What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1
Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
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OZCHI is Australia’s leading forum for research and development in all areas of Human-Computer Interaction. OZCHI attracts an international community of practitioners, researchers, academics and students from a wide range of disciplines including user experience designers, information architects, software engineers, human factors experts, information systems analysts, and social scientists.
The following articles are from "Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction":
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Pierce, James, Odom, William and Blevis, Eli (2008): Energy aware dwelling: a critical survey of interaction design for eco-visualizations. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 1-8. Available online
Eco-visualizations (EVs) are any kind of interactive device targeted at revealing energy use in order to promote sustainable behaviours or foster positive attitudes towards sustainable practices. There are some interesting, informative, highly creative, and delightful EVs now available. This paper provides a critical survey of several noteworthy EVs and classifies them in terms of scale and contexts of use. The paper attempts to provide a foundation for practitioners to design new EVs in more varied scales and contexts and for researchers to continue to refine understandings of how effective EVs can be and how EVs can be made to be more effective. The paper describes (i) feedback types and use-contexts for classifying EVs and (ii) strategies for designing effective EVs.
Cronholm, Stefan and Bruno, Vince (2008): Do you need general principles or concrete heuristics?: a model for categorizing usability criteria. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 105-111. Available online
This paper analyses the character of usability criteria found in lists, which are used for interface design and evaluation. In order to understand usability criteria and relations between different criteria, a categorization of six usability criteria lists has been performed. The analysis has shown that the formulations of criteria reside on different abstraction levels. The results consist of two knowledge contribution. The first contribution is a hierarchical categorization model. The role of this multilevel abstraction hierarchy is to support practical problem solving processes by enabling and supporting the explicit articulation of criteria for a given context. The second contribution is a categorization of usability criteria. The aim of this categorization is to support the understanding of how different usability criteria relate (e.g. overlap or complement) to each other and highlight possible gaps.
Wei, Chen, Marsden, Gary and Gain, James (2008): Novel interface for first person shooting games on PDAs. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 113-121. Available online
This paper explores novel interfaces for First Person Shooting (FPS) games on Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) devices. We describe a new approach inspired by a study of the interaction patterns used in desktop FPS games. Intelligent gesture recognition, based on these patterns, is used to create an optimal implementation of basic game functions (i.e., jump, shoot, walk forward). This new interaction system is evaluated through a prototype 3D FPS game. We believe the newly designed interface more adequately leverages the interaction capabilities of current PDAs, to better solve the problem of rapidly and accurately executing a large number of gaming commands.
Reality is everywhere. It is right there in our face when we wake up and it continues to sneak up on us throughout our day, in the car, in our offices, and at the dinner table. In recent years it has even invaded our TVs through eternal news streams and endlessly boring reality TV shows. However, people cannot live by reality alone. In fact, we spend quite a lot off effort on escaping reality. We daydream and immerse ourselves in imaginary worlds and stories. We immerse ourselves in fiction. Inspired by this view, we report on our research into the design and user experience of a new genre of mobile location-based services, which uses peoples' physical surroundings as a backdrop for storytelling as they move around an urban environment. We present a prototype system developed to explore the user experience of location-based interactive stories, and the use of interaction designs aimed at blurring the boundary between reality and fiction. Based on qualitative data from a series of field trials, we discuss potentials and challenges for this class of location-based services.
O'Hara, Kenton, Grian, Hazel and Williams, John (2008): Participation, collaboration and spectatorship in an alternate reality game. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 130-139. Available online
In this paper we present a study of an Alternate Reality Game (ARG) called MeiGeist -- a cross media game in which narrative elements of a story presented to players across a whole range of on-line and offline media and through which players can interact with in-game characters and events. The study looked at player progress over the eight weeks the game took to play, following their behaviours through the on-line forums, chat rooms and in-game logging of player interactions. The paper explores aspects of collective participation among players, the motivations underlying such participation and the factors that shape these contributions such as timescale of the game. It discusses too, how the narrative is produced and progressed through collective player interactions and how the experience is created through a collaborative suspension of disbelief. Different aspects of participation are also considered, in particular how a more passive spectatorship is an important experience for many players of the game. Finally the game considers how the ideal of a collective ethos among players is sometimes challenged during game play and the efforts necessary to repair this.
Puikkonen, Arto, Ventä, Leena, Häkkilä, Jonna and Beekhuyzen, Jenine (2008): Playing, performing, reporting: a case study of mobile minimovies composed by teenage girls. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 140-147. Available online
Digital camera functionality integrated into mobile phones is providing a new tool for users to create content, however user created mobile videos have so far remained a rather unexplored area. In this paper we present a study of 263 teenage girls who created and authored minimovies using the N73 mobile phone. In a semi-controlled setting, the participants produced 82 minimovies, analysed in this paper for their structure, style and feature usage. We compare across age groups, and discuss lessons learnt regarding the social nature of mobile content creation.
Browning, David, Bidwell, Nicola J., Hardy, Dianna and Standley, P-M (2008): Rural encounters: cultural translations through video. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 148-155. Available online
Requirements gathering for design in rural and remote areas needs to be considered within the prevailing cultural context. We explain our use of video as a technological site for cultural encounters during the preparatory elicitation of cultural influences and determinants. We outline the factors leading to the development of a co-generative approach arising from our understanding of the role played by indexicality during such encounters with different cultural systems of knowledge.
