experimental participatory design technique that is intended to enhance user participation in the design process. PICTIVE combines low-tech objects with high(er)-tech video recording. The low-tech objects -- i.e., non-computer representations of system functionality -- are intended to insure that all participants have equal opportunity to contribute their ideas. The video recording makes record-keeping easy, reduces social distance during the design session, and may give rise to informal video "design documents." The session proceeds by a kind of brainstorming, with the low-tech objects used to express each participant's ideas to the others. This paper describes our initial experiences with the PICTIVE technique, informal analyses about why the technique works, and several Bellcore projects and products to which it has been applied.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

p. 232-236

Mulligan, Robert M., Altom, Mark W. and Simkin, David K. (1991): User Interface Design in the Trenches: Some Tips on Shooting from the Hip. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 232-236. Available online

The last decade of research and practice in user interface design has given us some good models for designing user interfaces. Getting input from users early and continuously throughout the design process, using rapid prototyping and iterative design techniques, and conducting formal usability testing are now proven methods for assuring good user interfaces. In the real world, however, we often work on projects where it is difficult to put these methods into practice. In this paper we will describe some strategies for making the best possible user interface design decisions given extremely tight schedules, shifting market priorities, and other typical constraints.

© All rights reserved Mulligan et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 237-242

Murakami, Kouichi and Taguchi, Hitomi (1991): Gesture Recognition Using Recurrent Neural Networks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 237-242. Available online

A gesture recognition method for Japanese sign language is presented. We have developed a posture recognition system using neural networks which could recognize a finger alphabet of 42 symbols. We then developed a gesture recognition system where each gesture specifies a word. Gesture recognition is more difficult than posture recognition because it has to handle dynamic processes. To deal with dynamic processes we use a recurrent neural network. Here, we describe a gesture recognition method which can recognize continuous gesture. We then discuss the results of our research.

© All rights reserved Murakami and Taguchi and/or ACM Press

p. 243-249

Myers, Brad A. (1991): Graphical Techniques in a Spreadsheet for Specifying User Interfaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 243-249. Available online

Many modern user interface development environments use constraints to connect graphical objects. Constraints are relationships that are declared once and then maintained by the system. Often, systems provide graphical, iconic, or demonstrational techniques for specifying some constraints, but these are incapable of expressing all desired relationships, and it is always necessary to allow the user interface designer to write code to specify complex constraints. The spreadsheet interface described here, called C32, provides the programmer with the full power of writing constraint code in the underlying programming language, but it is significantly easier to use. Unlike other spreadsheets tools for graphics, C32 automatically generates appropriate object references from mouse clicks in graphics windows and uses inferencing and demonstrational techniques to make constructing and copying constraints easier. In addition, C32 also supports monitoring and debugging interfaces by watching values in the spreadsheet while the user interface is running.

© All rights reserved Myers and/or ACM Press

p. 251-256

Myers, Brad A. (1991): Text Formatting by Demonstration. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 251-256. Available online

In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable. For example, if the user wants to change the formatting and content of all the chapter headings or page headings, each one must be individually edited. If they had been generated by macros, then editing the macro definition would change them all at once. This paper describes the design for a demonstrational text formatter that allows the user to directly manipulate the formatting of one example, and then the system automatically creates the macro by generalizing the example. This technique makes the formatting for headers, itemized lists, tables, bibliographic references, and many other parts of documents significantly easier to specify and edit.

© All rights reserved Myers and/or ACM Press

p. 257-263

Palmiter, Susan and Elkerton, Jay (1991): An Evaluation of Animated Demonstrations for Learning Computer-Based Tasks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 257-263. Available online

Animated demonstrations are real-time instantiations of computer-based procedures. They appear to be a natural way of helping people learn direct manipulation interfaces, yet we know little about their efficacy. Carefully matched animated demonstrations, procedural textual instructions, and a combination of demonstrations and spoken text were compared. The demonstration groups were faster and more accurate when learning procedural tasks, but seven days later, the text group was faster and as accurate when performing identical and similar tasks. Apparently, the processing of animated demonstrations may not be sufficient for retention and transfer of interface procedures. Even with accompanying text provided, the simplicity of using demonstrations may encourage mimicry and disregard of text.

