What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1
Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children
Time and place:
The IDC conference is a leading international forum for exploring childrens' and youngsters' needs in relationship to technology, i.e. exploring how to create interactive products for and with them, and investigating how technology-mediated experiences affect their life.
The subject of children's programming has long been a vexed and controversial one in the field of educational technology. Debates in this area have typically focused on issues such as how to create a child-friendly programming language; or whether children can learn particular topics (e.g., recursion) in programming; or indeed, whether it is worthwhile for children to encounter programming at all. For the most part, these debates have taken place against an implicit background of assumptions about what children's programming looks like -- namely, an activity focused on creating effects on a desktop screen or, occasionally, robotic toy. This paper argues that the cultural and anthropological contexts of children's programming are now poised to change: that new programming materials, physical settings, and unorthodox display surfaces are likely to shift the nature of the children's-programming debate in profound ways, and to make programming a far more informal, approachable, and natural activity than heretofore. We illustrate this argument with projects underway in our own research.
Rick, Jochen, Harris, Amanda, Marshall, Paul, Fleck, Rowanne, Yuill, Nicola and Rogers, Yvonne (2009): Children designing together on a multi-touch tabletop: an analysis of spatial orientation and user interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 106-114. Available online
Applications running on multi-touch tabletops are beginning to be developed to enable children to collaborate on a variety of activities, from photo sharing to playing games. However, little is know as to how children work together on such interactive surfaces. We present a study that investigated groups of children's use of a multitouch tabletop for a shared-space design task, requiring reasoning and compromise. The OurSpace application was designed to allow children to arrange the desks in their classroom and allocate students to seats around those desks. A number of findings are reported, including a comparison of single versus multiple touch, equity of participation, and an analysis of how a child's tabletop position affects where he or she touches. A main finding was that children used all of the tabletop surface, but took more responsibility for the parts of the design closer to their relative position.
Moher, Tom (2009): Putting interference to work in the design of a whole-class learning activity. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 115-122. Available online
Who's Who is a single-display groupware application designed for use by an entire class of young students. Utilizing a shared display, each user controls the state of discrete display elements using a simple interface on a handheld device; however, the semantics of user operations are left unspecified and become the subjects of guided student discovery. Interference among users is leveraged in support of student learning about the scientific principle of "control of variables," in particular, the strategy of varying one independent variable at a time in multivariate systems. We present the experience of a third-grade classroom that used Who's Who, including both an account of learning outcomes and a description of the technology and social interactions that led to those outcomes.
Seitinger, Susanne (2009): Designing for spatial competence. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 123-130. Available online
Child-computer interaction designers are increasingly concerned with developing technologies that support and encourage physical activity in children in everyday indoor and outdoor settings. This trend mirrors commercial developments towards so-called exertion interfaces like the Nintendo Wii that require full-body engagement. Physical health benefits aside, these types of interfaces present an important and underexplored design opportunity because they also engage children's spatial cognitive abilities. Can we harness this potential and design interfaces that support the development of spatial competence in children? To explore this question, the paper describes some of the cognitive and neural underpinnings of spatial competence as they relate to interaction design for children. With this background, I explore five interaction design examples: taking multiple perspectives on the environment, zooming in and out, estimating distances, experiencing motion, and encountering rich visual cues. These examples provide a starting point for new directions in designing exertion interfaces and ubiquitous computing interfaces for children that support different aspects of spatial cognitive development.
Soler-Adillon, Joan, Ferrer, Jaume and Pares, Narcis (2009): A novel approach to interactive playgrounds: the interactive slide project. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 131-139. Available online
The incipient research on interactive playgrounds is a promising field that can enhance in many ways growth, health and education of children and youngsters. In this paper, we present a novel approach to interactive playgrounds by describing the physical and interaction design of a new platform: the Interactive Slide. We concentrate on the main design issues and relate the acceptance of this platform; specifically through two applications that we have designed for it: one for children 4 to 8 years and a second for youngsters 10 to 14. This platform can provide a fertile ground for creative, leisure and educational applications and experiences. However, our main focus is on countering lack of physical activity and lack of socialization in children, which are important issues in all developed countries (and some underdeveloped ones) and especially important in Europe because of their accelerated pace of incidence.
Bakker, Saskia, Antle, Alissa N. and Hoven, Elise van den (2009): Identifying embodied metaphors in children's sound-action mappings. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 140-149. Available online
Physical activity and manipulating physical objects can be beneficial for learning. Earlier studies  have shown that interaction models that rely on unconscious and embodied knowledge (based on embodied metaphors) can benefit the learning process. However, more than one embodied metaphor might be applicable. In this paper, we present the results of a user study (n=65) designed to identify embodied metaphors seven to nine year old children use when enacting abstract concepts related to musical sound. The results provide evidence that multiple different embodied metaphors can unconsciously be used to structure the understanding of these concepts. In addition, we have identified and categorized commonly used metaphors based on the children's enactments of changing sound concepts.
Carolis, Bernardina De and Rossano, Veronica (2009): A team of presentation agents for edutainment. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 150-153. Available online
This paper presents the development of a presentation team that shows, explains and provides useful advices to children in the domain of "healthy nutrition". Agents of the team are endowed with different roles and personality traits so as to explain domain concepts from different viewpoints. In order to develop a system independent from the domain and the bodies of the agents, explanations and pieces of advice are generated and not statically scripted. The presentation plan is distributed to the various team actors and it is adapted to the characteristics of the interlocutor. To test the system and to evaluate the efficacy of the team in this domain we used a family of characters already present in the cartoon world: the Smurfies.
Bitonto, Pierpaolo Di, Roselli, Teresa and Rossano, Veronica (2009): Formative evaluation of a didactic software for acquiring problem solving abilities using Prolog. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 154-157. Available online
Informatics has permeated the educational environments at all levels. In Italian primary schools Informatics teachers present the computer and how it works rather than the programming languages. At present, there is a deep debate about the use of programming languages and, in particular, logic programming in the primary school. On the basis of these premises, the paper presents a didactic software, named KidsPro, addressed to pupils attending fifth-grade of primary school. It aims at improving the user problem solving abilities using Prolog. In order to build an effective and efficient software the User-Centred Design approach was used and the paper presents the results of the formative evaluation performed. The results of this pilot study will be used in the further implementation of the software.
