What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1
Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
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OZCHI is Australia’s leading forum for research and development in all areas of Human-Computer Interaction. OZCHI attracts an international community of practitioners, researchers, academics and students from a wide range of disciplines including user experience designers, information architects, software engineers, human factors experts, information systems analysts, and social scientists.
The following articles are from "Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction":
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Dayton, Tom and Mcfarland, Al (1995): A Participatory Methodology for Driving OO GUI Design from User Needs:. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 10-11.
This intermediate-to-advanced, two-full-days tutorial gives participants hands-on experience in a graphical user interlace (GUI) design methodology for translating user data (users' task requirements and user-centred model of the data) into an object-oriented (00) GUI design that conforms to multiple GUI platform styles. The participants' first activity is hands-on practice in a participatory method for turning user needs that exist only in users' heads, into concrete user requirements represented as task flows. The second step is utilising those detailed task flows as the source of information for developing task objects. Those task objects are the bridge between the task design and the GUI design, because participants then take the third step of mapping the task objects onto GUI objects such as windows. This three-step methodology is unusual in its tight integration not only of those explicit steps, but also of several aspects of usability engineering: task analysis/design; consistent, 00, multiplatform GUI style; 00 analysis/design; participatory methods; low-tech materials; and fast, iterative usability testing. Through all these activities, participants get hands-on practice in participatory analysis, design, and usability testing methods that involve all the stakeholders (users, usability engineers, developers, etc.) as collaborators. Such participatory methods get all the stakeholders to buy into the completeness of the definition of the user requirements, and into the optimality of the task flow. Participants work in groups of five or six people at small tables, using index cards and removable sticky notes to document the task and task objects. At least 80% of the tutorial is hands-on practice by the participants while the two instructors advise and demonstrate at the tables. The tutorial contains several layers of information that participants can tap into, so participants can learn advanced skills if they are sufficiently pre-educated in the intermediate-level skills, and intermediate skills if they start only with an introductory-level back-ground. The prerequisite is that participants must have some experience (even introductory-level is okay) in at least one of these areas: (1) participatory methods, (2) task analysis, (3) object-oriented design or analysis, or (4) GUI design. As long as that requirement is met participants may have nearly any background, such as usability engineer, system engineer, developer, documenter, trainer, designer, or manager. We highly recommend that potential participants read an extended description of the tutorial before signing up. That description is available from the primary contact, Tom Dayton, whose email is listed.
Hosking, John, Mugridge, Warwick, Fenwick, Stephen and Grundy, John (1995): Cover Yourself with Skin. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 101-106.
A visual functional language for constructing user interface components is described. The language, Skin, assumes a simple object-oriented interface to the underlying application and components may flexibly adapt to changes in the application. The language avoids the need for absolute or relative coordinate specification for subcomponents. An interesting feature of the language is that meaningful icons for user-defined functions are able to be automatically constructed using prototype applications of the function.
Anderson, Paul (1995): A Lens Metaphor for Data Visualisation. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 107-113.
In recent years, researchers have used the different ways of operating a lens as a convenient analogy to describe their strategies in overcoming the inherent problem associated with the viewing of large information spaces. This metaphor is based on the familiar concept of a magnifying or photographic lens where the user can intuitively apply its functionalities to the large-world-small-screen situation. However, various aspects of this metaphor have been used in a piece-meal fashion, thus, underexploiting its potential application domains. The main aim of this paper is to bring together these concepts and extends the lens metaphor as a more comprehensive approach to data visualisation. Practical examples are used to illustrate these techniques for different types of information spaces.
Anderson, Paul (1995): Collapsible Highgraphs: A Folding Paradigm for Hypertext Visualisation. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 114-117.
With the increasing use of the WWW, a profusion of HTML editors have appeared. These editors tend to concentrate on the formatting of documents with only limited facilities to support the creation of links. Graphical link editors are needed to address this need. Such tools need to convey both document and link information within the context of the local hypertext environment. This paper describes a new paradigm, collapsible higraphs, that permits as much or as little detail to be presented as is necessary for the required task, yet still allows the user to see the overall context.
Shing, Tang Kin and Cox, Kevin (1995): A User Interface for a City Navigator. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 118-121.
The Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system enables us to know where we are on the surface of the earth. It offers the possibility for many new products and useful aids for navigation. Systems using GPS already exist for boat, air and vehicle navigation. This paper describes an investigation leading to a possible user interface for a hand-held device to help people find their way around cities. The investigation reviewed the literature, tested a similar product, devised experiments to test out user interface ideas and built a prototype for the user interface. At present the hardware technology is not economically viable to support a commercial product. When prices and size of hardware are both reduced then the style of user interface described here is likely to be appropriate for the "City Navigator".
Lindguard, Gitte (1995): The Usability Engineering Lifecycle. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 12.
In this hands-on tutorial, participants will learn how to design, implement, and integrate a coherent usability programme into systems design and development procedures. Through a case study, we will identify users and their needs quantitatively and qualitatively, and we will design a rough user interface. The details of the analyses are then used to develop a comprehensive test and evaluation programme which guides usability activities throughout the systems development process. The test and evaluation plan contains usability goals and criteria, and it specifies how usability will be tested iteratively and monitored throughout to meet these goals. We will apply a range of tools to all aspects of this process throughout the day. At the end of the day, participants should be able to design and run their own usability programmes, no matter what development methodology they are using.
Hurts, Karel (1995): The Effect of Configural and Separable Graphs on Memory-Based Integrated Task Performance. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 122-128.
In this paper the effectiveness of configural displays and separable displays for supporting integrated task performance is investigated under memory-based (retrospective) conditions. Memory for configural displays has sometimes been found to be inferior to that for separable displays. An experiment is described which attempted to replicate this finding and, in addition, to make explicit measurements of two factors that may explain the overall effect of display type on integrated task performance. These factors are time needed to memorize the graph (before the task is known) and the ease with which the task-relevant feature of the graph can be decoded. The results show that memory-based performance for separable graphs was better and quicker than for configural graphs. Further data analyses showed that this overall effect could be explained in terms of direct effects of ease of decoding and type of graph on search performance and, contrary to our expectations, not in terms of memorization time.
Makirinnie-Crofts, Paivi, Stokes, Lynn, Godwin, William and Saadat, Sohrab (1995): Setting the Record Straight: Computers and Creative Fashion Designers. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 129-134.
Studies into the Fashion Design Process and the characteristics of creative fashion designers' thinking and responses are few: either for teaching or for the computerisation of elements in this process. The language in the studies is understood clearly by design literate people but maybe less so by computer experts producing specialist systems. Explanations received of the difficulties designers experience with computers in their creative working process are superficial; these experiences generally go unrecorded. An unhappy first encounter with a computer can weaken a user's motivation to master new skills, and the pressurised work environment allows marginal room for constructive reflection. This paper documents a case study of learning to use a fashion CAD system, and offers some possible explanations from the designer's standpoint, in the hope that this will inspire an active working relationship between articulate users and system developers.