© All rights reserved Palmiter and Elkerton and/or ACM Press

p. 265-270

Pausch, Randy (1991): Virtual Reality on Five Dollars a Day. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 265-270. Available online

Virtual reality systems using head-mounted displays and glove input are gaining popularity but their cost prohibits widespread use. We have developed a system using an 80386 IBM-PC (TM), a Polhemus 3Space Isotrak (TM), two Reflection Technology Private Eye (TM) displays, and a Mattel Power Glove (TM). For less than $5,000, we have created an effective vehicle for developing interaction techniques in virtual reality. Our system displays monochrome wire frames of objects with a spatial resolution of 720 by 280, the highest resolution head-mounted system published to date. We have confirmed findings by other researchers that low-latency interaction is significantly more important than high-quality graphics or stereoscopy. We have also found it useful to display reference objects to our user, specifically a ground plane for reference and a vehicle containing the user.

© All rights reserved Pausch and/or ACM Press

p. 27-32

Coutaz, Jolle and Balbo, Sandrine (1991): Applications: A Dimension Space for User Interface Management Systems. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 27-32. Available online

This article presents an abstract space of dimensions which characterize the behavior of applications (i.e. functional cores) with regard to UIMS components. These dimensions such as responsiveness, accessibility, and instantiability, constitute a conceptual framework which captures the notion of functional core in terms adequate for UIMS designers. The dimension space may also be viewed as a requirements list for designing new UIMSs as well as a set of criteria for evaluating existing UIMSs.

© All rights reserved Coutaz and and/or ACM Press

p. 271-275

Pittman, James A. (1991): Recognizing Handwritten Text. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 271-275. Available online

Notebook computers, using stylus input, are currently a hot topic among PC manufacturers. Handwriting recognition may be an important component of such systems, but only if everyday sloppy handwriting can be accommodated. If recognizers require unnaturally neat or boxed character input, such systems may fail in the marketplace. Neural nets have shown excellent performance at handwriting recognition. I present three neural net approaches to recognizing lines of English text: one using 2D image input, one using stroke sequence input, and one using context to combine the outputs of the other two networks. These networks can be combined to form a recognition engine that will handle natural lines of handwritten English text, including handprint, cursive script, and mixtures of both.

© All rights reserved Pittman and/or ACM Press

p. 277-283

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. and Sweeney, Christine (1991): A View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 277-283. Available online

A prime attraction of object-oriented programming languages is the possibility of reusing code. We examine the support provided by Smalltalk to programmers attempting to incorporate an existing class into a new design, focussing on issues of usage examples, object-specific analysis, how-to-use-it information, and object connections. We then describe a View Matcher for reuse, a tool that documents reusable classes through a set of coordinated views onto concrete usage examples; in three scenarios, we illustrate how the tool addresses the issues raised in our analysis of reuse in Smalltalk.

© All rights reserved Rosson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 285-291

Rudnicky, Alexander I. and Hauptmann, Alexander G. (1991): Models for Evaluating Interaction Protocols in Speech Recognition. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 285-291. Available online

Recognition errors complicate the assessment of speech systems. This paper presents a new approach to modeling spoken language interaction protocols, based on finite Markov chains. An interaction protocol, prescribed by the interface design, defines a set of primitive transaction steps and the order of their execution. The efficiency of an interface depends on the interaction protocol as well as the cost of each different transaction step. Markov chains provide a simple and computationally efficient method for modeling errorful systems. They allow for detailed comparisons between different interaction protocols and between different modalities. The method is illustrated by application to example protocols.

© All rights reserved Rudnicky and Hauptmann and/or ACM Press

p. 293-299

Sebrechts, Marc M. and Swartz, Merryanna L. (1991): Question Asking as a Tool for Novice Computer Skill Acquisition. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 293-299. Available online

Two experiments examined the utility of a menu-based question-construction help system as part of basic instruction for UNIX. The first experiment indicated that novice or naive users have great difficulty formulating their own questions; a menu-based interface that helps structure questions increased question asking and improved performance during training. A second experiment demonstrated that initial learning benefits more from "procedural" than from "causal" questions. A retention test showed that "correct response" feedback, when coupled with an appropriate problem-solving learning environment, can produce performance comparable to that in the question asking conditions; such feedback, however, did not provide equivalent understanding of the system. These results are discussed in the context of user models of the system and the potential role of constraint in designing question-asking systems.