Göttel, Timo (2009): Virtual sandbox: adding groupware abilities to Scratch. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 158-161. Available online
This paper highlights shortcomings of programming environments designed for novices to be used as a collaborative tool in game design. It also addresses these issues in the context of the bad image of informatics today. This article focuses on the graphical programming environment Scratch, which is well received by pupils and teachers. We will present observations on group behavior using Scratch in two projects at schools. The pupils were between 12 and 18 years old and had to design games within a week. Finally, we will introduce a Scratch mock-up to support collaboration, whose features were derived from our observations.
Kefalidis, Chrisovalantis, Lazakidou, Georgia and Retalis, Symeon (2009): SyCo: a collaborative learning tool for generating ideas in private and in public. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 162-165. Available online
In this paper a synchronous computer supported collaborative learning tool called SyCo is presented. It was designed to facilitate students in performing tasks according to the principles of various collaborative learning strategies, such as Jigsaw and eARMA. SyCo innovates because during the collaborative learning process it allows each student to have a private space to think and draw their ideas before presenting them to their peer-students in the public space. Thus, within SyCo peers can move into and out of a shared space, work privately, copy and paste parts of their own work that had been sketched in their private space in order to share them with others.
Mansour, Anna, Barve, Mugdha, Bhat, Sushama and Do, Ellen Yi-Luen (2009): MunchCrunch: a game to learn healthy-eating heuristics. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 166-169. Available online
Children and adolescents are at an age where they are beginning to gain autonomy over choosing the foods they eat, yet may not have adequate support or information to make informed choices. This paper describes the design of a heuristic-based health game called MunchCrunch to help this age group learn more about healthy and unhealthy foods to develop balanced eating habits.
Weller, Michael Philetus, Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Gross, Mark D. (2009): State machines are child's play: observing children ages 9 to 11 playing Escape Machine. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 170-173. Available online
We developed Escape Machine, a puzzle game in which children control the behavior of characters in a maze by manipulating a tangible state machine built with Posey, our computationally-enhanced hub-and-strut construction kit. We observed children ages nine to eleven playing the game in several sessions. The qualitative results of this observation validate the promise of Posey and Escape Machine to engage children in manipulating algorithmic specifications for behavior.
Bruikman, Hester, Drunen, Annemiek van, Huang, He and Vakili, Vanessa (2009): Lali: exploring a tangible interface for augmented play for preschoolers. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 174-177. Available online
This paper outlines the exploration of a Tangible user interface for unstructured play, in which a physical plush toy is used to remotely control an augmented digital representation of itself. Preschool users were profiled and an initial prototype was built and evaluated using a co-discovery exploration. It was observed that the children enjoyed playing with the toy, and that the children over 2 years of age understood the remote coupling of the physical and digital representation.
Harfield, Antony, Jormanainen, Ilkka and Shujau, Hassan (2009): First steps in distributed tangible technologies: a virtual tug of war. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 178-181. Available online
The paper introduces an example of a 'distributed tangible technology' as a new type of technology that enables children in different physical locations to engage in physical interaction. A virtual tug of war game is an example of a distributed tangible technology that is played by groups of children pulling a rope from two separate locations. The game was launched when teams in Finland and South Africa competed during an international science festival. The paper describes the design and implementation of the tug of war game. It explores the challenges combining tangible user interfaces with distributed computing and distributed technologies to be overcome in future educational applications for children.
Benveniste, Samuel, Jouvelot, Pierre, Lecourt, Edith and Michel, Renaud (2009): Designing wiimprovisation for mediation in group music therapy with children suffering from behavioral disorders. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 18-26. Available online
We present qualitative experimental evidence that the "Wiimprovisation" process of using Nintendo Wiimotes as virtual instruments linked to a musical sound system within the framework of Group Music Therapy sessions can provide effective psychodynamic mediation for patients. We designed and implemented specific modalities for movement-based sound control and tested our tool in two clinical settings with children (age 7 to 12) suffering from behavioral disorders. Our preliminary results show immediate acceptance of, long term motivation for and meaningful expression through our system by patients. Future work will focus on assessing the therapeutic potential of our platform's personalization features in a controlled experiment.
Hendrix, Koen, Herk, Robert van, Verhaegh, Janneke and Markopoulos, Panos (2009): Increasing children's social competence through games, an exploratory study. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 182-185. Available online
We describe the design and evaluation of Playground Architect, a multi-player game designed to help shy children gain social confidence. The game is played by a small group of children around an interactive tabletop surface using a tangible user interface. The game was evaluated with 32 children (mean age 9.5). All players enjoyed the game. Shy children enjoyed being in charge and were quite talkative during play. Interviews with teachers show that some shy children behaved notably more outgoing. These results illustrate the potential of socially educational games.
Johansson, Sara (2009): Sniff: designing characterful interaction in a tangible toy. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 186-189. Available online
This paper presents a design case of an interactive, tangible toy dog called Sniff that through the use of wireless technology gives auditory and tactile feedback from tagged objects in the world. By focusing on non-visual interactive qualities the project aims to engage with the particular needs of children with sight impairment, but also for inclusion across a range of user abilities and age. Sniff has been developed through an interleaved concept, product and prototype design process that has resulted in a highly characterful soft toy that supports playful activities. The design findings relate the importance of physical prototyping in design of embodied interactions and reflections on the role of character and abstraction in interaction design.