Comberg, David (1995): Imaginary Interfaces. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 13.
By imagining products free from the limitations of current interface paradigms, developers will be better able to invent interactive media environments where computers are integral to everyday objects and places. As technologies become 'smart' and responsive to their users they will disappear under the surface of products and spaces . Interface design, when seen in this light moves beyond computer technology to human environmental design -- an art of interaction that is rich in aesthetic complexity and meaning. To envision this world developers must explore our relationships with media, objects and spaces -- what they are and what they might be. Using the long history of literary and artistic imagination as a guide  -- from illustrated books of fairytales to visionary architectural models and science fiction films -- designers can find ways to create useful and enjoyable proposals for alternative realities. These imagined interfaces are a merging of the useful with the artistic, where information technologies are mirror-like reflections of dreams and visions, designed by people to foster relationships and characterized by a cultural/social focus and an aesthetic quality.
Calder, D. J., Chen, B. M. and Mann, G. (1995): A Multimedia Speech Training Tool for Dyspraxic Clients. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 135-137.
Articulator is a multimedia system for use by speech therapists to assist in the rehabilitation of dyspraxic patients. These people may be stoke victims who have to relearn the ability to communicate effectively. The process is laborious and usually conducted in a one- to-one situation where interaction between therapist and client depends on visual and audio cues. The aim is to have the client participate in order to achieve the desired phoneme or phoneme/vowel combinations. Instead of the standard paper-based prompts used by the therapist, this new system offers screen prompts together with high quality digitised speech. The load is therefore reduced for the speech therapist, with many benefits for the client.
Caputi, Peter, Jayasuriya, Rohan and Fares, Jenny (1995): The Development of a Measure of Attitudes Toward Computers in Nursing. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 138-141.
This paper discusses the results of a study investigating the psychometric properties of a new measure of computer attitudes in nursing. The participants in the study consisted of 71 first year nursing students at the University of Wollongong and 99 nursing professionals. The factor structure of the measure identified four factors dealing with (1) the relationship between computers and patient care, (2) computer anxiety, (3) work efficiency and computer technology and (4) patient confidentiality. All factors demonstrated good reliability. Preliminary validity analyses also yielded sound validity coefficients. Results also indicated that generally positive attitudes about computers were associated with the degree of perceived experience of computers for the nursing professionals group, however this general relationship was not replicated with the student group.
Wills, Sandra and Cavallari, Beth (1995): Interface Design for an Interactive Conference Proceedings. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 14.
In this tutorial Sandra will talk about and demonstrate a variety of interface designs, followed by some directed exploration and evaluation by participants. The second half will be devoted to developing an interface design for the Interactive Proceedings of the OZCHI'95 conference. The Talk: Sandra will show interface designs from other Interactive Proceedings and also from educational, application and game software. She will talk about the metaphors used in each case and how the metaphor and consequent design features either promote or impede usage and learning. The Exploration and Evaluation: The participants will be provided with several software packages (some of these will already be installed on the computers, others will be run from CDs) and an evaluation proforma. Interactive Proceedings Design: This part will focus on the development process, by having the participants actually doing the developing. We will discuss what is required for an Interactive Proceedings interface design in general and what we need in particular. We will go on to design an appropriate interface as a group activity.
Lippmann, Jr. Lourival and Nohama, Percy (1995): Voice Activated Systems for Handicapped People. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 142-145.
This paper describes speech recognition applications for people with disabilities. A speech recognition, voice dependent, system design and evaluation are describe. The system is based on DSP (Digital Signal Processor) technology that run FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters in real-time, implementing a speaker dependent word command recognition. The device can be put in portable equipment like a wheels chair voice activated for tetraplegic people. The system was evaluated and tested in a TV set voice activated and in a phone set voice activated for people with disabilities or motionless in bed.
Grundy, John, Mugridge, Warwicj, Hosking, John and Apperley, Mark (1995): Coordinating, Capturing and Presenting Work Contexts in CSCW Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 146-151.
Large Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) systems require both high level work coordination mechanisms and low level asynchronous and synchronous editing capabilities. We describe an architecture supporting flexible, user-defined work coordination mechanisms, fully integrated with work artefacts. Users define and work within task contexts. When artefacts change, descriptions of the changes are automatically annotated with task context-dependent information. This contextual information is presented (at a suitable level of abstraction) to interested users facilitating coordination between collaborative workers. We illustrate the use of this architecture in a collaborative software engineering environment.
Hedberg, John, Harper, Barry and Metros, Susan (1995): Interfaces for Interactive Learning Software. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 15.
To assist multimedia developers, there are numerous rule-based, resource manuals for interface standards available that dictate the look and behaviour of design elements. The trouble with relying solely on rule-based instruction is that the developer runs the risk of following orders without understanding the concepts supporting them. In this tutorial, a graphic designer, a science educator and cognitive psychologist show an interactive series of packages which often defy the rules and yet provide an exciting learning environment. The tutorial will discuss a number of learning packages and indicate the impact of learning outcomes on the design of appropriate interfaces. It will illustrate that rule-based resources have their place as core reference tools, but they are no substitute for actively learning and applying the concepts that embody the vocabulary of interface, graphic design and the cognitive underpinnings of the interface. Participants will learn how to use the vocabulary of visual interface design and gain an understanding of cognitive demands of interfaces, so that they can recognise good design and ultimately create interfaces that are clean, uncluttered, visually stimulating and information rich.
Hawryszkiewycz, I. T., Gorton, I. and Fung, L. (1995): Maintaining Awareness in Tightly Coordinated Asynchronous Groups. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 152-156.
The most common use of the information highway is to access information and exchange messages between individuals. It can also be used to provide support for commercial operations where groups jointly work towards a common goal. The support needed here goes beyond simple transfer of information, but also requires tools to maintain coordination between team members. This support depends on the kind of group and the process followed by the group. This paper describes tools being developed to asynchronously support tightly coordinated groups working on software projects. The paper describes support of such groups through notification schemes, while at the same time maintaining general awareness through browsing facilities.
Hawryszkiewycz, Igor (1995): Methodology for Designing Collaborative Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 16.
The tutorial begins by describing the basic principles behind collaborative systems, in particular, group dynamics, processes and culture. It then describes a design process, supported by tools, for developing such systems. The design process starts with physical and logical analysis to identify critical processes and interpersonal relationships. It commences with rich pictures of the collaborative context. These are then converted to a conceptual logical model based on well-defined concepts. The design process then continues with logical design to specify requirements in terms of repository, communication and process needs. Finally physical design selects groupware tools to satisfy these needs. The final design is presented as a flexible platform of services defined in terms of data repositories and communication services. A CASE study will be used to illustrate the design method.