© All rights reserved Sebrechts and Swartz and/or ACM Press

p. 301-305

Siochi, Antonio C. and Hix, Deborah (1991): A Study of Computer-Supported User Interface Evaluation Using Maximal Repeating Pattern Analysis. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 301-305. Available online

Maximal repeating pattern (MRP) analysis is a recently developed user interface evaluation technique that uses an algorithm to analyze transcripts of user sessions by detecting repeated user actions. Encouraged by results of an initial study of the MRP technique, we conducted a study in which we evaluated a simple prototype interface using both the MRP technique and observation. Interface problems found by observation were also found by MRP analysis. Although the MRP algorithm produced large amounts of data that an interface evaluator had to analyze, we found that by mapping raw user inputs in the transcripts into more abstract classes via prefiltering, we could perform more useful MRP analyses.

© All rights reserved Siochi and Hix and/or ACM Press

p. 307-314

Stasko, John T. (1991): Using Direct Manipulation to Build Algorithm Animations by Demonstration. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 307-314. Available online

Dance is a tool that facilitates direct manipulation, demonstrational development of animations for the Tango algorithm animation system. Designers sketch out target actions in a graphical-editing fashion, then Dance automatically generates the code that will carry out those actions. Dance promotes ease-of-design, rapid prototyping, and increased experimentation. It also introduces a methodology that could be used to incorporate demonstrational animation design into areas such as computer assisted instruction and user interface development.

© All rights reserved Stasko and/or ACM Press

p. 315-322

Tang, John C. and Minneman, Scott (1991): VideoWhiteboard: Video Shadows to Support Remote Collaboration. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 315-322. Available online

VideoWhiteboard is a prototype tool to support remote shared drawing activity. It provides a whiteboard-sized shared drawing space for collaborators who are located in remote sites. It allows each user to see the drawings and a shadow of the gestures of collaborators at the remote site. The development of VideoWhiteboard is based on empirical studies of collaborative drawing activity, including experiences in using the VideoDraw shared drawing prototype. VideoWhiteboard, enables remote collaborators to work together much as if they were sharing a whiteboard, and in some ways allows them to work together even more closely than if they were in the same room.

© All rights reserved Tang and Minneman and/or ACM Press

p. 323-328

Tatsukawa, Kosuke (1991): Graphical Toolkit Approach to User Interaction Description. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 323-328. Available online

This paper proposes a new model which describes the presentation and behaviour of user interfaces. The behaviour of the user interface is specified as an event flow graph consisting of components as its nodes and the paths through which events are sent as its edges. A meta-level function is introduced to describe user interfaces whose constituent components change through user interaction. The reusability of objects is augmented by representing their presentation and behaviour as a connected subgraph of the event flow graph. User interface development systems based on this model can create the user interface under a totally visual environment.

© All rights reserved Tatsukawa and/or ACM Press

p. 329-333

Tetzlaff, Linda and Schwartz, David R. (1991): The Use of Guidelines in Interface Design. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 329-333. Available online

We studied the use of an evolving interface style book to evaluate the role of such guidelines in the development of style-conforming interface designs. Although the designs were judged to be generally conforming, study participants had significant difficulty in interpreting the guidelines. Our designers were manifestly task oriented and impatient with extraneous material. They depended heavily on the pictorial examples, often to the exclusion of the accompanying text. We conclude that dependency on guidelines should be minimized, and that guidelines should be developed primarily to complement toolkits and interactive examples, focussing on information intrinsically unavailable through those vehicles.

© All rights reserved Tetzlaff and Schwartz and/or ACM Press

p. 33-39

Cypher, Allen (1991): EAGER: Programming Repetitive Tasks by Example. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 33-39. Available online

Eager is a Programming by Example system for the HyperCard environment. It constantly monitors the user's activities, and when it detects an iterative pattern, it writes a program to complete the iteration. Programming by Example systems create generalized programs from examples provided by the user. They are faced with the problem of how to display these abstract procedures. Eager utilizes a new interface technique, called anticipation, to show how it has generalized: when it detects a repetitive activity, it highlights menus and objects on the screen to indicate what it expects the user to do next. As users continue to perform their activity, they will notice that the objects they are about to select have already been highlighted by the system. When it becomes apparent that Eager knows how to perform the task correctly, they can tell Eager to complete the task for them. The use of anticipation allows Eager to interfere minimally with the users' normal activities.