Marco, Javier, Cerezo, Eva, Baldasarri, Sandra, Mazzone, Emanuela and Read, Janet C. (2009): User-oriented design and tangible interaction for kindergarten children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 190-193. Available online
This paper describes a tabletop prototype that allows kindergarten children to take the benefits of the new pedagogical possibilities that tangible interaction and tabletop technologies offer to manipulative learning. After analyzing children's cognitive and psychomotorial skills, we have designed and tuned a prototype game suitable for children aged 3 to 4 years old. Our prototype uniquely combines low cost tangible interaction and tabletop technology with tutored learning. The design has been based on observations of the children using the technology, letting them freely play with the application during three play sessions. These observational sessions informed the design decisions for the game whilst also confirming the children's enjoyment with the prototype.
Price, Sara and Falcão, Taciana Pontual (2009): Designing for physical-digital correspondence in tangible learning environments. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 194-197. Available online
In tangible learning environments the potential to exploit different physical-digital links increases representational power but also broadens the complexity of design. This paper presents studies that illustrate the effect of physical correspondence design choices on learners' interpretations, particularly regarding meaning making and conceptual mappings between objects and representations, and learners' ability to generalize. Preconceptions and associations with familiar real settings were found to have a significant level of interference in children's perception, interpretation and comprehension of the concepts.
Alessandrini, Andrea, Rizzo, Antonio and Rubegni, Elisa (2009): Drama prototyping for the design of urban interactive systems for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 198-201. Available online
In this paper, we present Wi-swing, a case study approach in designing a networked playground for children located in a public garden. The approach adopted in the case study is based on prototyping using the technique of scenario dramatization. The process of designing augmented interactive systems needs to be addressed to consider the physical, aesthetic and social aspects of interaction. In the case study illustrated in this paper, the design process is based on prototyping using the scenario dramatization technique. This technique allows us to explore and investigate the possible features of interactive artifacts focusing on the potential of the technology and the emergent practices. Wi-swing is the concept developed using dramatization: a tool for listening to stories in public spaces, controlled entirely by children. In the paper we show the results of the early design process and the development of the concepts by scenario dramatization. In what follows, we describe a case study in which we applied this technique for the development of an interactive urban playground through which children can be authors of the stories to which they are listening.
Hinske, Steve, Lampe, Matthias, Yuill, Nicola, Price, Sara and Langheinrich, Marc (2009): Kingdom of the Knights: evaluation of a seamlessly augmented toy environment for playful learning. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 202-205. Available online
Ubiquitous technologies offer new opportunities for digitally augmenting children's toys and play experiences. A key question is how augmented toy environments affect children's playful learning, and whether this differs from non-augmented play environments. This paper presents preliminary results of a user study we conducted to evaluate an augmented toy environment that we built -- the Augmented Knights Castle -- in terms of fun and storytelling, particularly when compared with an identical, non-augmented version. All sessions were observed, video-recorded and further feedback was elicited through small group interviews and questionnaires. Findings suggest ways in which digitally augmented play environments promote different kinds of activity from an equivalent non-augmented play environment.
Kim, Jinyoung, Jung, Donggi, Lee, Kibeom, Jin, Yongjin and Yeo, Woon Seung (2009): Bubble Letters: a child-centric interface for virtual and real world experience. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 206-209. Available online
In this paper, we suggest a new interactive game for children, Bubble Letters, which allows children to experience both real and virtual environments by interacting with physical interfaces. A user composes a message from the screen and displays it on the public screen. With this process, children can learn how to compose and deliver their messages to their friends with fun, and may also develop a conception of the world by involving physical interactions. Adults can also enjoy Bubble Letters by retrieving childhood memories through childlike acts with their children.
Radu, Iulian and MacIntyre, Blair (2009): Augmented-reality scratch: a children's authoring environment for augmented-reality experiences. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 210-213. Available online
In this paper we introduce AR Scratch, the first augmented-reality (AR) authoring environment designed for children. By adding augmented-reality functionality to the Scratch programming platform, this environment allows pre-teens to create programs that mix real and virtual spaces. Children can display virtual objects on a real-world space seen through a camera, and they can control the virtual world through interactions between physical objects. This paper describes the system design process, which focused on appropriately presenting the AR technology to the typical Scratch population (children aged 8-12), as influenced by knowledge of child spatial cognition, programming expertise, and interaction metaphors. Evaluation of this environment is proposed, accompanied by results from an initial pilot study, as well as discussion of foreseeable impacts on the Scratch user community.
Sugimoto, Masanori, Ito, Toshitaka, Nguyen, Tuan Ngoc and Inagaki, Shigenori (2009): GENTORO: a system for supporting children's storytelling using handheld projectors and a robot. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 214-217. Available online
This paper describes a system called GENTORO that uses a robot and a handheld projector for supporting children's storytelling activities. GENTORO differs from many existing systems in that children can make a robot play their own story in a physical space augmented by mixed-reality technologies. A user study conducted in collaboration with elementary school children and teachers indicates that GENTORO's features can enhance children's embodied participation in, and their level of engagement with, their storytelling activities, and can support children in designing and expressing creative and original stories.
Kuhn, Alex, Quintana, Chris and Soloway, Elliot (2009): StoryTime: a new way for children to write. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 218-221. Available online
The StoryTime project explores the benefits of and issues surrounding the use of mobile finger-touch devices to support struggling writers. StoryTime is a mobile finger-touch tool designed from a learner-centered design perspective to be a supportive writing tool for children 7-9 years old. StoryTime allows children to write stories by providing simpler writing mechanics, increased user engagement, and a contextualized writing experience. The combination of these attributes allows struggling writers to focus more on the sentence construction task. Here we describe the iterative design and testing of three versions of StoryTime on 13 children to date.
In the LEGS system, GPS-equipped mobile phones are used to learn about animals and their bodies from the viewpoint of evolution in a zoo. This system identifies nearby animals, asks questions about the animals' bodies to enhance observation, provides navigations for the next observations, and summarizes several observed animals' parts from the viewpoint of evolution. 24 students (age: 14-15 years old) learnt about animals using the mobile phones in a zoo. We evaluated the system and found that it helped students explore, observe, and learn about animals' bodies independently in the zoo.