Toleman, Mark and Welsh, Jim (1995): An Empirical Investigation of Language-Based Editing Paradigms. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 163-168.
We have been concerned for some time with the lack of rigorous experimental evaluation of design options chosen for tools used by software engineers. In a series of studies of various evaluation techniques we conducted an empirical usability study of a design issue (choice of editing paradigm for language-based editors) that has reached a "subjective stalemate" in the research community. This usability study, although limited to some extent by sample size and user type, has shown little advantage to either tree-building or text-recognition and probably indicated that some hybrid of the two is more appropriate.
Henderson, Ron, Podd, John and Henderson, Karen (1995): Criterion Redundancy within the Multi-Method Software Evaluation Context. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 169-174.
The concept of criterion redundancy is examined within a multi-method user software evaluation context. A total of 148 subjects participated in a between-group, software (spreadsheet, word processor, database) by evaluation method (logged data, questionnaire, interview, verbal protocol analysis) study. Results indicated that when moving from a single to a multi-method evaluation strategy both criterion relevancy and redundancy are increased. Importantly, the increase in redundant data was not necessarily an attributable of the number of evaluation methods used within the model, but rather the evaluation methods within the strategy. Conceptually, an interaction was present.
Hewett, Tom (1995): Cognitive Issues in HCI. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 17.
This full day tutorial introduces and illustrates basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and human problem solving. The tutorial has three objectives. The first is to help an attendee develop an educated basis for making interface design choices when guidelines fail, conflict, or are non-existent. This objective is accomplished through the use of "hands-on" demonstrations, exercises, examples and supplemental mini-lectures which focus the participant's attention upon significant phenomena which not otherwise ordinarily be noticed. The second objective is to relate some of the phenomena being illustrated to human-computer interaction. This objective is accomplished through the use of thought questions in the notes, occasional mini-lectures, and examples which help to bridge the gap between the demonstrations and their application to the design of human-computer interaction. The final objective is to provide attendees with a basis for undertaking self-directed study on these or related topics of their own choosing in cognitive psychology.
Comver, Tim and Maltby, John (1995): Evaluating Usability of Screen Design with Layout Complexity. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 175-178.
This paper presents work-in-progress in assessing the usefulness of the layout complexity metric in evaluating the usability of different screen designs. An application "Launcher" was developed in Visual Basic that calculated complexity and collected usability data. Seven subjects provided some evidence that complexity could be of benefit to the screen designer. However, though Launcher proved useful in collecting data, some problems needed to be overcome, namely more concise data collection and a better method for building screens, before more data can be collected.
Roberts, Penelope (1995): Human Factors Issues in Tough Screen Design for Public Access Applications. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 179-182.
There are a number of human factors issues involved in the design of a touch screen interface for Electronic White Pages. Design can be constrained by the fact that the user group is the general public. User interfaces for public access systems necessitate a somewhat different approach to design due to the diversity of the user group and the inability to train users. This paper discusses issues that need to be considered in order to design an application that allows users to perform their tasks efficiently and effectively whilst maintaining an attractive and innovative interface. This includes consideration of user needs, screen layout, feedback, text input mechanisms, and labelling of fields and buttons. It also discusses some of the trade-offs and compromises that may need to occur between human factors experts and graphic designers in order to make the application an easy to use, yet attractive and novel one. The implications for other Telstra multi-media applications that are aimed at the general public are also addressed.
Alty, Jim (1995): Multimedia Interface Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 18.
Too many papers and tutorials on the subject of Multimedia interfaces begin with an assumption that such interfaces are wonderful and will solve most of our problems. The reality is quite different. Firstly, more is not always better. Just as a fast computer can enable users to make mistakes quicker, so a multimedia interface can confuse and overload a user. The underlying issues of Multimedia Interface Design are: * when are particular media "better" at conveying certain types of information? * what are the goals of the user? The first question cannot be answered without knowing the answer to the second question. There is an urgent need for a methodology for interface design which enables designers to choose appropriate media to meet user goals. The tutorial defines a multimedia interfaces as a set of (possibly parallel and co-operating) languages. It reviews current empirical information on how and when different media have been successful in enabling users to meet their goals (quoting in particular from an extensive study carried out by the author in process control). It examines media which have not been extensively treated in the literature (such as audio interfaces and the use of music, and moving video interface design). Finally it suggests some design principles for designing Multimedia Interfaces.
Balsys, Ronald (1995): Creating 3d Stereo Movies -- Seeing with Stereo-Vision. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 183-190.
Methods for achieving stereopsis rely on presenting the left and right eyes with respective left and right eye views of the image. Virtual reality systems use stereopsis as the basis of the 3D display and these systems require the use of relatively expensive hardware. This paper describes a simple technique, similar to that used to view the popular "magic eye" autostereograms, that can be used to view 3D stereo animations (movie pictures) on standard video displays. Inherent in this technique is the concept of decoupling the eye's convergence system from the eye focussing system to allow for a 3D image to form in the eye/brain system. This technique requires the user to relearn how they use their eyes, as the user has to maintain an eye focus on infinity whilst using the mind to scan the stereo images and form the 3D view in the minds image space. In this work such views are suggested for use as 3D preview systems of 3D virtual worlds similar to file preview in painting packages.
Shedroff, Nathan (1995): Interaction Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 19.
Interaction Design is the art of effectively creating interesting and compelling experiences for others. It applies to all forms of interaction, all products, and all media. Unfortunately, not only are few of us ever taught about explicitly creating experiences, almost all of the focus on interface design and multimedia has been centred around the technology instead of the interaction. The current backlash against CD-ROMs, for example, has everything to do with how they were designed and what they allow audiences to do and little with the technology. What people find interesting, the kinds of activities they choose to spend money for, and the things that excite them and are memorable, have not changed much since recorded history began. Indeed, we can expect it change little in the next 1000 years-long after any of us need to concern ourselves with. This tutorial will describe many of the key components of interaction and how to use these in the creation of experiences. Special attention will be given to the process of uncovering the opportunities for rich and satisfying interactions in any product, media type, or "platform." The tutorial will include examples of successful interactive "products" from a variety of sources and media, but focused on those in electronic and online media. Many will come from the attendees themselves as the group is challenged to apply these principles to their current work. Participation from the audience is mandatory and there will be many opportunities for discussions, arguments, and fist fights (if it comes to that).
Thomas, Bruce and Calder, Paul (1995): Animated Interaction for a Graphical Editor. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 191-196.