© All rights reserved Cypher and/or ACM Press

p. 335-341

Thovtrup, Henrik and Nielsen, Jakob (1991): Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 335-341. Available online

User interface standards can be hard to use for developers. In a laboratory experiment, 26 students achieved only 71% compliance with a two page standard; many violations were due to influence from previous experience with non-standard systems. In a study of a real company's standard, developers were only able to find 4 to 12 actual deviations in a sample system, and three real products broke between 7 and 12 of the 22 mandatory rules in the standard. Designers were found to rely heavily on the examples in the standard and their experience with other user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Thovtrup and Nielsen and/or ACM Press

p. 343-350

Ueda, Hirotada, Miyatake, Takafumi and Yoshizawa, Satoshi (1991): IMPACT: An Interactive Natural-Motion-Picture Dedicated Multimedia Authoring System. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 343-350. Available online

A new approach to achieving a natural-motion-picture dedicated multi-media authoring system is proposed. The main point of this approach, discussed in this paper, is that the user's environment or interface is improved to encourage user's creativity, with image processing and recognition technology. According to the discussion, a prototype motion picture authoring system that has several image-processing functions is developed. The newly developed functions include object extraction of the picture, semi-automatic visualization of motion pictures structure, and certain descriptions of the scene. Result of using the prototype shows the appropriateness of the proposed approach.

© All rights reserved Ueda et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 351-359

Wenzel, Elizabeth M., Wightman, Frederic L. and Kistler, Doris J. (1991): Localization with Non-Individualized Virtual Acoustic Display Cues. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 351-359. Available online

A recent development in advanced interface technologies is the virtual acoustic display, a system that presents three-dimensional auditory information over headphones [20]. The utility of such a display depends on the accuracy with which listeners can localize the virtual, or simulated, sound sources. Synthesis of virtual sources involves the digital filtering of stimuli using filters based on acoustic Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) measured in human ear-canals. In practise, measurement of the HRTFs of each potential user of a 3-D display may not be feasible. Thus, a critical research question is whether listeners from the general population can obtain adequate localization cues stimuli based on non-individualized filters. In the present study, 16 inexperienced listeners judged the apparent spatial location (azimuth and elevation) of wideband noisebursts that were presented either over loudspeakers in the free-field (an anechoic or non-reverberent environment) or over headphones. The headphone stimuli were synthesized using HRTFs from a representative subject in a previous study [23]. Localization of both free-field and virtual sources was quite accurate for 12 of the subjects, 2 showed poor elevation accuracy in both free-field and headphone conditions, and 2 showed degraded elevation accuracy only with virtual sources. High rates of confusion errors (reversals in judgements of azimuth and elevation) were also observed for some of the subjects and tended to increase for the virtual sources. In general, the data suggest that most listeners can obtain useful directional information from an auditory display without requiring the use of individually-tailored HRTFs, particularly for the dimension of azimuth. However, the high rates of confusion errors remain problematic. Several stimulus characteristics which may help to minimize these errors are discussed.

© All rights reserved Wenzel et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 361-367

Whittaker, Steve, Brennan, Susan and Clark, Herbert H. (1991): Co-Ordinating Activity: An Analysis of Interaction in Computer-Supported Co-Operative Work. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 361-367. Available online

We examined mediated communication using a shared electronic Whiteboard with and without the addition of a speech channel. The 3 users were not co-present. There were two major findings: (a) permanent media such as the Whiteboard enable users to construct shared data structures around which to organise their activity, and (b) this permanence allows users to abandon some (but not all) of the turn-taking commonly used in spoken conversation and to organise their activities in a highly parallel manner. With the addition of a speech channel, people still used the Whiteboard to construct shared data structures that make up the CONTENT of these communications, while speech was used for coordinating the PROCESS of communication.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 369-372

Brennan, Paul, Deffner, Gerhard, Lawrence, Debbie, Marics, Monica, Schwab, Eileen and Franzke, Marita (1991): Should We or Shouldn't We Use Spoken Commands in Voice Interfaces?. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 369-372. Available online

The current usefulness of voice recognition seems suspect given today's level of commercial voice recognition technology. The panel will discuss what improvements are necessary to make voice recognition an acceptable input medium for general consumer applications.

© All rights reserved Brennan et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 373-376

Curtis, Bill, Kuntz, Roy, Curtis, Bill, Hollan, James D., Mountford, S. Joy and Collier, George (1991): Retrospective on the MCC Human Interface Laboratory. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 373-376. Available online

On July 27, 1990 the participants in MCC's Advanced Computer Technology Program decided to terminate MCC's Human Interface Laboratory. This panel will present the technical and organizational lessons learned in the rise and fall of MCC's Human Interface Laboratory.