Winkler, Thomas, Ide, Martina, Wolters, Christian and Herczeg, Michael (2009): WeWrite: 'on-the-fly' interactive writing on electronic textiles with mobile phones. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 226-229. Available online
In this paper, we describe the background of the design and the new possibilities of interaction for teenagers with WeWrite, a JAVA-based interaction tool for mobile phones. WeWrite opens up new possibilities for interacting with self-designed and programmed wearables, using the Lily-Pad, the iconic programming interface Amici, as well as IDE Arduino. WeWrite has been designed and developed by three university students in close cooperation with teachers and thirty-one 10th grade students. WeWrite enables its young users to experience and reflect on e-textiles as creating new modes of communication, interaction and identity construction while writing letter strings. Using LED matrixes, animated forms of digital writing can be displayed on clothes (e.g. jeans and sweatshirts). Furthermore, LEDs can be attached to gloves that create the impression of air letters when moved quickly in darkened rooms.
Yiannoutsou, Nikoleta, Papadimitriou, Ioanna, Komis, Vassilis and Avouris, Nikolaos (2009): "Playing with" museum exhibits: designing educational games mediated by mobile technology. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 230-233. Available online
In this paper, we describe two educational games mediated by mobile technology which were designed for use in the context of a traditional historical museum by young children. Our analysis focuses on the principles of the educational design, on the use of mobile technology and on the envisaged interaction between the exhibits and the children. The main argument of the paper is that mobile technology can support the play with the exhibits of a museum -- instead of just viewing them in the more traditional way -- and in this context the spectrum of children interaction with the exhibits can be broadened and enriched.
Hashagen, Anja, Büching, Corinne and Schelhowe, Heidi (2009): Learning abstract concepts through bodily engagement: a comparative, qualitative study. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 234-237. Available online
The emergent discussion about embodiment offers new perspectives in Human-Computer-Interaction and needs further fundamental research in particular for its usefulness in the field of education. With our approach we want to use the concept to foster children's motivation to gain insight into the secrets of "intelligent" behavior of computer-generated artifacts. In this paper, our leading question is: Does bodily engagement support children in learning abstract models implemented through digital technologies better than through traditional software applications? We developed an installation Der Schwarm, which aims at motivating children to learn by whole body interaction as well as a learning software application Boids Regeln. We conducted and evaluated the study during a workshop with children aged 9-10 years. Finally we discuss the method and the results of this comparative, qualitative study.
Karoff, Helle and Johansen, Stine Liv (2009): Materiality, practice, body. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 238-241. Available online
In order to understand the interaction between human and technology, the triangulation between materiality, body and practice must be emphasized. By introducing play situations from a just finished empirical study in three bigger cities in Denmark, this paper will address the interplay from the human's point of view, as a body doing a certain practice, which is constantly produced by taking approaches which comes from phenomenology and practice theory. We introduce aspects of play understood as a dynamic between materiality, body and practice with the goal of inspiring not only for new design approaches, but also to use the concept of affordance in a broader sense. Also we want to think about testing as not being just about usability, but related to a broader cultural practice.
Silver, Jay (2009): Awakening to maker methodology: the metamorphosis of a curious caterpillar. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 242-245. Available online
For a couple of years, I have used what I now see to be the Maker Methodology to develop a project called "Drawdio." I first learned parts of the methodology from fellow academics who are practicing it at my lab as an un/partially/multi named part of Media Lab culture . I refined how I viewed the meaning of this way of conducting research further through my interactions with several pockets of the maker community. In this paper, I will try to make more concrete what and why Maker Methodology is. Ultimately, we'll need to make close case studies of other researchers who are already using this methodology, slowly refining the nuances. But first, I'll start with a narrative about how I came to know the Maker Methodology as a slice through one project.
Vaajakallio, Kirsikka, Lee, Jung-Joo and Mattelmäki, Tuuli (2009): "It has to be a group work!": co-design with children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 246-249. Available online
Design researchers are increasingly interested in techniques that support creative teams in various design processes. The methods developed for sharing knowledge and generating solutions are mostly focusing on adults. Creative collaboration with and among children have a specific set of challenges to be considered. In this paper, we describe two design experiments that were conducted with children aged 7 to 9, to explore the applications of co-design methods with children. In those experiments, we observed that children are capable of utilizing make tools but have challenges in group dynamics and reflecting everyday experiences into design ideas.
Soute, Iris, Kaptein, Maurits and Markopoulos, Panos (2009): Evaluating outdoor play for children: virtual vs. tangible game objects in pervasive games. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 250-253. Available online
In this paper we report a case study where two versions of the same outdoor pervasive game were compared: one featuring a virtual game object and the other with a tangible representation of it. Our aim was to explore the effect on social interaction and physical activity; two characteristics of Head-Up Games. Based on evaluation with 27 children we can conclude that both approaches support Head-Up Games well, and offer different design opportunities that should be explored further.
Verenikina, Irina and Herrington, Jan (2009): Computer game design and the imaginative play of young children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 254-257. Available online
This paper discusses preliminary findings of the study of computer game design in relation to current understanding of imaginative play and its developmental value for young children. The crucial role of children's play in their development is well documented. A number of criteria, which are essential in building a foundation for children's cognitive development in play, were identified based on a literature review of the theoretical and empirical studies of child's play. The identified criteria were utilized to observe two young children playing various types of computer games to explore the opportunities that the games provide for imaginative play in the early childhood years.
McKnight, Lorna and Read, Janet C. (2009): Designing the 'record' button: using children's understanding of icons to inform the design of a musical interface. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 258-261. Available online
While standard icons often exist for common tasks, it can be difficult to design meaningful icons for non-standard tasks. Following a desire to build a music application that does not rely on text-based instructions, this paper explores suitable iconic representations for a 'record music' function on a mobile device. A study was carried out with primary school children (aged 8-10) to explore their current understanding of icons and elicit their requirements. It was seen that they were familiar with common icons, but that audio recording remains a difficult concept to represent through icons alone.