Garzonis, Stavros, Bevan, Chris and O'Neill, Eamonn (2008): Mobile service audio notifications: intuitive semantics and noises. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 156-163. Available online
It is hoped that context-aware systems will present users with an increasing number of relevant services in an increasingly wide range of contexts. With this expansion, numerous service notifications could overwhelm users. Therefore, careful design of the notification mechanism is needed. In this paper, we investigate how semantic richness of different types of audio stimuli can be utilised to shape the intuitiveness of mobile service notifications. In order to do so, we first develop a categorisation of mobile services so that clustered services can share the same notifications. Not surprisingly, it was found that overall speech performed better than non-speech sounds, and auditory icons performed overall better than earcons. However, exceptions were observed when richer semantics were utilised in the seemingly poorer medium. We argue that success and subjective preference of auditory mobile service notifications heavily depends on the success and level of directness of the metaphors used.
Ahtinen, Aino, Ramiah, Shruti, Blom, Jan and Isomursu, Minna (2008): Design of mobile wellness applications: identifying cross-cultural factors. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 164-171. Available online
This paper explores the design of mobile applications for supporting wellness activities. A cross-cultural user study was conducted in India and Finland. 16 participants used a technology probe (a mobile application called Wellness Diary) for the duration of two weeks. The focus of the study was to identify design factors that need to be considered when designing culturally sensitive mobile wellness applications. The findings are based on the subjective user experience reported by the participants, data collected with the technology probe, and ideas and needs of the participants that surfaced during the study. Results show that both cultural and environmental factors affect the needs towards the wellness application and usage of it. Differences were identified, for example, in how users defined wellness, what wellness concerns they had, attitudes towards setting goals, and how built and natural environments affected wellness activities.
This paper presents findings from a series of field trials, where Near Field Communication (NFC) tags were used for providing users an access to Mobile Internet content with NFC enabled mobile phones in a city setting. The field trials were arranged in the city of Oulu at the end of year 2007. Use statistics and user experience were collected from more than 180 users who used NFC enabled mobile phones to access Mobile Internet content by touching NFC tags embedded in the environment. The findings indicate that the users found the touch-based mobile content access easy to use. However, details such as the placement of the tags or static/dynamic nature of the content had a clear impact on the user behaviour and perceived quality. Based on these findings, we have identified a set of design principles that work as guidelines for the designers and researchers developing NFC applications.
Foong, Pin Sym (2008): Designing technology for sensitive contexts: supporting end-of-life decision making. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 172-179. Available online
This paper considers the problems in researchers face in designing for sensitive contexts that are controversial and potentially emotionally fraught. What should be designed when introducing technology in these situations? What methods can we employ to deliver a more desirable design? A case study is presented on the design of technology to support end of life decision-making. The case study makes use of transdisciplinary research, research within the cultural context and the adoption of a critical stance towards one's own design. A discussion on the contribution of these methods follows.
Light, Ann, Miskelly, Clodagh and Thompson, Steve (2008): An analysis of building habitat with networked tools. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 180-187. Available online
Interactive network technologies are taking our attention away from our habitat and distributing it worldwide. Can outward-pointing tools be turned back to focus on local needs? We examine social networking tools and location sensitive media for their potential to connect people to their environment in different ways, putting the tools' use in context through an analysis of socially-motivated design practice. We explore two case studies of designing and conclude with a description of how we can support the embedding of social practices, and thus people, in their habitat through design interventions.
Feltham, Frank G. (2008): Do the blocks rock: a tangible interface for play and exploration. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 188-194. Available online
In this paper I present the Sonic Blocks. A Tangible User Interface (TUI) for collaborative exploration of digital music with children. Based on the notion of exploratory Tangible User Interfaces this paper gives an account of the design, development and initial observations of the Sonic Blocks in use. The findings gathered from these observations reveal that TUIs through their physical engagement can enable unique approaches to thinking and cognition that contrast significantly to the visual model of interaction offered by the Graphical user Interface (GUI).
Reid, Peter and Plimmer, Beryl (2008): A collaborative multimodal handwriting training environment for visually impaired students. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 195-202. Available online
The spatial motor skills used for handwriting are particularly difficult for visually impaired people to develop. These skills are required in order to sign an aesthetically pleasing and repeatable signature, which is often required for documents such as legal agreements and job applications. Our multimodal system with haptic guidance, sonification and tactile feedback is designed to assist when teaching visually impaired students to form letters, and eventually, a signature. As tactile technologies become commonplace, appearing even in mobile phones, our system may also provide useful insight into the use of nonvisual feedback for a variety of applications.
Luz, Saturnino, Masoodian, Masood, Rogers, Bill and Deering, Chris (2008): Interface design strategies for computer-assisted speech transcription. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 203-210. Available online
A set of user interface design techniques for computer-assisted speech transcription are presented and evaluated with respect to task performance and usability. These techniques include error-correction mechanisms which originated in dictation systems and audio editors as well as new techniques developed by us which exploit specific characteristics of existing speech recognition technologies in order to facilitate transcription in settings that typically yield considerable recognition inaccuracy, such as when the speech to be transcribed was produced by different speakers. In particular, we describe a mechanism for dynamic propagation of user feedback which progressively adapts the system to different speakers and lexical contexts. Results of usability and performance evaluation trials indicate that feedback propagation, menu-based correction coupled with keyboard interaction and text-driven audio playback are positively perceived by users and result in improved transcript accuracy.