© All rights reserved Curtis et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 377-380

Hammond, Nick, Barnard, Philip J., Coutaz, Jolle, Harrison, Michael, MacLean, Allan and Young, Richard M. (1991): Modelling User, System and Design: Results of a Scenarios Matrix Exercise. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 377-380. Available online

This panel will discuss the results of an exercise aimed at investigating how various modelling approaches from Cognitive Science and Software Engineering can be integrated into HCI design. Each panelist will outline their approach and present their approach's performance on two agreed upon design scenarios.

© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 381-383

Laurel, Brenda K., Bates, Joseph, Don, Abbe and Strickland, Rachel (1991): Interface and Narrative Arts: Contributions from Narrative, Drama, and Film. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 381-383. Available online

This panel will explore both theoretical and practical contributions from the disciplines of narrative, drama, and film to the field of interface design. Example applications in information retrieval, art, education, simulation, entertainment, and programming will be explored.

© All rights reserved Laurel et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 385-388

Mountford, S. Joy, Milano, Dominic, Mitchell, Peter, Shiphorst, Thecla and Zimmerman, Paul (1991): A Day in the Life of.... In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 385-388. Available online

Case studies will be used to show how and where various expressive "artists" do or do not use technology in their work place. The culmination of this panel will be made in the form of a multi-media presentation created by the panelists during the conference.

© All rights reserved Mountford et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 389-392

Muller, Michael J., Blomberg, Jeanette L., Carter, Kathleen, Dykstra, Elizabeth A., Madsen, Kim Halskov and Greenbaum, Joan (1991): Participatory Design in Britain and North America: Responses to the. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 389-392. Available online

This panel will focus on participatory design work conducted outside Scandinavia. Each panelist will focus on what accommodations were required in participatory design techniques to meet the needs of British and North American environments. Panelists will also discuss accommodations that occurred in these environments in response to experiences with participatory design.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 393-396

Myers, Brad A., Cypher, Allen, Maulsby, David, Smith, David Canfield and Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Demonstrational Interfaces: Coming Soon?. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 393-396. Available online

A "demonstrational interface" watches while the user executes conventional direct manipulation actions, creating a general abstraction from the specific examples. The panel will discuss how demonstrational interfaces can be used, and when and whether they will become more common.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 397-398

Samuelson, Pamela, Clapes, Anthony L., Jacobs, Michael, Lesk, Michael E. and Warren, Bruce (1991): Legal Debate on the Copyright Look and Feel Lawsuits: The Sequel. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 397-398. Available online

This panel will provide an opportunity to hear attorneys and members of the CHI community debate the pros and cons of "strong" copyright protection for user interfaces to computer programs. The lawyer debaters will discuss some of the judicial decisions that have been issued since the first CHI legal debate in 1989.

© All rights reserved Samuelson et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 399-401

Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Carroll, John M., Young, Richard M. and Long, John (1991): HCI Theory on Trial. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 399-401. Available online

This panel will examine the potential of artifact theory to deliver usable designs in contention with two rival theories, the HCI conception of engineering, and cognitive modelling. The aim will be to explore how well artifact theory and alternative approaches can deliver good design and the contribution the theory makes to the process and product of design.

© All rights reserved Sutcliffe et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 403-405

Mackay, Wendy E. (1991): Ethical Issues in the Use of Video: Is it Time to Establish Guidelines? (SIGCHI Discussion Forum). In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 403-405. Available online

Researchers and designers increasingly use video to obtain information about how people interact with technology. This session provides a forum for discussion: to identify ethical issues, learn from invited guests about existing practice in other fields, and determine whether or not the Human-Computer Interaction community should develop its own set of guidelines for the ethical use of video.

© All rights reserved Mackay and/or ACM Press

p. 407-414

Nonogaki, Hajime and Ueda, Hirotada (1991): FRIEND21 Project: A Construction of 21st Century Human Interface. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 407-414. Available online

FRIEND21 is a Japanese national project to develop the interface architecture for computer machinery for the 21st century information environment. FRIEND21 stands for Future Personalized Information Environment Development. The member companies consist of three different industrial groups: computer manufacturers, home electronics companies, and publishing or printing companies. FRIEND21 is proposing a new design concept for constructing the human interface. This will be implemented using multiple metaphors for people's direct engagement into the environment called Contextual Metaphors and a new software architecture called the Agency Model.