Hourcade, Juan Pablo and Perry, Keith B. (2009): Exploring children's investigation of data outliers. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 262-265. Available online
In spite of the increasing amounts of digitized data that will be available to children when they grow up, little attention has been paid toward preparing them for the process of exploring data, researching related information, synthesizing findings, and presenting them to peers. In this paper we present our observations on activities conducted with 10-12 year old children that involved identifying outliers using an information visualization tool, researching the reasons behind the outlying data, and synthesizing and presenting results using a media authoring tool. Our observations suggest children in this age group can make use of information visualization tools designed for a general adult population, but that great difficulties remain in conducting online research, and in integrating data exploration, online research, and presentation of results.
Xu, Diana, Read, Janet C., Sim, Gavin and McManus, Barbara (2009): Experience it, draw it, rate it: capture children's experiences with their drawings. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 266-270. Available online
This paper investigates the use of drawings as a tool for the evaluation of children's interfaces. In the study, children's experiences on a variety of computer interfaces were captured in drawings. A group of four researchers participated in the coding of the drawings, before the results were aggregated and statistically analysed. The evaluation of the approach is positive: the chosen drawing method could be used easily and was effective in conveying the user experience from the drawings; a number of the drawings conveyed information pertaining to user experiences: fun (F), goal fit (GF) and tangible magic (TM); the method was found generally reliable at capturing all three elements and particularly reliable at capturing fun.
Duveskog, Marcus, Kemppainen, Kati, Bednarik, Roman and Sutinen, Erkki (2009): Designing a story-based platform for HIV and AIDS counseling with Tanzanian children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 27-35. Available online
Our research was conducted within a larger HIV and AIDS counseling project in the southern part of Tanzania. We spent six months creating a pilot version of an interactive digital platform that would allow learners to share their experiences with the disease. The platform, called Sura ya UKIMWI (The Face of AIDS), was designed by a team consisting of secondary school children, university counseling students, HIV counseling experts and experts in ICT. We took the case study approach and report on observations and experiences with the participatory design (PD) process and its outcomes, in this specific context. The results of the project indicate that the technology created under the PD paradigm helps students to easily compose their own stories thereby supporting their understanding and reflection on how these stories relate to their own life experiences. Interacting with the stories was entertaining to the students and they could identify the lessons to be learned. The approach can be an alternative to past attempts that mostly imported technology for HIV and AIDS education. Our experience can be used as a guide in establishing similar digital projects in other parts of the HIV and AIDS affected world.
Ardito, Carmelo, Costabile, Maria Francesca and Lanzilotti, Rosa (2009): Enhancing user experience while gaming in archaeological parks with cellular phones. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 270-271. Available online
Traditional visits to archaeological parks, which are usually organized by schools, tend to generate little interest in young students, especially when they are faced with the ruins of ancient settlements whose current appearance no longer reflects their initial purpose. We have designed Explore!, an m-learning system which allows students to visit the park while playing a game. By exploiting the imaging and multimedia capabilities of the latest generation cell phone, the game improves young visitors' experience. In particular, contextual sounds have been integrated to recreate the historical atmosphere: users can hear sounds generated by ancient people engaged in their daily activities. The slim architecture of the system absolves the archaeological park from any need to invest in hardware infrastructure. An Authoring Tool can be used by history experts to implement in Explore! games to be played in different parks. In this demo paper we briefly present the game and the main components of Explore!: 1) the Game Application running on cellular phones, to be used during the game, 2) the Master Application running on a notebook, used by the game master (i.e. a teacher) to perform a reflection phase, which follows the game and 3) the Authoring Tool to modify/create new games.
In Game As Life -- Life As Game (GALLAG), ubiquitous computing and personally-tailored game scenarios integrate activities across the virtual and physical domains to further extend emerging avant-garde "real-life games" that are coordinated by digital means to blur digital-physical-social barriers. Influences and activities in GALLAG game scenarios affect real life and vice versa. To realize this, we are using several methods of experience and behavioral assessment, as well as environmental, contextual and physiological sensors, in conjunction with participatory design approaches that include end-user-programming. This agenda empowers users to create their own synergies between their on-line activities to help them achieve their personal realworld aspirations. Ultimately GALLAG is leading to "Life Long Games" that provide persistent, supportive, and actualizing experiences.
Cheok, Adrian David, Fernando, Owen Noel Newton and Fernando, Charith Lasantha (2009): Petimo: safe social networking robot for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 274-275. Available online
As social networking widely spreads among the community, especially among the younger generation, the negative influence created on children has become a serious social concern. "Petimo" is an interactive robotic toy designed to protect children from potential risks in social networks and the virtual world and it helps them to make a safely connected social networking environment. It adds a new physical dimension to social computing through enabling a second authentication mode, providing extra safety in making friends by physically touching each others robot. Petimo can be connected to any social network and it provides safety and security for children. As a proof of concept, we have developed a 3D virtual world, "Petimo-World" which demonstrates all of the realizable basic features with traditional online social networks. Petimo-World stands out from all other virtual worlds with its interesting and sophisticated interactions such as the visualization of a friends' relationships through spatial distribution in the 3D space to clearly understand the closeness of the friendship, personalized avatars and sending of special gifts/emoticons.
Hall, Lynne, Jones, Susan, Paiva, Ana and Aylett, Ruth (2009): FearNot!: providing children with strategies to cope with bullying. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 276-277. Available online
This paper presents FearNot!, an innovative anti-bullying intervention for 8-12 year old children, illustrating the potential of Virtual Learning Environments in providing supportive secure experiential learning for challenging social situations. The innovative technological approach taken to FearNot! is briefly described, along with an overview of the evaluation approach used to assess FearNot! with over 800 children in the UK and Germany. The demo of FearNot! provides participants with the opportunity to experience leading edge technology adopted for a classroom intervention.
