The Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia brings together scholars, researchers, and practitioners from diverse disciplines to consider the form, role and impact of hypertext and hypermedia in a forum of discussion of ideas, design and use of hypertext and hypermedia in a variety of domains. The conference also considers the transformative power of hypermedia and its ability to alter the way we read, write, argue, work, exchange information and entertain ourselves.
The following articles are from "Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext":
Whitehead, E. James (1997): An Architectural Model for Application Integration in Open Hypermedia Environments. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 1-12. Available online
This paper provides an architectural framework for modeling third-party application integrations with open hypermedia systems, which collects and extends the integration experience of the open hypermedia community. The framework is used to characterize applications prior to integration, and describe the qualities of a complete integration. Elements of the architectural model are artists, which are used to manipulate anchors, links, and native application objects; communicators, which manage information flow to and from the open hypermedia system; and containers which group the other elements. Prior integration experience is collected in a standard way using the model. Guidance in selecting the final integration architecture is provided by this prior integration experience, in conjunction with the degree of difficulty of an integration, which is related to the integration architecture.
Turine, Marcelo Augusto S., Oliveira, Maria Cristina F. de and Masiero, Paulo C. (1997): A Navigation-Oriented Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 102-111. Available online
In this paper we present a navigation-oriented model for hyperdocument specification based on statecharts. The HMBS (Hypertext Model Based on Statecharts) model uses the structure and execution semantics of statecharts to specify both the structural organization and the browsing semantics of a hyperdocument. The formal definition of the model is presented, as well as its associated browsing semantics. A short discussion on the model's capabilities is also provided. A prototype hypertext system which implements HMBS as its underlying model for hyperdocument authoring and browsing is introduced, and some examples are presented that illustrate the application of the model.
Wang, Weigang and Haake, Jorg M. (1997): Supporting User-Defined Activity Spaces. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 112-123. Available online
Activity spaces are usually task-specific and only common to a group of people who work together in a certain application domain. It is desirable to enable users to define and modify activity spaces according to their needs. However, many users are unable to use a pre-defined activity space correctly or incapable of formally defining an activity space. This work tries to solve these problems 1) by developing a flexible hypertext meta-model which can represent activity space semantics, 2) developing an example-based definition tool for users to create task-specific activity spaces, 3) providing intelligent aid in using these activity spaces, and 4) providing a flexible space for adopting existing and emergent patterns. A system (COWFISH) with the above components has been implemented and tested at GMD-IPSI. Examples and initial applications have shown that using the system users can easily define the schemata of many activity spaces and hyper-documents. They can also create new activity spaces with stepwise structure transformation and through reusing existing activity spaces. The system then uses the schema knowledge to maintain the semantic consistency of the activity space instances and to provide users with context-sensitive examples, choices, and explanations.
Marshall, Catherine C. and Shipman III, Frank M. (1997): Spatial Hypertext and the Practice of Information Triage. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 124-133. Available online
Information triage is the process of sorting through relevant materials, and organizing them to meet the needs of the task at hand. It is a practice that has become increasingly common with the advent of "at your fingertips" information resources. To explore the characteristics of information triage and its interaction with spatial hypertext, a medium we claim supports the process, we have studied subjects engaged in a time-constrained decision-making task using a large set of relevant documents. We use the study task to investigate information triage under three different conditions: one in which the participants used paper documents, and two others in which the participants used variants of VIKI, a spatial hypertext system. Our findings suggest that during information triage attentional resources are devoted to evaluating materials and organizing them, so they can be read and reread as they return to mind. Accordingly, hypertext tools to support the practice should facilitate the rapid assimilation and assessment of new material, aid in the creation and management of a fluid category structure, allow readers to track their own progress through the information, and use minimum-effort methods to promote the intelligibility of results.
Wiil, Uffe Kock and Leggett, John (1997): Workspaces: The HyperDisco Approach to Internet Distribution. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 13-23. Available online
Hypermedia concepts are currently being deployed in a variety of information systems such as the World Wide Web, software development environments, large engineering enterprises, collaborative authoring systems, and digital library systems. The complex requirements of these application areas have resulted in extensive research into hypermedia infrastructures. The HyperDisco project is about design, development, deployment and assessment of hypermedia infrastructures. Previous HyperDisco experiments have dealt with integration of a small set of tools supporting authoring and extension of the integrated tools to support multiple collaborating users and multiple versions of shared files. These experiments were conducted on a local area network using a single centralized workspace. The latest version of HyperDisco supports collaboration and versioning over multiple workspaces distributed across the Internet. This paper gives a brief overview of HyperDisco, describes the workspace concept and reports on the latest experiments: (1) an experiment that allows the use of multiple workspaces on a local area network, (2) an experiment that allows workspaces to be distributed across the Internet, and (3) an experiment focusing on hypermedia modeling and presentation issues of distributed workspaces.