© All rights reserved Nonogaki and Ueda and/or ACM Press

p. 41-48

Dewan, Prasun and Choudhary, Rajiv (1991): Flexible User Interface Coupling in a Collaborative System. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 41-48. Available online

An important issue in collaborative systems is the kind of sharing or coupling among the various windows displaying a shared workspace. We have developed a flexible coupling model that allows users to control several aspects of the coupling among shared windows including which values in these windows are coupled, when changes to these values are broadcast and received, how "correct" a value must be before it is broadcast or received, which users see the same view of a value, and whether a user can specify coupling parameters for other users. In this paper, we argue that a collaborative system must support flexible coupling, identify some of the issues in the design of systems supporting flexible coupling, describe and illustrate our approach to flexible coupling, and present conclusions and directions for future work.

© All rights reserved Dewan and Choudhary and/or ACM Press

p. 415-416

Barfield, Lon, Boeve, Eddy and Pemberton, Steven (1991): The Views User-Interface System. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 415-416. Available online

p. 417-418

Bauersfeld, Penny and Slater, Jodi L. (1991): User-Oriented Color Interface Design: Direct Manipulation of Color in Context. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 417-418. Available online

p. 419-420

Chien, Jen-Hsien, Fu, Sheng-Tsai, Horowitz, Ellis and Rouff, Christopher (1991): RPP: A System for Prototyping Interfaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 419-420. Available online

p. 421-422

Dzida, Wolfgang, Freitag, Regine and Valder, Wilhelm (1991): ERGO-Shell: A UNIX Interface for Task Preparation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 421-422. Available online

p. 423-424

Frishberg, Nancy, Laff, Mark, Desrosiers, Moe R., Koons, W. Randall and Kelley, J. F. (1991): John Cocke: A Retrospective by Friends (An Interactive Media Scrapbook). In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 423-424. Available online

p. 425-426

Lai, Kum-Yew and Malone, Thomas W. (1991): Object Lens: Letting End-Users Create Cooperative Work Applications. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 425-426. Available online

p. 427-428

Rieman, John, Davies, Susan, Hair, D. Charles, Esemplare, Mary, Polson, Peter G. and Lewis, Clayton H. (1991): An Automated Cognitive Walkthrough. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 427-428. Available online

p. 429-430

Ropa, Amanda (1991): Computers as Communicators: Designing a Multimedia Interface that Facilitates Cultural Understanding among Sixth Graders. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 429-430. Available online

p. 431-432

Rosson, Mary Beth, Carroll, John M. and Sweeney, Christine (1991): Demonstrating a View Matcher for Reusing Smalltalk Classes. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 431-432. Available online

p. 433-434

Schultz, Jamie (1991): A Graphical Reflection Notation Used in an Intelligent Discovery World Tutoring System. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 433-434. Available online

p. 435-436

Sebrechts, Marc M., Jaffe, C. Carl and Lynch, Patrick J. (1991): Hypermedia and Echocardiography: An Interface Design for Guided Discovery. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 435-436. Available online

p. 437-438

Shaw, Mildred G. and Gaines, Brian R. (1991): Supporting Personal Networking Through Computer Networking. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 437-438. Available online

p. 439-440

Singley, Mark K. (1991): Molehill: An Instructional System for Smalltalk Programming. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 439-440. Available online

p. 441-442

Wolf, Catherine G., Rhyne, James R., Zorman, Lorna A. and Ossher, Harold (1991): WE-MET (Window Environment-Meeting Enhancement Tools). In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 441-442. Available online

p. 443-444

Bier, Eric A. and Pier, Ken (1991): Documents as User Interfaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 443-444. Available online

p. 445-446

Cypher, Allen (1991): EAGER: Programming Repetitive Tasks by Example. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 445-446. Available online

p. 447-448

Don, Abbe, Oren, Tim and Laurel, Brenda K. (1991): Guides 3.0. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 447-448. Available online

p. 449-450

Feiner, Steven K. and McKeown, Kathleen R. (1991): COMET: Generating Coordinated Multimedia Explanations. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 449-450. Available online

p. 451-452

Kurlander, David and Feiner, Steven K. (1991): Editable Graphical Histories: The Video. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 451-452. Available online

p. 453-454

Lunati, Jean-Michel and Rudnicky, Alexander I. (1991): Spoken Language Interfaces: The OM System. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 453-454. Available online

p. 455-456

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 455-456. Available online

p. 457-458

Morch, Anders and Girgensohn, Andreas (1991): JANUS: Basic Concepts and Sample Dialog. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 457-458. Available online