Joyner, David, Wu, Chih-Sung (Andy), Wu, Chih-Sung (Andy), Do, Ellen Yi-Luen and Do, Ellen Yi-Luen (2009): Tangible optical chess: a laser strategy game on an interactive tabletop. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 278-279. Available online
This paper presents Tangible Tracking Table, an interactive tabletop display, and Optical Chess, a strategy game. We discuss the design and implementation of both systems and report our evaluation game play sessions with young adults, with a special focus on how the Tangible Tracking Table enhances interaction over a point-and-click interface.
Lahey, Byron, Freed, Natalie, Lu, Patrick, Jensen, Camilla Nørgaard, Muldner, Kasia and Burleson, Winslow (2009): Human-robot interactions to promote play and learning. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 280-281. Available online
Research shows that children construct much of their knowledge through active manipulation of the environment, which allows them to connect abstract concepts to observable outcomes. Despite these findings, although the integration of novel pedagogical technologies into classroom settings has begun, the technologies predominantly have focused on instruction in virtual contexts. To date, however, little is known about novel technologies that step outside of the virtual realm into the physical classroom, thereby leveraging findings on embodied mathematical cognition to influence educational practices. As a first step in filling this gap, we present the Active Learning Environment with Robotics Tangibles (ALERT) framework. Our system relies on human-robot interaction and tangible instruction to motivate and trigger learning in students through a variety of activities that integrate play and instruction in mixed reality environments. Here we describe some of the activities supported by ALERT, and discuss plans for evaluating the pedagogical utility of the system.
We present a mobile game to play a museum treasure hunt, addressed to students that are about 11-14. They have to search for the "materializations" of the solutions to a sequence of riddles, and to photograph them by personal camera phones. The letters of a secret word are orderly provided on right answers, spurring the interest for the exhibition through the cellular phone. The novelty is the use of QR-Codes, a kind of 2D codes, to identify the correct answers and to enjoy some other services. A preliminary field test in the Norsk Telemuseum gave very good results.
Rosenbaum, Eric (2009): Jots: reflective learning in scratch. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 284-285. Available online
This paper presents early work on the "Jots" system, integrated with the Scratch programming environment, which aims to help learners reflect on their learning processes. The design of the software tool and associated pedagogical strategies is presented in the context of a map of reference frames, which are levels of analysis that learners move between as they reflect. The design of a study to evaluate and further develop the system is described.
Hansen, Anne-Marie Skriver, Overholt, Dan, Burleson, Winslow, Jensen, Camilla Nørgaard, Lahey, Byron and Muldner, Kasia (2009): Pendaphonics: an engaging tangible pendulum-based sonic interaction experience. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 286-288. Available online
Pendaphonics is a tangible physical-digital-sonic environment and interactive system that motivates children and adults to be physically active and explorative. The development of this system presents a strategy for the design and evaluation of a low-cost, flexible, large scale tangible system that is engaging for children and adults alike. Pendaphonics has been installed in a public new media arts space, where over 200 people have interacted with it. Here, we describe Pendaphonics tangible interaction scenarios, including the broad potential of this system as a compositional and choreographic tool, an educational exhibit, and as an interface that facilitates playful interaction, exploration, discovery and creativity.
Smith, Andrew Cyrus (2009): Simple tangible language elements for young children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 288-289. Available online
We propose simple tangible language elements for very young children to use when constructing programmes. The equivalent Turtle Talk instructions are given for comparison. Two examples of the tangible language code are shown to illustrate alternative methods of solving a given challenge.
Teh, James Keng Soon, Cheok, Adrian David, Choi, Yongsoon, Fernando, Charith Lasantha, Peiris, Roshan Lalintha and Fernando, Owen Noel Newton (2009): Huggy pajama: a parent and child hugging communication system. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 290-291. Available online
Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a novel hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hugging device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of the range of human force produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pressure actuation to reproduce hug.
Wistort, Ryan and Breazeal, Cynthia (2009): TOFU: a socially expressive robot character for child interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 292-293. Available online
The TOFU project introduces a robotic platform for enabling new opportunities in robot based learning with emphasis on storytelling and artistic expression. This project introduces a socially expressive robot character designed to mimic the expressive abilities of animated characters. This demonstration proposal describes the expressive abilities and operator interface to the TOFU project. In this demonstration session, participants will have the opportunity to physically interact with the TOFU project and puppeteer the behavior of the robotic character through a simple joystick interface.
Ackermann, Edith, Decortis, Francoise, Hourcade, Juan Pablo and Schelhowe, Heidi (2009): Cultural coding and de-coding as ways of participation: digital media for marginalized young people. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 294-297. Available online
Like literacy itself, access to digital media both reflects and shapes the ways people play and learn, and more generally, how individuals and groups perceive themselves, relate to others, treat things, and occupy space. We see both opportunities and risks in today's infatuation for all things digital. As organizers of the IDC 2009 workshop on "Digital Technologies and Marginalized Youth: Reducing the Gap", our focus is on the empowerment and integration of marginalized youth. We look at how marginalized youth adopt digital media and what's in it for them. We summarize all the accepted position papers in an attempt to draw lessons useful to researchers, educators, and practitioners. To conclude, we draw from Paulo Freire's "pedagogy of the oppressed" as a useful framework to rethink some of the prerequisites that may help marginalized youth to find their voices while, at the same time, speaking the tongue of others (in particular those in power). Getting "lost in translations" is what paves the ways to many youngsters social exclusion.
Silva, Maria Joao, Ferreira, Eduarda and Gomes, Cristina Azevedo (2009): Fostering inclusion in Portuguese schools: key lessons from ICT projects. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 298-301. Available online
This paper reports on different projects aimed at fostering inclusion in Portuguese elementary and high schools at national, regional and local level through ICT projects. Based on our participation in these projects, we describe the key lessons learned as regards using mobile technology, georeferenced information as well as children's and youngsters' interest and expertise in curricular activities. We argue that mobile technologies together with the creation and the publishing of multisensory georeferenced information can support educational engagement and inclusive participation in Portuguese school communities.