Perera, Dharani, Eales, R. T. Jim and Blashki, Kathy (2008): Voice art: a novel mode for creating visual art. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 211-218. Available online
In this paper, we report on our investigation into people's ability to use the volume of their voice to create digital drawings. This is especially hopeful for artists with upper limb disabilities who show remarkable endurance, patience and determination to create art with whatever means available to them. We developed a prototype 'voice art' system to investigate the potential of this form of interaction. Our first experiment showed that varying the volume of the voice is both comfortable and intuitive. However, it was ascertained the instant usability of volume based control is better suited for target acquisition tasks as opposed to drawing tasks. Nevertheless, the results indicate the potential learnability of volume control for drawing. A second experiment investigated the long-term learnability of this form of interaction. The results show that drawing using voice volume control is a skill that can be developed with time. We believe that voice volume control has implications beyond assisting artists with upper limb disabilities. Such possible implications may be: an alternative mode of interaction for disabled people to perform tasks other than creating visual art; for people whose hands are busy elsewhere; and as a voice training system for people with speech impairments.
Dalsgaard, Peter, Halskov, Kim and Nielsen, Rune (2008): Towards a design space explorer for media facades. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 219-226. Available online
Collaborative design projects are often complex affairs in which a number of resources, concerns, and sources of inspiration are brought into play in the shaping of future design concepts. This paper presents the Design Space Explorer, a framework for managing these multiple sources of information and domain concerns in collaborative design projects. The Design Space Explorer captures and gives an overview of design materials and forms, domain locations and situations, interaction styles, and content types. Furthermore, it provides a platform for designers to combine these aspects into scenarios for design concepts. We present and discuss the use of the Design Space Explorer in two specific design cases in the domain of interactive media façades, part of the emerging field of digital urban living.
Pearce, Jon, Murphy, John and Smith, Wally (2008): Supporting gardeners to plan domestic watering: a case study of designing an 'everyday simulation'. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 227-230. Available online
We describe a project to design an internet-based application to support gardeners reasoning about the water demands and water supply for their gardens. This application is identified here as an instance of 'everyday simulation'; implying the use of simulation techniques for non-specialist users. Design strategies for everyday simulations are discussed including: the characteristic of simulations of inverting inputs and outputs; simulation by refinement; the embodiment of material constraints; and the educational aspect of simulation for non-specialists.
Podleschny, Nicole (2008): Playing urban sustainability: the ecology of a simulation game. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 231-234. Available online
To date, methodologies used in the field of game studies are prolific while indistinct due to the multifaceted nature of the field. In particular, games that shape our understandings of political, social or cultural environments add a new dimension to the discussion and theorization of games and learning. As gameplay is increasingly understood as situated in cultural contexts and practices, this paper argues for a comprehensive approach to game studies by positioning games in a wider ecology of learning. The strength of an ecology approach is that it identifies the relations and heterogeneous agents that contribute to developing, shaping, and performing the learning opportunities of a game. This paper suggests a methodological approach of qualitative ethnographic participant observation. Adopting a case study approach as an appropriate research strategy, this ethnography specifically examines and participates in the simulation game SCAPE (Sustainability, Community And Planning Education), an urban sustainability education tool.
Baharin, Hanif, Nor, Romiza Md. and Mühlberger, Ralf (2008): It's the thought that counts: content vs. contact. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 235-238. Available online
We are currently exploring two domains where the introduction of content gathering technologies is having a negative impact on social contact, particularly telecare technologies on independent living and sensor technologies on remote regional workers. To minimise the incidental cost of such interventions we are investigating enhanced design options that include contact, in the form of presence/awareness, as secondary functionality of these technologies. In this paper we classify a sample of presence technologies from the home environments using a model of presence, based on the concept of content and contact. Content is discussed in terms of the communication bandwidth while contact is viewed from the attention requirement of both initiator and receiver. Issues and successes of each category are highlighted, and we conclude with a contact focused interaction pattern that relates to, but is not driven by, content.
Lee, Chao-Lung, Cheng, Yun-Maw, Yeh, Ching-Long, Chen, Li-Chieh, Yu, Wai and Chen, Kuan-Ta (2008): Surfing in the crowd: feasibility study of experience sharing in a Taiwanese night market. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 239-242. Available online
Social Proximity Applications (SPAs) have prompted a promising opportunity for mobile services that utilize the changes in daily life in the proximity of mobile users. This paper describes our research-in-progress about designing and developing a mobile SPA, which facilitates social interaction among visitors in a night market crowd. This application allows night market visitors to share their experiences in photos with nearby others via their Bluetooth-enabled mobile phones. The design was based on a two-week field observation in an attempt to investigate the motivations and attitudes towards applications of this type. After a three-night extensive trial we found the value of the application -- privacy-sensitive, playful, and enjoyable, yields high consistency with results from field observation. The ultimate goal is to identify potential engaging design extensions to the current prototype.
Satchell, Christine, Foth, Marcus, Hearn, Greg and Schroeter, Ronald (2008): Suburban nostalgia: the community building potential of urban screens. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 243-246. Available online
Urbanely nomadic residents are increasingly forgoing the potential of locale based serendipitous encounters in favour of digitally mediated interactions within their walled garden of existing social networks. This limits a sense of community in urban neighbourhoods to members of one's social network, but what of interactions with those outside of these networks, such as inhabitants of residential spaces? We report on our pilot study of open ended interviews which investigates the different user archetypes whose needs we consider when designing social technology for urban spaces. We propose a design to extend the sense of community in urban neighbourhoods beyond pure network sociality. Through a lens of 'suburban nostalgia' we envision how neighbourhood interactions might be retrofitted in new ways through civic engagement in the enhancement of environments.