p. 459-460

Plaisant, Catherine and Shneiderman, Ben (1991): Scheduling ON-OFF Home Control Devices. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 459-460. Available online

p. 461-462

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 461-462. Available online

p. 463

Thiel, David (1991): The Cue Ball as Part of a Gestural Interface. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 463. Available online

p. 465-466

Zanden, Brad Vander and Myers, Brad A. (1991): The Lapidary Graphical Interface Design Tool. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 465-466. Available online

p. 467-468

Baecker, Ronald M., Mantei, Marilyn, Buxton, Bill and Fiume, Eugene (1991): The University of Toronto Dynamic Graphics Project. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 467-468. Available online

p. 469-470

Cohen, Philip R. (1991): Computer Dialogue Laboratory, SRI International. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 469-470. Available online

p. 471-472

Ehrlich, Kate (1991): Human Interface at SUN (East). In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 471-472. Available online

p. 473-474

Gomoll, Kathleen M. (1991): Apple Computer's Human Interface Group: Advanced Technology Group. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 473-474. Available online

p. 475-476

Johnson-Laird, P. N. (1991): Human Computer Interaction Laboratory, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 475-476. Available online

p. 477-478

Kyng, Morten (1991): The System Work Group, Computer Science Department, Aarhus University. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 477-478. Available online

p. 479-480

Richards, John T. (1991): Research in HCI and Usability at IBM's User Interface Institute. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 479-480. Available online

p. 481-482

Rivers, Rod (1991): Human Computer Interaction Division Logica Cambridge Ltd., UK. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 481-482. Available online

p. 483-484

Waterworth, John A. and Motiwalla, Juzar (1991): HCI Research at the Institute of Systems Science. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 483-484. Available online

p. 485

Benel, Russell A. (1991): User Participation in Large Systems Development. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 485. Available online

p. 486

Kvavik, Karen H. (1991): User-Centered Processes and Evaluation in Product Development. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 486. Available online

p. 487

Rosenbaum, Stephanie (1991): Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 487. Available online

p. 489

Ackerman, Mark S. (1991): Shared Expertise and the Answer Garden. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 489. Available online

p. 49-54

Erickson, Thomas and Salomon, Gitta (1991): Designing a Desktop Information System: Observations and Issues. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 49-54. Available online

This paper describes the first phase of a project to create a desktop information system for general users. The approach was to observe the problems, needs, and practices of several groups of information users, and to use these observations to drive the interface design of a prototype. In the first section of the paper, we describe problems which arise in the use of a relevance feedback system for information retrieval. In the second and third sections, we look at the needs and practices of users of both electronic and paper-based information systems. In the final section, we briefly describe the resulting design.

© All rights reserved Erickson and Salomon and/or ACM Press

p. 490

Hewson, Rachel (1991): Deciding Through Doing: The Role of Sketching in Typographic Design. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 490. Available online

p. 491

Lohse, Jerry (1991): A Cognitive Model for Understanding Graphical Perception. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 491. Available online

p. 492

Redmiles, David F. (1991): Supporting Software Reuse through Examples. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. p. 492. Available online

p. 493-496

(1991): . In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 493-496.

p. 55-62

Fischer, Gerhard, Henninger, Scott and Redmiles, David F. (1991): Intertwining Query Construction and Relevance Evaluation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 55-62. Available online

Traditional information access systems generally assume that a well-articulated query exists, and that once an object is found, it can be readily understood. Although this assumption works for retrieving text objects, in more complex domains, such as retrieving software objects for reuse, queries must be incrementally constructed and support is needed for comprehending what is retrieved. Therefore, information access methods need support for query construction and relevance evaluation as an integral part of the location process. Two prototype systems are described for supporting this need: CODEFINDER for query construction and EXPLAINER for explanations of program examples. These systems interact to support the processes of locating and comprehending software objects for reuse.

© All rights reserved Fischer et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 63-70

Fischer, Gerhard and Stevens, Curt (1991): Information Access in Complex, Poorly Structured Information Spaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 63-70. Available online

Large information spaces present several problems including information overload. This research effort focuses on the domain of Usenet News, an open access computer-based bulletin board system that distributes messages and software. A conceptual framework is developed that shows the need for (a) flexible organization of information access interfaces and (b) personalized structure to deal with vocabulary mismatches. An operational innovative system building effort (INFOSCOPE) instantiates the framework. In INFOSCOPE, users can evolve the predefined system structure to suit their own semantic interpretations. The approach taken by INFOSCOPE differs from other approaches by requiring less up-front structuring by message senders.