If judiciously applied, the techniques of cartoon animation can enhance the illusion of direct manipulation that many human computer interfaces strive to present. In particular, animation can convey a feeling of substance in the objects that a user manipulates, strengthening the sense that real work is being done. This paper describes some techniques we have used to animate interaction with a graphical editor. Our approach is based on suggesting a range of animation effects by distorting the shape of the manipulated object. The editor demonstrates the effectiveness of the animation for simple operations, and it shows that the technique is practical even on standard workstation hardware.
Wing, Hung and Colomb, Robert (1995): Active View: A Frame Work for User Interface Development. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 197-203.
This paper introduces a flexible and active view mechanism to support user interface development. In particular, it incorporates the notions of an object-oriented view, constraint maintenance, and an active rule as a unified approach to facilitate collaborations among interface objects. We believe that this approach provides many useful features for developing user interfaces. Besides providing flexible ways to view collaboration, the framework supports view propagation, automatic suppression, forward exclusion, prototyping and isolating schema changes of the interfaces. This paper discusses these features and their uses.
Carroll, John M. (1995): Design History as a Tool. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 2.
We describe the notion of design history and two design history systems created to develop and study this notion. Raison d'Etre is a video information system that presents stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times through the course of a project. The Blacksburg Electronic Village History Base is a multimedia information system now being developed that presents documents and annotations describing a community network and the community within which it exists. The culture of technology is surprisingly ahistorical: Technologies and their applications in design are often thought of and talked about merely as solutions to problems. Their meanings are couched in a language of results: hardware and software tradeoffs, consequences for user learning and performance. Though it is well-known that technologies emerge through a continuous process of innovation, development, and adoption, it is rare to see this process explicitly acknowledged or documented. When they exist at all, histories in technology tend to be somewhat whiggish reconstructions that justify or critique past actions based on present understandings. This product-oriented view of technology is a useful simplification. It may not be necessary to understand the origins of display icons just in order to diagnose and address user problems in interpreting a particular icon design. However, there is a danger in taking this simplification too seriously. The full meaning of technologies and designed artifacts emerges from contingencies in the processes of innovation, development, and adoption. The most scrupulous description of an artifact per se will not incorporate the informal motivations of the designers who created it. It will probably not include an accounting of the many ideas and approaches that were tried and discarded in the design. Even the designers' most self-reflective efforts may still fail to re-capture the actual motivations that caused particular decisions. My efforts to fathom the historical nature of HCI in a practical manner started at the British HCI'91 conference. There I presented a paper in which I described a variety of typical characteristics which seemed to urge a historical view; for example, I pointed out that the meaning of the term "direct manipulation" changed through the 1980's, as the technologies we now call direct manipulation became available. In preparing for that conference, I carried out a series of individual interviews with the members of two project teams in IBM. Both projects had been running for more than ten years, and hence had a significant history to query; one involved a media workbench and the other a user interface architecture. The interviews elicited a plethora of stories: parables and legends identifying the significant issues, attitudes, and events. In the stories, there was a recognition of and allowance for individual knowledge and perspective. Team members sometimes sketched the gist of a particular story, and then indicated that a colleague could provide the full version. They seemed to accept that not all of their colleagues would share their attitudes or perspectives, sometimes even suggesting that another colleague's version be consulted because it conveyed an alternate perspective. The informality of stories seemed to provide a means for the designers to socially construct the coherence of their projects. As I delivered the talk, standing at the podium in Edinburgh, I suddenly saw an implication of what I was saying: I decided to build a video information system of designers telling their stories, a documentation system containing informal material about a development process as it occurred through time. I decided to study the role of history in system development by building and studying history systems.
Collins, Penny and Walker, David (1995): Teaching HCI -- Current Perspectives and Innovations. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 20.
How can we create meaningful and responsive environments for teaching and learning how to design computer systems? Our focus is at the user interface as the primary view and representation of the system. The interface must be designed to support human activities. It is difficult for users and clients to explain and for developers to understand how computer systems can be designed to support any particular human activity. Therefore, HCI educators must provide an environment in which mutual understanding between users and developers can occur through iterative design in a way that ensures learning and is seen as realistic. The overall aim of the workshop is to explore innovative ways of teaching the HCI design process. Our emphasis is on socio-technical systems design although we are also interested in the more detailed issues of user interface design. We have spent 20 years teaching user interface design and the last six years considering and evaluating ways of teaching the HCI design process. We have used a variety of methods to do this including: * The use of behavioural simulations in Leaching socio-technical systems design. With the support of an Australian Government Innovative Teaching -- CAUT -- grant) we have developed, trialled and evaluated a large-scale behavioural simulation (called Heritage Information) through which participants team how user needs arise and how users and developers negotiate the design and implementation of information systems to support user tasks. This form of experiential learning has dramatic outcomes and provides a base for long term reflection on processes. * The use of case studies in which experienced professionals play user roles and guide participants through an iterative design process to solve complex problems. This model of learning has the particular strength of requiring, through iterative processes, concentration on difficult areas of systems design. * The design and use of an IT infrastructure (in our case Lotus Notes) to support group work as a way of teaching issues in the design of groupware systems and HCI. We have developed, implemented and evaluated the use of a conceptual model of group work which supports participant group work. Participants can participate in group work from any place at any time with this IT support. By engaging in this activity participants develop a complex understanding of group processes and of design issues for groupware. Our workshop will review and compare the strengths and limitations of each approach and will extend an existing set of criteria for evaluating innovative teaching/learning approaches in the HCI domain. By incorporating innovative ideas from all participants, further advances in the teaching process may be achieved. Areas for further investigation will be identified.
Nickson, Ray (1995): A New Face for Ergo: Adding a User Interface to a Programmable Theorem Prover. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 204-209.
We describe some of the technology we used to build a user interface for a programmable theorem prover. By separating the user interface from the application itself, it is possible to experiment with new interface features very easily, without compromising the soundness of the proof tool.
Hasan, Helen (1995): Executive Information Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 21.
In this workshop we examine the successful utilisation of Information Systems by senior executives in organisations which are using, or developing, Executive Information Systems (EIS). The aim is to bring together people from a variety of organisations interested in EIS and to compare experiences. Present at the workshop will be people with considerable experience of EIS as well as those interested in learning from them. There is a reported high failure rate of EIS systems which may be due to the fact that EIS developers do not realise that high powered executives form a very special group of highly individual and powerful computer users. Designing and implementing EIS thus presents problems not encountered in conventional computer system development. Participants in the workshop will be able to share their experiences and learn of ways in which these problems can be addressed.
Chang, Elizabeth, Dillon, T. S., Maher, Timothy and Bloomer, Warren (1995): Knowledge Based Design of User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 210-222.