Fajardo, Noelene and Moere, Andrew Vande (2008): ExternalEyes: evaluating the visual abstraction of human emotion on a public wearable display device. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 247-250. Available online
This research presents a functional model for a wearable display that describes the typical contextual relationships surrounding its everyday use. Two wearable display devices were developed that sense and visually represent skin conductivity level, as an objective measurement of the physiological arousal in humans. Each device uses a distinct display technique, which varies in the level of comprehensibility and ambiguity it affords to those who view it over a period of time. A short observation and pilot study of usage patterns of each display technique was conducted to assess the qualitative comfort and usability issues of wearable computing displays in everyday environments.
Wilkinson, Brett and Calder, Paul (2008): Investigating touch interactions for an augmented world. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 25-32. Available online
Touch screen interaction usually requires the user to view the input surface in order to make their selections. When the interaction platform is purposefully occluded to allow for natural interaction with an augmented reality (AR) system new issues are raised in regard to the usability of the touch sensitive interface. This paper details a user evaluation scenario that we have conducted looking at pen-based selection techniques for a personal, light-weight AR system and introduces a trial for manipulation testing that we are currently conducting. By testing various techniques we are identifying a combination of operations that will enable effective and usable communication with an unobtrusive, mobile AR system.
Pearce, Jon and Pardo, Sofia (2008): To search or to explore -- that is the question: a study in mindful engagement. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 251-254. Available online
It's easy to attract someone's attention on the web -- seductive animations using software such as Flash make this all too easy. But how do you retain their interest and, more importantly, keep their focus on the task at hand? We have approached this question by producing a research tool called iFISH that enables us to quickly construct environments in which users explore a range of outcomes based on their dynamic changes to personal preference settings, together with reflections on the consequences of these changes. We first describe a study using this tool in the context of students given the task of making a selection from a large range of university subjects, and later we introduce other uses of such a system.
Hansen, Susan, Robertson, Toni, Wilson, Laurie and Hall, Ralph (2008): Using an action research approach to design a telemedicine system for critical care: a reflection. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 255-258. Available online
This paper reflects on the Action Research approach adopted in the design of the ECHONET (EchoCardiographic Healthcare Online Networking Expertise in Tasmania) system -- a telemedicine system developed by CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific Industrial Research Organisation) Australia to facilitate the sharing of expertise and services between the Intensive Care Units (ICUs) of a major tertiary hospital and a remote hospital in Tasmania, Australia. The baseline study within this project has been used to evaluate the ways in which the Action Research approach influenced the project directions and its success, allowing the project team to better tailor the system to the clinicians' needs and deal with the unanticipated complications that are common in health projects.
Wilde, Danielle (2008): The hipdiskettes: learning (through) wearables. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 259-262. Available online
Physically engaging wearable interfaces offer a new means of self-expression. They help us move beyond our reliance on linguistics by supporting more open, dynamic and fluid forms of expression that are pre-verbal, that originate in the body. Our research suggests that they also present untapped potential for learning about how different people learn. We investigate this idea through the learning process of the hipdiskettes, a group of performers working with the hipDisk wearable musical interface. Examples from the initial rehearsal periods are presented, noting the learning affordances provided by the interface, learning supports provided by the developer, and the different needs and approaches over time of the performers. Investigating learning was not the focus of the hipDisk research yet outcomes suggest that a consideration of how different people learn through, and about, their bodies is beneficial to the development of physically engaging wearables.
Mueller, Florian 'Floyd', Gibbs, Martin R. and Vetere, Frank (2008): Taxonomy of exertion games. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 263-266. Available online
A new set of computationally-augmented games have emerged recently that require the user to move their body. These exertion games are believed to contribute to social, mental and in particular, physical benefits, marking a change in how we perceive computer gaming. However, although these games are a commercial success, research is lacking a theoretical understanding how to analyse existing and guide future designs. We present initial investigations towards a taxonomy of such exertion games with a focus on social aspects, based on work on traditional play and sports. Our contribution lays the foundation for the creation of a theoretical framework on exertion games, expanding our understanding of this exciting new area.
Sinanan, Jolynna (2008): Social tools and social capital: reading mobile phone usage in rural indigenous communities. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 267-270. Available online
This paper will investigate the user behaviour of mobile phones within rural Victorian indigenous communities and will question the extent that theories on exchange and reciprocity as understood in Aboriginal culture resonate in application to the use of communication technologies as well as highlighting the potential value of mobile phones in aiding social and financial communications within the Goulburn Valley region's indigenous peoples (Victoria, Australia). The findings presented are drawn from preliminary research, involving an evaluation study of 'My Moola: Opening Financial Pathways', a non-governmentally funded financial empowerment program involving the indigenous community. While the engagement with communications technologies was minimal in the overall implementation of the program, the everyday use of mobile phones and SMS in the recruitment and retention strategy, as well as the everyday use by the participants of the program, suggest some insightful points that highlight the particular importance of communication technologies to the maintaining and reaffirming bonds of social and community relations within the indigenous context. These theoretically based readings of certain aspects of user behaviour, suggests the need for further, extensive research to gauge a better understanding of how these factors can ultimately be incorporated into technological design and service delivery.
Hargreaves, Dean M. G. and McCown, Bob R. L. (2008): Low-cost, low-bandwidth online meetings between farmers and scientists. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 271-274. Available online
This paper presents aspects of a nine year research activity into the use of low-cost, low-bandwidth Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to support online meetings between farmers and scientists in rural Australia. It discusses the use of Microsoft NetMeeting™ (NM) to support these meetings, and describes the social and technical conditions under which these tools are likely to be useful and used.