© All rights reserved Fischer and Stevens and/or ACM Press

p. 7-12

Bell, Brigham, Rieman, John and Lewis, Clayton H. (1991): Usability Testing of a Graphical Programming System: Things We Missed in a Programming Walkthrough. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 7-12. Available online

Traditional programming language design has focussed on efficiency and expressiveness, with minimal attention to the ease with which a programmer can translate task requirements into statements in the language, a characteristic we call "facility." The programming walkthrough is a method for assessing the facility of language design before implementation. We describe the method and its predictions for a graphical programming language, ChemTrains. These predictions are contrasted with protocols of subjects attempting to write their first ChemTrains program. We conclude that the walkthrough is a valuable aid at the design stage, but it is not infallible. Our results also suggest that it may not be enough for programmers to know how to solve a problem; they must also understand why the solution will succeed.

© All rights reserved Bell et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 71-78

Furnas, George W. (1991): New Graphical Reasoning Models for Understanding Graphical Interfaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 71-78. Available online

This paper aspires to make three points: (1) that certain graphical interfaces are especially easy to learn and use, (2) that special graphical deduction / computation systems are possible, and (3) that perhaps points (1) and (2) are intimately related, i.e., that graphical interfaces may be especially useful because they engage special human graphical reasoning processes.

© All rights reserved Furnas and/or ACM Press

p. 79-84

Gaver, William W. (1991): Technology Affordances. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 79-84.

p. 85-90

Gaver, William W., Smith, Raoul N. and O'Shea, Tim (1991): Effective Sounds in Complex Systems: The ARKola Simulation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 85-90. Available online

We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

p. 91-97

Grudin, Jonathan (1991): CSCW: The Convergence of Two Development Contexts. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 91-97. Available online

CSCW research and groupware development represent converging interests from two contexts of interactive systems development. Issues of group dynamics and organizational impact have primarily been explored in the in-house development of systems for organizations -- systems that support organizational goals. Similar issues are now being encountered by researchers and developers with a product development orientation who are seeking to support small groups. We have not integrated effectively the interests, experiences and approaches arising in these two development contexts. To do so, we have to go beyond what is shared and explore the differences.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

p. 99-103

Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1991): Disembodied Conduct: Communication Through Video in a Multi-Media Office Environment. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 99-103. Available online

In the following paper we discuss some findings of recent research concerning the organisation of video mediated communication in collaborative work in a dispersed, multi-media office environment. Based on the detailed, naturalistic analysis of video-recordings of individuals collaborating on various tasks through audio-visual links, we describe the ways in which the technology transforms nonverbal and verbal conduct, introducing certain asymmetries into the social interaction between users. It is argued that such communicative asymmetries may facilitate, rather than hinder, certain forms of collaborative work and provide a foundation for the emergence of new forms of sociability in the work place. What of the hands? We require, promise, call, dismiss, threaten, pray, supplicate, deny, refuse, interrogate, admire, number, confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct, admire, number, confess, repent, confound, blush, doubt, instruct, command, incite, encourage, swear, testify, accuse, condemn, absolve, abuse, despise, defy, flatter, applaud, bless, humiliate, mock, reconcile, recommend, exalt, entertain, congratulate, complain, grieve, despair, wonder, exclaim, .... There is not a motion that does not speak and in an intelligible language without discipline, and a public language that everyone understands. Montaigne 1952 pp. 215-216

© All rights reserved Heath and Luff and/or ACM Press




 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 

User-contributed notes

Give us your opinion! Do you have any comments/additions
that you would like other visitors to see?

 
comment You (your email) say: Aug 26th, 2014
#1
Aug 26
Add a thoughtful commentary or note to this page ! 
 

your homepage, facebook profile, twitter, or the like
will be spam-protected
How many?
= e.g. "6"
User ExperienceBy submitting you agree to the Site Terms
 
 
 
 

Changes to this page (conference)

28 May 2003: Added

Page Information

Page maintainer:
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/conferences/proceedings_of_the_acm_chi_91_human_factors_in_computing_systems_conference.html

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Quality Web Communication: The Beginner's Guide
Starts tomorrow LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
88% booked. Starts in 7 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Quality Web Communication: The Beginner's Guide
Starts tomorrow LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
88% booked. Starts in 7 days