The process of design of a user interface (UI) involves two clear parts namely: (a) the logical design (b) the perceptual design. The paper describes an approach that utilises the notion of perspectives of an Object Oriented Conceptual Model to carry out the logical design. It then uses a Knowledge Based System (KBS) containing user interface design guidelines to produce the initial prototype of the perceptual design. The input to this KBS is the logical design of the UI. The methodology proposed in this paper uses this initial basic set of screens in an iterative prototyping approach with user evaluation of each prototype to produce the final screen.
Cooper, Joan (1995): Gender Issues and IT. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 22.
The suggestion that women cope differently with technology than men, requires exploration. A wide range of opinion has been forthcoming. This workshop provides the opportunity to discuss current opinion and research and to canvas ideas. This can be done by submitting short papers or by the provision of discussion points prior to the workshop. Many current publications comment on the role women have on the "Information Superhighway". Results from a recently conducted survey on Australian Women users of the Internet will be. Also discussed will be the employment and education of women in the IT sector. As the world of IT is making an impact on our daily lives does it manifest a gender division? Can we change the current way of thinking and provide a positive status to the role of women? Headlines appear creating the image that "Women may miss the bus" so the workshop will endeavour to turn around the negative publicity into that of being positive. Is their a need to provide a more available resource that women can tap into? World Wide Web sites that are particular to women and their role in providing support will be examined. The workshop will provide an opportunity to question the need for a site that will provide easier access and support to women in Australia. This site could be a source that women will use when needed and enable women that are in IT to have a common space. The future needs for women in IT and the role education and employment plays is important in giving ongoing support and encouragement that may be necessary to keep women in the IT sector.
Henderson, Ron, Mahar, Doug, Saliba, Anthony, Barrelle, Kate, Deane, Frank, Napier, Renee and Hiron, Michael (1995): The Psysiological Effects of Electronic Employee Performance and Security Monitoring Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 223-228.
The present study examined the effects of both security and performance based electronic monitoring systems on physiological and performance indices of users' behaviour. The 32 subjects performed a computer-based data entry task under various conditions. In the "control security challenge" condition subjects were informed that a keystroke security monitoring system had been instituted, but no security challenges occurred. In the "explicit security challenge" condition, however, a number of explicit security challenges occurred. In the final "electronic performance monitoring" (EPM) condition, subjects were informed their data entry speed was monitored and they were placed on a response-cost schedule for poor performance. Blood pressure and continuous inter-heart beat latency were recorded for the security challenge and EPM conditions. Results indicated that monitoring systems have the potential to evoke altered arousal states in the form of increased heart rate and blood pressure. The implications of these results for the design and implementation of electronic behavioural based security and performance monitoring systems are discussed.
Hyland, Peter (1995): Evaluation of User Experience Levels by Non-Intrusive Monitoring. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 229-235.
This paper describes the importance of effective user models on interface design and presents a framework for identifying the user's level of computer experience. The framework consists of four components, namely, the users level of experience with hardware, operating systems, applications and common computing procedures. It is suggested that measurements of these four components can be made non-intrusively, that is, without the user having to respond to queries or even being aware that any measurement is taking place. Appropriate measurements are suggested for each of these four factors. An initial study, in which some of the proposed measurements were made and evaluated against other indicators of user experience is described and a brief analysis of the effectiveness of these measurements is presented. Details are given of a planned study to further evaluate the usefulness of this approach.
Mckange, Janis and Kieboom, Helen (1995): Making Usability Work for Organisations. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 23.
A one day workshop was held called Making Usability Work for Organisations. Its aim was to look at perceptions that either facilitate or inhibit the cause of usability in an organisational context and to come up with strategies on how usability can be "packaged" so it can gain wider acceptance. We tried to encourage input from both industry and academia to explore these issues. Ten people attended the workshop (including ourselves) providing a balance of 4 academics and 6 industry people. We had dispensed with the usual position papers and asked for questionnaires to be completed instead.
Dodd, Joanna (1995): Incorporating Humans and Machines into New Assessment Practices: Software in Psychology. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 236-241.
This paper describes a case study of software development which started with an original conception of the contribution of technology as automating the assessment process. However, following the failure of automation, different questions about the nature of assessment were be asked. These allowed assessment roles to be shared between humans and the machines which exploits the strengths of each. The argument in this paper is that in the work of undertaking psychometric assessments, we need to consider assessment as undertaken by 'cyborg' assessment systems which incorporate human and machine components, rather than by automated expert systems constructed out of disembodied human attributes. To construct this argument, this paper reports on the development of a computer based test of cognitive processing to address critical questions about the relationship between humans and machines in the assessment process.
Phillips, Chris and Scogings, Chris (1995): Task and Object Modelling in High Level GUI Design: An Integrated Approach. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 24-29.
Task models and interaction object models are important abstractions in the high level design of graphical user interfaces (GUIs). In this paper the roles of task and object models in interface development are briefly reviewed, and a methodology for high level GUI design is developed in which task and object modelling are integrated. The methodology includes a task decomposition derived from essential modelling, and the construction of a dialogue specification using Lean Cuisine+. Lean Cuisine+ is a multi-layered object-based graphical notation for specifying the behaviour of GUIs independently of the details of their presentation, which supports description of both the interaction object model and of task action sequences. An example is used to illustrate this approach to high-level GUI design.
Candy, Linda and Edmonds, Ernest (1995): Creativity in Knowledge Work: A Process Model and Requirements for Support. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 242-248.
This paper is concerned with the requirements of computer support for creativity. Our objective was to understand the creative process in knowledge intensive work and to draw from that the constraints and possibilities for helpful human-computer interaction. A study of a scientist using a knowledge support system is described. We present the process model of support for creative knowledge work and show how it can be used to specify HCI requirements for computer support.
Strauss, Friedrich (1995): A Situation Based Dialog Model for Complex Direct Manipulation Interfaces. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 249-255.
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Day, Donald (1995): Adaptive Discovery and Least Commitment: An Extension of Cognitive Fit. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 256-261.
This paper proposes refinement of a model of cognitive fit that can be applied to describe how developers of computerised design tools communicate process preferences to tool users via the human-computer interface. Suggested changes to the model are prompted by findings of an empirical study of user responses to process constraint. This paper describes and justifies extension of the model, which was cast originally as a means to match computer technology to user need. Following an examination of the model and of proposed changes, the paper discusses research to validate or disprove suggested refinements.
Candy, Linda and Edmonds, Ernest (1995): Cognitive Style and Computer Support to Creative Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 262-263.
Research into innovative design provides a source for considering opportunities for computer support to creative work. We have identified aspects of cognitive style in creative design from an empirical study. Future research directions for the provision of support to creative knowledge work are proposed.
Clarke, Rodney (1995): WWW Page Metaphor Considered Harmful. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 264-267.