Loi, Daria and Prabhala, Sasanka (2008): The rise of middle and upper middle class in emerging markets: product and service opportunities. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 275-278. Available online
The middle and upper middle class population in the often termed emerging markets is typically a less investigated target as most consumer research and development efforts for such markets are primarily focused on rural communities as well as the lower to middle class population. We believe that, in a context where emerging markets are in constant transformation and the middle to upper middle classes are on a substantial growth path, it is important to explore appropriate ways to address these market segments as they represent an opportunity space for technological research and development. This paper discusses and shares results of a recent case study where a number of concepts and products were developed for such market segments in emerging markets and subsequently tested in China, Egypt, India and Brazil.
Hagen, Penny and MacFarlane, John (2008): Reflections on the role of seeding in social design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 279-282. Available online
In strategies that make use of social software participation not only defines success but also defines the design. This foregrounds particular considerations during the planning and design process about participation, and how we bridge the gap between the client vision, the project and the potential community of contributors or users. This paper introduces and reflects on the notion of seeding as a construct useful for emphasising and exploring ways to promote or increase the likelihood of successful engagement. In systems that are determined by participation, it is our position that part of our role as designers is to facilitate or seed that participation and that the act of seeding (participation) becomes a core design activity. In this paper we reflect through case studies on the significance and potential for seeding content, connection and community through our design work, and on the way this has affected our approach to and understanding of the design process.
Bødker, Mads and Nielsen, Janni (2008): Vision labs: seeing UCD as a relational practice. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 283-286. Available online
Relational aspects in user-centered design, UCD, are largely overlooked in the literature. We use criticism of UCD to facilitate a discussion of how discourse, activities, and materials give shape to user involvement in design activities. Drawing on experiments with the workshop format for devising innovations and creative solutions with users, we introduce some criteria and points of interest in the development of a workshop format we call Vision Labs.
Since the inception of our bush-encroachment decision support system, we have gone through many cycles of adaptations while striving towards what we believed to be a usable system. A fundamental difference between community based users and individualistic users necessitates a change in the design and evaluation methods as well as a community agreement of concepts and values guiding the design. In this paper we share the lessons learned along the story depicting the metamorphosis of a bush encroachment decision support system in Southern African rangelands. Above and beyond community members participating in the design and evaluation of the system, they establish the community grounded values determining the system's quality concepts such as usability.
Moss, Sarah L. and Edmonds, Ernest (2008): The reflective practitioner: in creation of PEGASYS. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 291-294. Available online
This paper discusses the framework of a presence-generating art system (PEGASYS) in development as part of practice-based research. The interactive audio-visual panoramic computer-based system provides engagement with a natural terrain, incorporating site-specific performance and augmented characters made possible through the design, production and implementation of a tetradecagon (14 sided) camera plate. A gaze-based interface facilitates a biotechnological interaction that utilizes our ability to see in a human-computer orientation. The co-joining of eye-gaze technology with human strengths produces an outcome that facilitates engagements that can be deeply rewarding, embedding participants in new relationships with remote natural habitats.
Schutt, Stefan (2008): Staging life stories on the web: the Small Histories project and performances of reconstruction. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 295-298. Available online
This paper discusses the Small Histories website, a work-in-progress that aims to create an online network of interlinked personal narratives by facilitating the creation and sharing of life stories. It investigates ways the Internet can support the urge to tell and share one's personal history, and explores some attendant issues. The question is raised: can personal and communal identity be reconstructed through web-based performances in the form of shared online narratives? In response, this paper poses the proposition that the Internet can be deployed as a performance space, with tools made available for people to gather and unite fragments from the traumatic past, and present them to an online audience.
Lin, Ming-Wei, Cheng, Yun-Maw, Yu, Wai and Sandnes, Frode Eika (2008): Investigation into the feasibility of using tactons to provide navigation cues in pedestrian situations. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 299-302. Available online
Current navigation services do not meet the needs of pedestrians. The displays are often inappropriate. In this paper, we report two experiments to investigate whether using tactile display to present navigation information is sufficient and appropriate in pedestrian situation. The result of those experiments showed that Tactons could be a successful means of communicating navigation information in user interfaces in pedestrian situations.
Lee, Ken, Yang, Kyung Jean (Tyler), Plimmer, Beryl and Harrison, Michael (2008): Real-time anaesthesia diagnosis display system with multi-modal alarms. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 303-306. Available online
Fatal errors during anaesthesia administration are usually preventable human mistakes. It is difficult for anaesthetists to keep monitoring every physiological change and to detect clinically critical events during anaesthesia. Intelligent patient monitoring systems to assist anaesthetists are under investigation. These systems require a distinctive and unique way of conveying alerts and diagnostic information to the anaesthetist in busy and noisy operating theatres. We present here a functional prototype of a multi-modal (audio&visual) alarm system, MMAS.
Dünser, Andreas, Billinghurst, Mark and Mancero, Gabriela (2008): Evaluating visual search performance with a multi layer display. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 307-310. Available online
A Multi Layer Display (MLD) is a novel device which allows content to be shown on different depth planes. Earlier research indicates that stereoscopic depth information can be beneficial in visual search tasks. This has not yet been explored for this new display technology. In this paper we present the results of an experiment to explore how the actual depth information afforded by a two layer MLD affects visual search task performance. We found that placing distracters and targets on different depth layers can significantly improve performance in complex search tasks. We discuss these findings and provide suggestions on how to arrange the stimuli across the two layers in order to get the full benefit of the depth information.