Balasubramanian, V., Bashian, Alf and Porcher, Daniel (1997): A Large-Scale Hypermedia Application using Document Management and Web Technologies. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 134-145. Available online
Merrill Lynch has initiated a major effort called the Trusted Global Advisor to provide instantaneous access to current financial information to about 20,000 financial consultants and other professionals across the corporation. As part of this effort, marketing information about products and services will be delivered to financial consultants, clients, and the general public through an intranet and the Internet. A number of researchers have reported on the requirements for industrial strength hypermedia. In this paper, we present a case study on how we have designed a large-scale hypermedia authoring and publishing system using document management and Web technologies to satisfy our authoring, management, and delivery needs. We describe our systematic design and implementation approach to satisfy requirements such as a distributed authoring environment for non-technical authors, templates, consistent user interface, reduced maintenance, access control, version control, concurrency control, document management, link management, workflow, editorial and legal reviews, assembly of different views for different target audiences, and full-text and attribute-based information retrieval. We also report on design tradeoffs due to limitations with current technologies. It is our conclusion that large scale Web development should be carried out only through careful planning and a systematic design methodology.
Grønbæk, Kaj, Bouvin, Niels Olof and Sloth, L. (1997): Designing Dexter-Based Hypermedia Services for the World Wide Web. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 146-156. Available online
Anderson, Kenneth M. (1997): Integrating Open Hypermedia Systems with the World Wide. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 157-166. Available online
Research on open hypermedia systems (OHSs) has been conducted since the late Eighties . These systems employ a variety of techniques to provide hypermedia services to a diverse range of applications. The World Wide Web is the largest distributed hypermedia system in use and was developed largely independent of the research in OHSs. The popularity of the Web along with problems inherent in its design has motivated OHS researchers to integrate their systems with it. This research has primarily focused on enhancing the functionality of the Web via the services of an OHS. This paper presents three experiments exploring the integration of the Chimera OHS with the Web. While one of the experiments indeed describes work which enhances the Web, the other two investigate ways in which the Web can beneficially enhance an OHS. The paper concludes with a call for both communities to continue research which focuses on integration.
Furuta, Richard, Shipman III, Frank M., Marshall, Catherine C., Brenner, Donald and Hsieh, Hao-wei (1997): Hypertext Paths and the World-Wide Web: Experiences with Walden's Paths. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 167-176. Available online
Walden's Paths applies the concept of hypertextual paths to the World-Wide Web. Walden's Paths is being developed for use in the K-12 school environment. The heterogeneity of the Web coupled with the desirability of supporting the teacher-student relationship make this an interesting and challenging project. We describe the Walden's Paths implementation, discuss the elements that affected its design and architecture, and report on our experiences with the system in use.
Chen, Chaomei (1997): Structuring and Visualising the WWW by Generalised Similarity Analysis. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 177-186. Available online
This paper describes a generic approach to structuring and visualising a hypertext-based information space on the WWW. This approach, called Generalised Similarity Analysis (GSA), provides a unifying framework for extracting structural patterns from a range of proximity data concerning three fundamental relationships in hypertext, namely, hypertext linkage, content similarity and browsing patterns. GSA emphasizes the integral role of users' interests in dynamically structuring the underlying information space. Pathfinder networks are used as a natural vehicle for structuring and visualising the rich structure of an information space by highlighting salient relationships in proximity data. In this paper, we use the GSA framework in the study of hypertext documents automatically retrieved over the Internet, including a number of departmental WWW sites and conference proceedings on the WWW. We show that GSA has several distinct features for structuring and visualising hypertext information spaces. GSA provides some generic tools for developing adaptive user interfaces to hypertext systems. Link structures derived by GSA can be used together with dynamic linking mechanisms to produce a number of hypertext versions of a common information space.
Mukherjea, Sougata and Hara, Yoshinori (1997): Focus+Context Views of World-Wide Web Nodes. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 187-196. Available online
With the explosive growth of information that is available on the World-Wide Web, it is very easy for the user to get lost in hyperspace. When the user feels lost, some idea of the position of the current node in the overall information space will help to orient the user. Therefore we have developed a technique to form focus+context views of World-Wide Web nodes. The view shows the immediate neighborhood of the current node and its position with respect to the important (landmark) nodes in the information space. The views have been used to enhance a Web search engine. We have also used the landmark nodes and the focus+context views in forming overview diagrams of Web sites.
Neves, Fernando Das (1997): The Aleph: A Tool to Spatially Represent User Knowledge about the WWW Docuverse. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 197-207. Available online
One of the most elusive targets in hypermedia research has been to provide effective support for user navigation . The popularity of the World Wide Web and its inherent vastness has only made things worse: many of the tools that were proposed to alleviate this problem in closed systems do not scale well when applied to WWW. We designed a tool, that we call The Aleph, that addresses the support of user navigation with two views, known as the Travel Map and the Content View. The Travel Map assists the user at the stage of travelling through the docuverse, and the Content View helps him at the moment of recalling and organizing the known space. We developed a novel approach based on document collections, that takes advantage of 3D space, to give much more information than is usually available in 2D representations, and to simplify the map layouts. The maps provide a framework that relates document and terms with specific positions in space. The structure of the paper is as follows: Section 1 positions The Aleph in the context of a large-scale hypertext system as WWW. Section 2 shows the structure of The Aleph, the two views it provides, explains why to use different views, how they are related, and how they work. Finally Section 3 relates The Aleph to other tools that address similar user needs and design objectives.