Sawhney, Nitin (2009): Voices beyond walls: the role of digital storytelling for empowering marginalized youth in refugee camps. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 302-305. Available online
In this paper we consider the role of digital storytelling for creative empowerment of marginalized youth, through a three-year program of workshops conducted in the context of Palestinian refugee camps in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. We highlight the current situation regarding arts education and cultural production, and the challenging environment experienced by the youth there. We then describe the Voices Beyond Walls program and key lessons learned to suggest novel tools and practices that may support broader adoption of digital storytelling programs for marginalized youth in diverse global settings.
Antle, Alissa N., Fernaeus, Ylva and Marshall, Paul (2009): Children and embodied interaction: seeking common ground. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 306-308. Available online
As computation plays an ever larger role as an embedded part of the environment, research that seeks to understand the embodied nature of children's interactions with computation becomes increasingly important. Embodied interaction is an approach to understanding human-computer interaction that seeks to investigate and support the complex interplay of mind, body and environment in interaction. Recently, such a perspective has been used to discuss human actions and interactions with a range of computational applications including tangibles, mobiles, robotics and gesture-based interfaces. Physically-based forms of child computer interaction including body movements, the ability to touch, feel, manipulate and build sensory awareness of the relationships in the world are crucial to children's cognitive and social development. This workshop aims to critically explore the different approaches to incorporating an embodied perspective in children's interaction design and HCI research, and to develop a shared set of understandings and identification of differences, similarities and synergies between our research approaches.
Bekker, Tilde and Sturm, Janienke (2009): Stimulating physical and social activity through open-ended play. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 309-312. Available online
In this paper, we describe our design research on tangible play objects that stimulate social and physical play. We illustrate our work by describing a design case about an open-ended play object for children called the ColorFlare. The ColorFlare is an object that detects the player's movements and provides light feedback and that can communicate with other ColorFlares. A user test is described that examined how children use the ColorFlare to collaboratively create various (physical) games. We relate our research to definitions of embodied interaction, for example by describing how children allocate meaning to the interaction behavior of the play objects and jointly create diverse games during the play sessions.
Marti, Patrizia, Pollini, Alessandro, Rullo, Alessia, Giusti, Leonardo and Gronvall, Erik (2009): Creative interactive play for disabled children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 313-316. Available online
The workshop addresses the emerging field of research on robotics, assistive technologies and interaction design promoting play for physically, visually, and hearing impaired children and for emotionally and mentally handicapped children. Interactive devices including toys, pets and educational tools as well as interactive collaborative environments may represent a unique opportunity for disable children to full engage in play and have fun. The Creative Interactive Play workshop presents a collection of innovative interactive technologies and case studies for inclusive play and discusses the challenges and opportunities they can bid to disabled children.
Stiehl, Walter Dan, Lee, Jun Ki, Breazeal, Cynthia, Nalin, Marco, Morandi, Angelica and Sanna, Alberto (2009): The huggable: a platform for research in robotic companions for pediatric care. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 317-320. Available online
Robotic companions offer a unique combination of embodiment and computation which open many new interesting opportunities in the field of pediatric care. As these new technologies are developed, we must consider the central research questions of how such systems should be designed and what the appropriate applications for such systems are. In this paper we present the Huggable, a robotic companion in the form factor of a teddy bear and outline a series of studies we are planning to run using the Huggable in a pediatric care unit.
Ballagas, Rafael, Kaye, Joseph Jofish, Ames, Morgan, Go, Janet and Raffle, Hayes (2009): Family communication: phone conversations with children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 321-324. Available online
We interviewed and observed families in their homes to understand how they communicate across generations and across distances. The phone is still the most common way for keeping children in touch with distant relatives. However, many children can't talk on the phone by themselves until 7 or 8 years old. This paper examines the challenges children have with phone conversations, and looks at how families are currently working around these issues. These findings can help inform the design of future family communications technologies.
Druin, Allison, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Quinn, Alex (2009): Designing intergenerational mobile storytelling. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 325-328. Available online
Informal educational experiences with grandparents and other older adults can be an important component of children's education, especially in circumstances where high quality educational services and facilities are not readily available. Mobile devices offer unique capabilities to support such interactions. We report on an ongoing participatory design project with an intergenerational design group to create mobile applications for reading and editing books, or even creating all new stories on an Apple iPhone.
Revelle, Glenda and Reardon, Emily (2009): Designing and testing mobile interfaces for children. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 329-332. Available online
There is a growing body of research on usability and interaction design with and for children using computers [1, 2, 3]. Less is known about interaction design and usability as applied to children's use of mobile devices. Sesame Workshop has redesigned a web-based literacy intervention for young readers to run on the Apple iPod Touch. We report on design challenges in moving from large screens and mouse-based interactions to small screens and touch-based interactions, and make interface and interaction design recommendations based on the results of our prototyping and research with children.
Cramer, Meg, Beauregard, Russell and Sharma, Mayank (2009): An investigation of purpose built netbooks for primary school education. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 36-43. Available online
This paper is a qualitative evaluation of student netbooks used in a classroom setting. Netbooks are thought to be one promising development in the next generation of learning devices, pairing everyday PC capabilities with a purposeful design built for students and schools. The findings suggest that the design is appropriate and engaging for the unique needs of individual primary school students. Nevertheless, the design and specifications of the netbooks do not yet address some classroom-level practices that are crucial to the success of the technology in classrooms. This paper describes some of the key findings of this evaluation, as well as a summary of design considerations for the future design of mobile PCs for education.
Blas, Nicoletta di and Boretti, Bianca (2009): Interactive storytelling in pre-school: a case-study. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 44-51. Available online
This paper presents a successful case-study of introduction of an authoring tool for multimedia storytelling in a class of 27 preschool children. Unlike more sophisticated and demanding approaches, the tool requires basic technology and is very easy to use: in spite of this simplicity, the results are highly rewarding in terms of creativity, media literacy and "traditional" educational benefits (above all the ability to narrate). We deem this extreme simplicity a pre-requisite for large-scale deployment of computational systems for kids in standard, low-tech environments.