Jomhari, Nazean, Gonzalez, Victor M. and Kurniawan, Sri H. (2008): Telling my baby's stories: family communication and narrative practices of young mothers living abroad. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 311-314. Available online
This study investigates the motivations of using rich-media forms of computer-mediated-communication (CMC) tools among young mothers living abroad to maintain ties with their geographically-separated families and friends. Our research involves sixteen Malaysian young mothers living in the United Kingdom, most of them dealing with the challenges of juggling work or studies and taking care of their babies. We investigate the digital records and family communication practices as well as motivations that underlie the use of CMC to create baby stories and narratives. Our results highlight the value of technologies to share and have access to the quotidian experiences at each side of the globe and to the baby's life. We discuss the implications of these results for the designing of future rich-media types of CMCs to capture narratives.
Howell, Catherine and Arnold, Michael (2008): Night shifts: some situated dimensions of student technology use. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 315-318. Available online
The use of domestic information and communications technologies during the evenings and at nighttime is growing, yet this emergent phenomenon remains under-studied. In order to design effectively for night-time use, there is a need to understand the spatial and behavioural contexts for technology use 'after hours'. This paper describes the role of networked technologies and technological devices in the evening time-use patterns of undergraduate and postgraduate students at a research-intensive UK university. Using data obtained from two Experience Sampling Method studies, it shows how technology use permeates the flow of students' evening routines, enabling multitasking and the maintenance of social presence alongside the performance of study-related tasks. Affective dimensions of technology use in student rooms during evening hours are highlighted, and implications for the design of networked devices and information and communications services are described.
People with cancer have to contend with a variety of physical, emotional and social difficulties. Young people with cancer are often faced with the additional burden of isolation from their peers and social network. This paper outlines early results from a collaborative project seeking to use emerging technologies to develop and evaluate a peer-based social support system to support social connectivity amongst young people with cancer. We introduce an integrated service named MyTrac, which combines online social network applications and mobile broadband telephony. Seven young people (18-25yo) participated in the three month study. The study encompassed in-depth interview data, questionnaire data and an analysis of system audit logs, which documents participants' use and experience of the system. In this paper we highlight specific communications mediated by MyTrac, showing how they are a reflection of both the individual personalities of participants and a reflection of their cancer journey. We illustrate how these individual identities construct a collaborative identity for MyTrac, one which both encompasses and excludes particular types of interaction. We conclude by articulating some design considerations for social connectivity systems which seek to support young people with cancer.
Button, Angela (2008): Designing social tools for the bees, the buzz and the beehive. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 323-326. Available online
Urban master-planned communities, designed for demographically mixed populations, do not necessarily give rise to meaningful social interactions that enable residents to take advantage of social and cultural diversity. This paper discusses design considerations emerging from an ongoing case study that investigates how living in a diverse master-planned community influences residents' communicative ecology. The challenge of the study is to create a design intervention that can not only facilitate the collection, visualisation and analysis of data for researchers, but also promote social connectivity among residents of the Kelvin Grove Urban Village (KGUV), Brisbane, Australia. By leveraging mashups and interest in participatory culture, it may be possible to create a novel dynamic visualisation that can capture the social, discursive and technological characteristics -- "the bees, the buzz and the beehive" -- of urban communities. This has the potential to create a powerful analytical research tool for user-centred, participatory research that brings us one step closer to understanding the ever-changing communicative ecology of our research participants. It may also reveal innovative ways in which we can use social media to support the social sustainability of diverse urban neighbourhoods.
Krumm-Heller, Alex, Wessels, Anja and Dio, Franco Di (2008): Teaching multimedia by using multimedia: remote hands-on teaching. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 327-330. Available online
This paper investigates the development and deployment of a system facilitating the teaching of multimedia application skills. Our contribution is a new approach to supporting remote hands-on training of highly graphical multimedia applications. One popular method of teaching multimedia skills is to use laboratory sessions where students gain skills by completing representative tasks exercising their knowledge of the tools. Usually a teacher will be co-located with the students and can therefore share physical access to each student's computer to collaboratively work with them to answer any questions raised during the lesson. Conducting lessons remotely removes physical co-location. This physical separation of the student from the teacher introduces considerable technical and usability issues, focused around the inability to share physical access to a common computer workspace. Therefore we developed a networked environment to facilitate the distributed educational process and ran a trial to assess the usability of the system.
Foth, Marcus, Gonzalez, Victor M. and Kraemer, Kenneth L. (2008): Design considerations for community portals in master-planned developments in Australia and Mexico. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 33-40. Available online
This paper presents a discussion of design considerations for community web portals as social networking systems. We analyse and compare the social interaction approach, design considerations and socio-technical requirements with regards to community portal technology employed in two master-planned urban developments in Australia and Mexico. We focus on how the human and social concepts and local contextualisations affect technology design and use. In response to our analysis, and to face the challenge of designing for variability and diversity, we present the communicative ecology model as a conceptual tool to help researchers and designers grasp the situated context and purpose of these systems in order to inform the design and development of better community technology.
Wyeth, Peta (2008): Understanding engagement with tangible user interfaces. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 331-334. Available online
This paper examines the issues surrounding the successful design and development of tangible technology for optimal engagement in playful activities. At present there is very little data on how, and in what contexts, tangible interactions with technology promote lasting engagement and immersion. The framework at the core of this paper has been designed to guide the effective design of tangible technology for immersive interaction. The paper investigates the relationship between tangible user interfaces (TUI) characteristics of representation and control, and immersive flow experiences produced through balancing skill and challenge in user interaction.