The 'page' metaphor generally employed when developing WWW systems is viewed as misleading and harmful to both developers and users. Problems associated with this metaphor are discussed and some design principles are formulated which run contrary to the prevailing wisdom for the development of web pages. These design principles have been applied in the development of a prototype of the Systems in Context (SysCo) Research Weblet.
Chesson, Paul and Johnston, Lorraine (1995): Incentives for Formally Specifying User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 268-269.
Formally specifying user interfaces offers incentives not provided by prototyping. Customer requirements are clearly communicated by distinguishing them from design decisions, completely specifying their behaviour, and abstracting relevant views. Formal analysis can be used to detect problems in the dialogue structure and usability of the interface.
Hussey, Andrew and Carrington, David (1995): Rapid Evolutionary Prototyping Using Tcl/Tk. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 270-275.
Rapid prototyping of user interfaces is useful for obtaining user feedback to validate requirements and to correct design deficiencies. Evolutionary prototyping allows a prototype to be re-used for constructing an end-product, saving development time. In this paper we discuss using Tcl/Tk as a mechanism for rapid evolutionary prototyping. Two case studies of rapid evolutionary prototyping using Tcl/Tk are described.
Howard, Steve, Leung, Ying and Kaiyan, N. (1995): Why is Usability Engineering Failing Multimedia and What Should We Do about It?. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 276-277.
What are the current trends in interactive technology? Structured methods, CASE tools and object orientation have all come and gone (at least from the pages of the technical press). Current technological trends relate to the 'information super-highway' and multimedia and today's fashionable application areas are probably entertainment, education and information services. In the paper, we focus on multimedia and explore the readiness of usability engineering to contribute to this new wave of technology.
Anderson, Paul and Smith, Ray (1995): WARP: A Distortion Oriented Implementation Based on the STAR Architecture Display. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 278-282.
Distortion oriented displays (DOD) are an interface approach for supporting navigation through large visual datasets without losing context. They are particularly well suited to applications such as Geographical Information Systems (GIS). STAR (Self Tuning ARchitecture) is a general architecture for the support of DOD for very large datasets. STAR divides a DOD interface into a set of tuneable, independently threaded modules responsible for key tasks in the system. The dynamic response of the interface is continually monitored and the modules tuned or detuned to achieve the best display possible within the response constraints of the system. WARP is a multiple transformation DOD implementation of a GIS browser based on the STAR architecture.
Jones, Colin and Gould, Edward (1995): Executives and Computers. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 283-284.
Following an introduction to EIS and interface design for these systems the topic of executive cognition is examined. The technique of psychological profiling is considered as a possible method for eliciting details of executive psychology as a starting point for the design of an interface for EIS systems.
Sutton, Fred (1995): Implementing a GUI at BHP to Improve the Interface to a SAP Mainframe System. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 285-287.
The introduction of Total Quality Management in the 1980's had brought a cultural change to the Management and Control at the BHP Slab Plate&Products Division. With the changing needs of business, new demands were being made on the information systems required to manage the business. In June 1992 following a review of existing systems, the Phoenix 21 project was established to manage the implementation of the SAP system to replace the existing systems at BHP Slab&Plate Products Division.
Gibbons, Belinda and Peary, Glen (1995): An EIS Implementation: A Developer's View. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 288-289.
The success of an EIS system relies heavily on the support it receives from management. The Executive Information System in place at Illawarra Electricity is successful due in no small part to the fact that it was not imposed on management, but initiated by them.
Edwards, Mike (1995): Cultural Dimensions of a Hand Posture when Using a Whole Hand Input (WHI) in a Virtual Environment. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 290-292.
The paper addresses the melding of computer interface technology and human anthropology, with regard to a cultural dimension that may have mental connotations to either influence or disrupt an activity in a virtual environment (VE). A cultural dimension was apparent when executing a lexicon, drawn from a European complexion of hand gesture, but adapted to address hand posture using a Whole Hand Input (WHI). Conventional input devices such as a keyboard or mouse do not exhibit such a quality. A cultural dimension in a hand posture maybe identified, provisionally from a list of eighteen generalized facets.
Warne, Leoni (1995): Power and Conflict in Organisation -- Implications for Information Systems Development. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 293-294.
This paper discusses some findings from a Case Study of a failed Information Systems development in a large public sector organisation. The study confirmed the proposition that organisational power plays and conflict contributed to the failure of the project, and suggests that computing professionals need to involve themselves more in organisational issues in order to minimise the risk these factors pose to project success.
Little, Stephen and Kaye, Ronald (1995): Strategies and Standards for CHI in Global Business Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 295-296.
Global integration and greater economic interaction implies a need for interoperability and compatibility which can be achieved through appropriate standards for technology and procedures. Such standards are the product of market processes which are historically and culturally specific but which now impact on a much broader range of actors. Understanding the dynamics of these processes is necessary for effective interoperability between user organisations and between technical developers if they are to achieve effectively their global aims. In particular the relationship between official and emergent standards must be recognised. To gain the potential benefits of emerging technologies, CHI workers and researchers must broaden their technical competences to encompass cultural interoperability at individual, organisational and social levels of activity.
Keys, Malcolm (1995): Usability Evaluation of Multimedia. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 297-300.
Like all products, it is essential to evaluate the usability of multimedia products. How else can it be guaranteed that the product will be successful: that learning will take place, that entertainment will be achieved and consumers will be satisfied. This paper takes well accepted usability methods from the traditional domain of software development and shows how and why they should be successfully implemented in the multimedia development process. Computer Based Training, Information Kiosks, Computer Games and Infotainment are types of multimedia to which usability evaluation is ideally suited. If a product is usable, the user can do all that they set out to do and enjoy the process. We present a set of unique design principles targeted to the different requirements of both the education and entertainment market sectors. Several alternative usability evaluation methods will be discussed along with the benefits of subjective and objective measurements.
Kapelinin, Victor (1995): Mind Extensions: On the Role of Computer Artifacts in Human Activity. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. p. 3.
While it is widely accepted that computer artifacts are basically, cognitive tools, surprisingly little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying integration of these tools into human cognition. This problem is addressed in the paper from the point of view of Activity Theory, a conceptual framework originally developed in Russian psychology. It is suggested that cognitive tools are to be analyzed within the general context of mediated activity. The notion of "functional organs" will be introduced to provide a conceptual basis for understanding the role computer artifacts play in human activity. Development of functional organs in social context is considered the key factor in producing such phenomena as user interface transparency and consistency. The implications of the proposed approach for design of computer artifacts is discussed.
Maltby, John (1995): Towards a Language for GUI Dialogues. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 30-35.