Gelderblom, Helene and Kotze, Paula (2009): Ten design lessons from the literature on child development and children's use of technology. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 52-60. Available online
The existing knowledge base on child development offers a wealth of information that can be useful for the design of children's technology. Furthermore, academic journals and conference proceedings provide us with a constant stream of new research papers on child-computer interaction and interaction design for children. It will require some effort from designers to gather and digest the scattered research results and theoretical knowledge applicable to their products. We conducted an extended research project whereby the existing knowledge relating to the design of technology for children aged five to eight have been gathered and presented in a way that makes it accessible and useful to designers in practice. This paper provides and extract from that research, focusing on ten useful lessons learnt from existing literature.
Nielsen, Rune, Fritsch, Jonas, Halskov, Kim and Brynskov, Martin (2009): Out of the box: exploring the richness of children's use of an interactive table. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 61-69. Available online
In this article we explore how to enrich the experience of toys that usually spend a boring time in their boxes in the toy store by digitally bringing them out of the box. For this purpose we have developed an interactive table based on the 3D game engine Virtools, together with the reacTIVision software and have studied and evaluated the use of the table in a full-scale, realworld situation in the toy department of a major Danish retailer. Our detailed analysis highlights the wide range of interaction forms and interaction modes facilitated by the table, moving from initial exploration to playful and engaging experiences, both on individual and social levels. We sum up our findings and their relevance for future design and show how the interplay of physical design, interaction, and content has been instrumental in giving children and adults a richer and extended experience of the toy -- even though it remains in the box.
Mansor, Evi Indriasari, Angeli, Antonella De and Bruijn, Oscar de (2009): The fantasy table. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 70-79. Available online
We explore the possibility of creating an interactive system which can foster fantasy play in preschool children in a tabletop environment. This paper reports our experiences designing and testing two prototypes with young children aged 3-4 years old. In the first study, we focused on understanding the similarities and differences between the type of play afforded by real objects and virtual objects. In the second study, we focused on testing solutions for the interaction difficulties evinced in the first study to see how to provide an engaging experience for children. Data were collected by observing children while they played with the study materials. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis.
Antle, Alissa N., Droumeva, Milena and Ha, Daniel (2009): Hands on what?: comparing children's mouse-based and tangible-based interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 80-88. Available online
We investigate the similarities and differences -- in terms of quantitative performance and qualitative behaviors -- between how children solve an object manipulation task using mouse-based input versus tangible-based input. This work examines the assumption common in tangible computing that direct physical manipulation is beneficial for certain spatial tasks. We describe an ecologically valid comparison of mouse-based versus tangible-based input for a jigsaw puzzle task in order to better understand the tradeoffs in choosing input and interaction styles. We include a traditional cardboard puzzle for comparative purposes. The results of an experiment with 132 children indicate children are more successful and faster at solving puzzles using a tangible-based approach. Detailed temporal analysis indicates that pairs in the tangible group spend most of their time using a combination of epistemic and pragmatic actions which support mental problem solving. Conversely, pairs in the mouse group use an ineffective trial and error strategy.
Druin, Allison, Foss, Elizabeth, Hatley, Leshell, Golub, Evan, Guha, Mona Leigh, Fails, Jerry and Hutchinson, Hilary (2009): How children search the internet with keyword interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 89-96. Available online
Children are among the most frequent users of the Internet, yet searching and browsing the web can present many challenges. Studies over the past two decades on how children search were conducted with finite and pre-determined content found in CD-ROM applications, online digital libraries, and web directories. However, with the current popularity of the open Internet and keyword-based interfaces for searching it, more critical analysis of the challenges children face today is needed. This paper presents the findings of our initial study to understand how children ages 7, 9, and 11 search the Internet using keyword interfaces in the home. Our research has revealed that although today's children have been exposed to computers for most of their lives, spelling, typing, query formulation, and deciphering results are all still potential barriers to finding the information they need.
Katterfeldt, Eva-Sophie, Dittert, Nadine and Schelhowe, Heidi (2009): EduWear: smart textiles as ways of relating computing technology to everyday life. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 9-17. Available online
In this paper, we report on the outcomes of the European project EduWear. The aim of the project was to develop a construction kit with smart textiles and to examine its impact on young people. The construction kit, including a suitable programming environment and a workshop concept, was adopted by children in a number of workshops. The evaluation of the workshops showed that designing, creating, and programming wearables with a smart textile construction kit allows for creating personal meaningful projects which relate strongly to aspects of young people's life worlds. Through their construction activities, participants became more self-confident in dealing with technology and were able to draw relations between their own creations and technologies present in their environment. We argue that incorporating such constructionist processes into an appropriate workshop concept is essential for triggering thought processes about the character of digital media beyond the construction process itself.
Yarosh, Svetlana, Cuzzort, Stephen, Müller, Hendrik and Abowd, Gregory D. (2009): Developing a media space for remote synchronous parent-child interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 97-105. Available online
While supporting family communication has traditionally been a domain of interest for interaction designers, few research initiatives have explicitly investigated remote synchronous communication between children and parents. We discuss the design of the ShareTable, a media space that supports synchronous interaction with children by augmenting videoconferencing with a camera-projector system to allow for shared viewing of physical artifacts. We present an exploratory evaluation of this system, highlighting how such a media space may be used by families for learning and play activities. The ShareTable was positively received by our participants and preferred over standard videoconferencing. Informed by the results of our exploratory evaluation, we discuss the next design iteration of the ShareTable and directions for future investigations in this area.
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
What is this field of Human-Computer Interaction? People are quite different from computers. This is hardly a novel observation, but whenever people use computers, there is necessarily a zone of mutual accommodation and this defines our area of interest. People are so adaptable that they are capable of shouldering the entire burden of accommodation to an artifact, but skillful designers make large parts of this burden vanish by adapting the artifact to its users. To understand successful design requires an understanding of the technology, the person, and their mutual interaction [...]
-- Stephen Draper and Donald Norman. In "User Centered System Design" (1986) p. 1