Khawaja, M. Asif, Ruiz, Natalie and Chen, Fang (2008): Think before you talk: an empirical study of relationship between speech pauses and cognitive load. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 335-338. Available online
Measuring a user's level of cognitive load while they are interacting with the system could offer another dimension to the development of adaptable user interfaces. High levels of cognitive load affect performance and efficiency. However, current methods of measuring cognitive load are physically intrusive and interrupt the task flow. Certain speech features have been shown to change under high levels of load and are good candidates for cognitive load indices for usability evaluation and automatic adaptation of an interface or work environment. A speech-based dual-task user study is presented in which we explore the behaviour of speech pause features in natural speech. The experiment yielded new results confirming that speech pauses are useful indicators of high load versus low load speech. We report an increase in the percentage of time spent pausing from low load to high load tasks. We interpret these results within the framework of Baddeley's modal model of working memory and detail how such a measure could be utilized in the cognitive load measurement.
Phalip, Julien, Jean, David and Edmonds, Ernest (2008): Resolving ambiguity of scope in remote collaboration: a study in film scoring. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 339-342. Available online
In this paper we report on a qualitative study aiming to support online and asynchronous collaboration between stakeholders of the film scoring industry. We first describe the low-fidelity prototype we designed to facilitate the establishment of a clear scope for creative discussions. We then present evaluations conducted with two composers and a filmmaker to test the prototype's design principles. Outcomes from these evaluations stressed the need for resolving the ambiguity that occurs in remote collaboration. Feedback from participants also depicted the complex nature of the composer-filmmaker relationship and confirmed the virtues of asynchronous means of communication to support that relationship.
Weiley, Viveka and Pisan, Yusuf (2008): The distributed studio: towards a theory of virtual place for creative collaboration. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 343-346. Available online
Virtual environments intended to support creative collaboration are being built without an informed consideration of the implicit interaction design choices being made. This paper proposes a set of design principles for such environments. Drawing from theory and reflective practice we suggest a conceptual focus on a Distributed Studio designed around the following five principles: Support Reconfiguration, Mix Realities, Control Access, Be A/Synchronous, and Transform Space into Inhabited Place.
Tabak, Edin (2008): Inscription of information behaviour to communities of practice on an organisational intranet. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 347-350. Available online
Organisational information systems could be more effective if users' information behaviour is inscribed to information systems. This paper describes inscriptions of information behaviour to three communities of practice on an organisational intranet and explores the impact of the inscriptions on the success of these communities from users' point of view. Seventeen participants from an entertainment organisation were interviewed using particular narrative technique -- episodic interviewing. The due process model, based on actor-network theory, was used to select different actors and episodes from narratives and identify interactions between them. The study found that the most successful community of practice was the one that both successfully translated user information behaviour and aligned itself to important human (managers) and nonhuman (a product catalogue application) actors. Two unsuccessful applications either fail to successfully translate user information behaviour or fail to align itself to powerful actors.
Taylor, Nick and Cheverst, Keith (2008): "This might be stupid, but...": participatory design with community displays and postcards. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 41-48. Available online
We describe our experiences of designing a digital community display with members of a rural community. These experiences are highlighted by the development of printed and digital postcard features for the Wray Photo Display, a public photosharing display designed with the community, which was trialled during a popular village fair where both local residents and visitors interacted with the system. This trial allowed us to examine the relative popularity and differences in usage between printed and digital postcard, and offer insights into the uses of these features with community-generated content and potential problems encountered.
Perera, Nilma, Kennedy, Gregor and Pearce, Jon (2008): Are you bored?: Maybe an interface agent can help!. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 49-56. Available online
In this paper we present the influence of Emotive Interface Agents on task-induced boredom. We studied the effects of two agents -- friendly and unfriendly. The results show that, like human-human interaction, emotional contagion can happen between agents and users and that it can lead to reduction in task induced boredom. As expected, the friendly agent proved to be more successful in reducing boredom and maintaining participants' focus on task than the unfriendly agent. Moreover, participants felt that the friendly agent added stimulation to the task. This indicates that the friendly agent had some influence on the perception of the task. However, the effects of the unfriendly agent should not be downplayed. Even though the unfriendly agent was perceived as irritating and annoying, a majority of the participants felt that the agent masked the boredom and the monotony of performing a simple repetitive task. More surprisingly many participants found it entertaining to interact with the unfriendly agent, implying counter contagion of emotions. Given the findings of this study, we believe that agents have great potential in regulating emotions. We believe these agents can be successfully used in everyday monotonous/boring tasks such as e-form filling and data entry. With further research we also believe that agents can be extended into learning environments to assist in regulating emotions in learners.
Biljon, Judy van, Kotze, Paula and Renaud, Karen (2008): Mobile phone usage of young adults: the impact of motivational factors. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 57-64. Available online
To increase marketability in a competitive and technologically evolving market designers are compelled to add new features to mobile phones. This often leads to 'featuritis' with hit-and-miss success rates. Our research goal is to find a more informed point of departure for feature addition activities that will improve design and maximise return on investment. We argue that a human motivational factor focus could provide a solid grounding for judging whether features are likely to be used, or not. In this paper we address the motivational factors that underlie mobile phone use by young adults aged between 18 and 30. We consider models for motivational factors from psychology and consumer science, as well as mobile phone usage space models, including the mobile phone usage space model (MUSM). MUSM proposes linking usage spaces to motivational factors, but does not explicitly investigate the mapping of features to the identified usage spaces. In this paper we investigate the features associated with individual MUSM usage spaces as well as the ranking of the usage spaces for our specific target group.