This paper describes a taxonomy of the operations possible in graphical user interfaces of the WIMP variety. The taxonomy has been designed to encompass the common user operations which can be performed on five commercially available WIMP interfaces, these being Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh Finder, IBM OS/2, UNIX XWindow and Acorn RISCOS. The taxonomy is utilised to describe common user tasks in each of these environments with a view to determining the syntactic structure, relative entropy and subsequent redundancy of these WIMP languages.
Meighan, Fiona (1995): The Usability Analyst Model: Using Minimum Resources to Gain Maximum Effect. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 301-304.
As the profile of usability has increased, the demand for Human Factors Researchers has far outweighed the possible supply within Telstra. To address this problem, Telstra has recently implemented a Usability Analyst Project on a small scale, where selected members of Project Development Teams take on a large proportion of usability issues themselves. This paper describes how this project was adapted from a model implemented in Hewlett-Packard (2), the resulting materials, progress made, and future directions. In addition, potential problems and solutions are discussed.
Rantanen, Jukka (1995): A User and Organisational Factors Audit of an Info System Implementation. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 305-307.
This paper presents a practical audit method for an IT implementation process and its outcome, which addresses the key user and organisational factors and their improvement opportunities. These are frequently the main reason for implementation failures of complex organisational information systems. The process audit makes an assessment of the implementation and change management strategy as well as implementation success factors. The outcome audit makes an evaluation of the resulting outcome of an implementation: perceived usefulness, perceived usability, operational effectiveness, and impacts of a system on jobs and business processes. The audit method was developed for assessing the progress of the implementation of SAP Plant Maintenance system at BHP steelworks during 1994-1995.
Kieboo, Helen and Howard, Steve (1995): Communicating the Value of Usability Engineering in the with Cost-Benefit Analysis Techniques. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 308-309.
Usability engineering has the potential to make significant contributions to projects and organisation's financial success, given the substantial amount of project life cycle effort and resource devoted to a project's user interface. Despite this, many companies perceive it as costly and of little benefit. It is therefore necessary to be able to demonstrate that usability engineering can add value to any given project, as well as being able to assist in the planning of a sensible, cost-effective usability engineering programme for that project. The concept of a tool is proposed that will assist usability specialists more effectively communicate the value of usability engineering. The foundation of the proposed tool is based on cost-benefit analysis techniques and data that enable the benefits to be estimated for a planned usability engineering programme.
Balbo, Sandrie (1995): Task Models and Automaton of the Evaluation of User Interface Usability. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 310-311.
The methods and techniques used for evaluating the usability of user interfaces (UI) are generally split into two categories: formal versus experimental methods (Coutaz, Nielsen, Senach, Whitefield, etc.). This paper follows a different approach which highlights the automation aspect of evaluation techniques. This discussion is illustrated with a number of these methods and techniques with an emphasis on the role played by task models.
Klausen, Tove and Bygholm, Ann (1995): Evaluating Information Technology at a Public Library. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 312-314.
In this paper we present a strategy for evaluating a project which aims at studying the future role of the public library, both as mediator of information and as mediator of access to information in media and information society. The overall aim was divided into four sub-goals which could be evaluated by a triangulation of qualitative and quantitative research methods. A key point in the strategy was "action research" i.e. how to make results from the evaluation usable for the further development of the project in question.
Lausen, Soren (1995): Object-Oriented Design in Practice. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 315-320.
Object-oriented design is expected to give many benefits, but observations of industrial practice show that many benefits are not obtained in practice: User involvement cannot be based on object diagrams, and a user interface derived directly from object models will not support users efficiently. In business applications, the functional aspects of analysis are difficult to trace to final implementation, and the implemented systems are not truly object-oriented because objects have trivial functionality (read and update) or they are "procedure libraries" without data. There are good reasons to believe that these problems are not due to inexperienced developers. Rather they may be inherent to the technology.
Chesher, Christopher (1995): Software's Implied Users. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 321-322.
Behind every interface lurks the implied user: the person the developers imagine will use their software. An adaption of the "implied reader" from literary theory, the concept of the implied user focuses on how any piece of software tends to address itself to a particular vision of its users. The market dominance of business software has meant a Western businessman is most often the implied user.
Howard, Steve, Bloomer, Sarah and McGraw, Bridget (1995): Exploring HCI as Science, Design and Art: Three Personal Views. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 323-327.
A recent book (Monk and Gilbert, 1995) discusses the multi-disciplinary nature of HCI without referencing the contributions of art or design. For too long HCI has been viewed as a discipline at the nexus of computer science and psychology. Monk and Gilbert extend their focus to include software engineering, cognitive science, task analysis, ethnography, activity and conversation theory and organisational analysis -- all disciplines that have a traditional 'academic' place, research process and intellectual history. What of art and design, and are computer science and psychology really as central to HCI as at first appears? This paper only partly addresses these questions by focusing on the contribution to HCI of three different types of knowledge: science (specifically 'hard science' as applied experimental psychology); design (specifically graphic and industrial design) and art (specifically the visual arts). The paper is intentionally philosophical, contentious and rhetorical; we are attempting to highlight differences between, and problems with, the three types of knowledge with a view to exploring their possible contributions to HCI. What emerges is a cry, hopeful but cautionary, for the value of all three to be recognised and for HCI to be pragmatic in what it takes from science, art and design and makes its own.
McGraw, Bridget, Ingram, Fiona and Pryor, Sally (1995): The Interactive Experience. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 328-338.
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Wing, Hung and Colomb, Robert (1995): An Architecture for Cooperative User Interface. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 36-42.
The vision of world wide computing involving large numbers of heterogeneous, autonomous, distributed computing resources has prompted the sharing of applications. Due to the lack of commonality in the user interface design of object-oriented systems, co-operative use of a user interface to interact with these systems becomes a vital issue. This paper introduces a general architecture of a user interface which promotes such co-operative use. In particular, this architecture is designed as a platform to access, federate, and allow for the co-operation of data among various object-oriented applications including database systems. The features of this architecture are illustrated in an example which shows how surrogate objects can be populated between the display and the databases.
Edmonds, Ernest (1995): Task Models of Creativity: A Contradiction of Terms?. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 4-5.
"Thought is not a means of solving the problems of this world as they arise. Thought is not a problem solver but a great process of realisation that is forever transcending, transformed, changed, developed." Mead 1917. So-called 'creative' tasks are not easily pre-defined or pre-selected, even by the person who is embarking upon such work, because discovering new ideas or solutions and new ways of achieving them occur during the process. Indeed, this characteristic is at the very heart of creative work. Given these circumstances, and if existing predictive models can only help with computer design for stereotypical users with routine tasks, is there any way of offering the interaction designer more support? In order to address that question, I argue that there is a need to reassess current task modelling approaches that are available for the interaction designer to use. New forms of modelling are required because current models do not represent the salient aspects of creative activities and behaviour. In this paper, I make a case for adopting criteria-based models that support the designer of computer systems for creative tasks. The criteria-based model expresses criteria that may be used to evaluate the design as opposed to task modelling, a representation form from which one might hope to deduce the design.
Wong, William, Sallis, Philip and O'Hare, David (1995): Information Portrayal for Decision Support in Dynamic Intentional Process Environments. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 43-48.
This paper is part of a study to determine the information portrayal requirements of dynamic process environments, and in particular reports on preliminary findings of a cognitive task analysis (CTA) conducted at an ambulance dispatch control center. The centre uses the Computer-Assisted Dispatch System to manage its ambulance operations. The intense and dynamic nature of the decision making environment is first described, and the decision process modelled in an attempt to identify decision strategies used by the dispatch officers. Some information portrayal requirements stemming from one of the decision processes are then discussed, and these requirements are then translated into a proposed display solution.
Gould, Edward and Verenikina, Irina (1995): Visualisation of Complex Data Display: An Application to Interactive School Population Modelling. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 49-55.
An interface has been designed based on the results of an experiment into the use of colour to cater for the unique characteristics of population projection in small geographical areas. The required interface was for the visual presentation of a mass of relevant data from a school population prediction model made available to demographers to manipulate on the screen in the form of coloured maps. In the design of the interface, consideration has been given to standard HCI design methodologies, work done on visualisation based on cognitive modelling and the results of a psychological experiment into aspects of colour cognition.
Micarelli, Alessandro and Sciarrone, Filippo (1995): Guided Hypermedia Navigation Based on Cases. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 56-61.
In this paper we describe a system for adaptive navigation in a network of interlinked textual and multimedia information using a procedure based on cases. In the presentation we stress the innovative technique, based on a sub-symbolic approach, we have used to retrieve cases from a case library, and the kind of help given to the user, based on a structural analysis of the hypermedia.
Draper, Steven (1995): More Than We Think: Facing Up to the Plurality of Goals Methods Needs and Resources in HCI. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 6-9.
Most analyses of how humans use artifacts, and interactive software in particular, have a strong tendency to assign 1:1 correspondences between goals and methods: to see software as supporting one task, users as having one way of executing a task, one thing to learn when learning a command, and one source for discovering the information. In fact this is a rare case, and multiplicity of goals, methods, information needs, and information resources is the rule even in simple software. How this causes problems for the design and testing of user interfaces can be illustrated by examples from a wide range of domains and levels of design, including studies on learning by exploration, the effect of machine delays on user strategies, the learnability of icon sets, evaluation studies of Computer Assisted Learning, and an analysis of the concept of affordance. Such plurality can be a source of robustness for the performance of interfaces: it is a problem mainly for analysis and HCI research, which struggle to account for the frequent case of high average performance levels mixed with a few residual problems. To address this plurality, we must extend our analyses to cover sets of alternative methods for tasks rather than single user procedures, and perhaps draw on concepts such as Activity Theory to address users' mental organisation of such plurality.
Crawford, Ivan (1995): Towards a Synthesised Object-Oriented Methodology Incorporating User-Interface Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 62-67.
This paper reviews a number of object-oriented analysis and design methodologies highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. Secondly, a number of user interface design methods are described. A synthesised methodology is proposed, with a view to developing a set of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) Tools covering both the systems analysis and design (functional) features and the user-interface design requirements. Finally there is a discussion of those areas that would require such tool support.
Yvon, Marc, Piernot, Philippe and Cot, Norbet (1995): Programming by Demonstration: Detect Repetitive Tasks in Telecom Services. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 68-74.
Telecommunication services are bundled together into single applications. These applications allow for connections to many servers and computers, for quick and reliable data access and for document exchange. The invoked tasks can be combined and complex, they may take place in several applications such as copying final data in spreadsheets or word processors using inter-application communication protocols. Users should perform these time consuming tasks only once and let the computer take care of repetitive tasks. Programming by demonstration is a solution to that issue, it empowers the telecommunication services by detecting repetitive sequences, automating them and learning about the users' working methodology.
Hasan, Helen and Ruthenfluh, Josie (1995): Gender-Related Attitudes to Computers: A Message for HCI. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 75-81.
Human-Computer Interaction is one of the few computer related domains where men and women are equally represented among practitioners. There is no inherent reason why current technology should be gender-biased, but there are many studies which report that women are consistently under-represented in computer-related areas and that software companies continue to believe that their market is male. In this paper we will present the results of a study where sex difference in computer anxiety and attitudes have been observed in a mixed group of adults but experience and the provision of suitable role models may have overcome the low confidence of the females. We suggest that the equal contribution made by women in the field of HCI may be the reason for its growth and success in improving the quality of modern computer systems.
Lausen, Soren, Salbo, Susanne and Thomsen, Ann (1995): Usefulness of Paper Mockups. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 82-87.
Usability testing with prototypes is probably the most important design technique for user interfaces. Prototypes in the form of paper mockups are faster to develop than functional prototypes, but practitioners disagree whether they reveal the same usability problems. This paper reports on an experiment showing that paper mockups can reveal most usability problems, except those relating to keyboard conventions. The paper also shows that it is difficult in practice to find a reasonable estimate of problem frequencies: Even with nine test people, chance has a large influence on problem counts.
Howard, Steve and Smith, R. (1995): Using the Soft Systems Methodology to Front-End Task Analysis. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 88-94.
Task analysis has received substantial attention from the Human Computer Interaction community. However, most task analysis techniques are subject to major limitations. Here we discuss a common catch-22 for task analysis -- how can tasks worth analysing be identified before the analysis has been conducted? We argue that an extant systemically-based problem understanding approach, the Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), can address this situation, in part at least, by providing a front-end to task analysis. We describe and informally evaluate the potential interconnections between SSM and the Knowledge Analysis of Tasks (KAT) task analysis method.
Klausen, Tove and Aboulafia, Annette (1995): An Empirical Study of Professional Software Designers' Use of Scenarios. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 95-100.
In this paper we present the analysis from two qualitative research interviews with professional software designers. The interviews focus on the use of scenarios during design and are analysed at three levels: 1) subjects own understanding, 2) common sense understanding and 3) interpretation. The interviews reveal that the subjects do not consider themselves to use scenarios during design, the analysis that they do so (they prefer to call them use-situations). A categorisation of the use-situations in structure, function and genesis reveals the patterns in construction and usage of use-situations. The interpretation discusses the psychological complexity of construction and usage of the use-situations. We argue that use-situations (or scenarios) are crucial vehicles for thought processes and mediators between individual and distributed cognitions. We conclude by arguing that an efficient method for scenario driven design should support and build on the psychological structures (social, cognitive and communicative) in the design processes.
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What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1