Stevenson, Duncan (2008): Training and process change: a collaborative telehealth case study. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 65-72. Available online
The next generation of telehealth systems running over broadband Internet will offer opportunities to change the way clinicians provide health services. This case study is a component of a larger research project which explores the implications of broadband telehealth in a tertiary healthcare setting. The research question of this case study addresses how to train and prepare clinicians to do their job using the next generation of telehealth systems. This case study presents observations of twelve clinicians during the training sessions conducted for them as they prepared to use a research prototype telehealth system in a pilot trial at their hospital. The telehealth system was purpose-designed to address the range of needs of the clinicians involved and clinicians very rapidly understood the affordances of the system. Our observations show that the clinicians spent the bulk of the training sessions dealing with process change. They focused on three areas: collaborating with their remotely located clinical assistant, adapting their clinical practice in order to use the system and identifying areas where the telehealth system need to be changed to support their specific needs. Our observations also show that each of the senior surgeons amongst the clinicians (working in a different sub-specialty) dealt differently with the process changes. We conclude that for complex tertiary healthcare telehealth applications the distinction between training given to the clinicians and process change identified by the clinicians is worth considering when preparing clinicians to use the next generation of telehealth systems. We suggest that teams developing advanced telehealth systems consider these issues of process change as they develop ways to prepare clinicians to use their system.
Li, Jane, Robertson, Toni, Hansen, Susan, Mansfield, Tim and Kjeldskov, Jesper (2008): Multidisciplinary medical team meetings: a field study of collaboration in health care. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 73-80. Available online
We present an observational study that was conducted to guide the design of an enhanced collaboration platform to support distributed multidisciplinary team meetings between two hospitals. Our goal was to find out how the breast cancer multidisciplinary team collaborates in their face-to-face meetings and in their discussions using an existing video-conferencing system and to identify obstacles and issues to their primary tasks. We identified a set of concerns around the way visibility and audibility affect the social cohesion of the group and impede communication and situation awareness between the distributed team. We also identified a parallel set of concerns around the difficulty of preparing and interacting around the medical images used in the meetings. These issues exposed a complex matrix of technical, social, procedural and organisational factors that affect the collaboration. We suggest potential directions for technical interventions in this setting.
Loke, Lian and Robertson, Toni (2008): Inventing and devising movement in the design of movement-based interactive systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 81-88. Available online
This paper reports on a study that explored ways of inventing and devising movement for use in the design of movement-based interaction with video-based, motion-sensing technologies. Methods that dancers, trained in movement improvisation and performance-making, used to choreograph movement were examined as sources of potential methods for technology designers. The findings enabled us to develop methods and tools for creating and structuring new movements, based on felt experience and the creative potential of the moving body. These methods and tools contribute to the ongoing development of a design methodology underpinned by the principle of making strange. By making strange, we mean ways of unsettling habitual perceptions and conceptions of the moving body to arrive at fresh appreciations and perspectives for design that are anchored in the sensing, feeling and moving body.
Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup, Fritsch, Jonas and Kortbek, Karen Johanne (2008): Kinesthetic interaction: revealing the bodily potential in interaction design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 89-96. Available online
Within the Human-Computer Interaction community there is a growing interest in designing for the whole body in interaction design. The attempts aimed at addressing the body have very different outcomes spanning from theoretical arguments for understanding the body in the design process, to more practical examples of designing for bodily potential. This paper presents Kinesthetic Interaction as a unifying concept for describing the body in motion as a foundation for designing interactive systems. Based on the theoretical foundation for Kinesthetic Interaction, a conceptual framework is introduced to reveal bodily potential in relation to three design themes -- kinesthetic development, kinesthetic means and kinesthetic disorder; and seven design parameters -- engagement, sociality, movability, explicit motivation, implicit motivation, expressive meaning and kinesthetic empathy. The framework is a tool to be utilized when analyzing existing designs, as well as developing designs exploring new ways of designing kinesthetic interactions.
Strengers, Yolande (2008): Smart metering demand management programs: challenging the comfort and cleanliness habitus of households. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 9-16. Available online
Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's concepts of habitus, field and capital, this paper outlines how smart metering demand management programs could be redesigned to bring together the competing fields of resource management and domestic life. Comfort and cleanliness expectations, which are ingrained in the habitus of householders and the field of domestic life, are often overlooked in demand management programs, which focus instead on making existing and evolving expectations more efficient. This paper draws on preliminary findings from qualitative research activities with householders who received consumption feedback through an in-home display, and/or variable price signals -- both enabled by smart meters. The paper offers insights for designers of interactive demand management strategies about how to go beyond achieving efficiency benefits in the home in order to fundamentally change expectations and norms ingrained in the habitus.
Odendaal, Nancy, Duminy, James and Saunders, Paul (2008): Is digital technology urban?: Understanding intermetropolitan digital divides in South Africa. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 97-103. Available online
Many metropolitan areas, particularly in South Africa, contain urban and peri-urban settlement typologies representative of a diverse range of built forms, lifestyles and livelihoods. Access to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is influenced by geography, market demand and affordability at household and individual levels. This paper explores how this relationship is manifested spatially in the South African context. The result is not altogether surprising; remote peri-urban areas face bigger obstructions to ubiquitous access due to a number of reasons. Affordability and infrastructure distribution are clearly influential. The assumption is that digital divides exist but little systematic research has been done on how these differences manifest at a metropolitan scale. This paper explores the relationship between the digital divide and spatial trends in Durban, South Africa.
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1