Rizk, Antoine and Sutcliffe, Dale (1997): Distributed Link Service in the Aquarelle Project. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 208-209. Available online
The aim of this paper is to describe briefly the Aquarelle project and the type of distributed link service we are implementing to meet its requirements.
Ladd, Brian C., Capps, Michael V. and Stotts, P. David (1997): The World Wide Web: What Cost Simplicity. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 210-211. Available online
The ubiquity of the World Wide Web owes much to the simplicity of its graph model. Unfortunately that graph model omits powerful features found in traditional hypertext systems: concurrency and synchronization. These shortcomings are addressed in an extensible manner as part of the Multi-head, Multi-head, Multi-client Browsing Project; our research is focused on extending the Web through the use of the more powerful link semantics.
Hill, Gary, Hutchings, Gerard, James, Roger, Loades, Steve, Hale, Jacques and Hatzopulous, Mike (1997): Exploiting Serendipity Amongst Users to Provide Support for Hypertext Navigation. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 212-213. Available online
The aim of the MEMOIR Project is to demonstrate the applicability and integration of advanced, distributed multimedia information systems to support the management of, and access to, diverse sources of technical information in large R&D-based corporations. The key technologies within the system are an object-oriented database, hypermedia link services and autonomous software agents.
Husemann, Holger, Petersen, Jorg, Kanty, Christian, Kochs, Hans-Dieter and Hase, Peter (1997): An User Adaptive Navigation Metaphor to Connect and Rate the Coherence of Terms and Complex Objects. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 214-215. Available online
In many aspects research in the area of hypertext trends from static to dynamically created structures due to vast amounts of offered information. To dynamically generate relevant information nodes knowledge about an individual user and his actual task together with intelligent filtering methods can be used. Terms, organized in hierarchies, describe employees, groups of employees, machines, objects, products, processes and functions. Choosing terms specifying the actual task defines a special context which describes the relation and connection of units of information and therefore the user's individual view of the hypertext. Simultaneously it will be meaningful to look at similar contexts of other users or working groups to compare and possibly add further units of information into the user's private area. A system can be adaptive in the sense that units of information will be copied into a working group area if more than a certain percentage of its members will regard this information as important and vice versa. The described navigation metaphor was designed to enable the maintenance crew of a steel mill to access company-wide (hypermedia) information systems.
Hypermedia documents are most often created with a particular presentation environment in mind. This requires the authoring of one document per presentation platform. As pointed out in , much implementation effort can be avoided by specifying how the same underlying document can be presented in different environments. A style sheet defines a mapping from a source document to a presentation for it. We discuss the existing use of style sheets as applied to text and discuss their application to the case of hypermedia, and in particular how they need to be extended.
Chiu, Chao-Min and Bieber, Michael (1997): A Generic Dynamic-Mapping Wrapper for Open Hypertext System Support of Analytical Applications. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 218-219. Available online
Hypertext should augment everyday analytical applications with supplemental navigation, structuring and annotative features. Because analytical applications generate their screen contents in real time, hypertext constructs and navigation paths must be generated and mapped in real time. We are developing a hypertext engine that provides dynamic mapping automatically for any analytical application. We propose a standard, generic open hypertext system (OHS) wrapper for back-end or storage-level components that dynamically generate their contents (e.g., the analytical applications). The wrapper automatically maps hypertext constructs -- nodes, links and anchors -- to application contents. (The storage-level wrapper itself creates hypertext constructs instead of the users.) The hypertext engine delivers supplemental hypertext functionality based on these mappings. Furthermore, by providing a standard format and a set of guidelines, we are providing a standard protocol or systematic approach for exchanging information between an OHS and any analytical application. This adds to the work in the OHS community on developing a standard protocol for passing information among OHS and integrated applications.
Chelnokov, Valery M. and Zephyrova, Victoria L. (1997): Collective Phenomena in Hypertext Networks. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 220-221. Available online
A large hypertext net with node-to-node links can be interesting as a system of unities of meaning formed by node clusters, such that nodes in each of them are orderable into a coherent discourse. To access this collective behavior of nodes, a form of graph searching combined with some calculation of node positions is used.
Engebretsen, Martin (1997): Hyper-News: Revolution or Contradiction?. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 222-223. Available online
Journalism as a form of text and communication is confronted with great challenges when going online and meeting the technology of hypertext. Old ideals concerning objectivity and authenticity may experience a renewal when journalists start replacing the traditional news narrative with the distribution of various source material in the form of separate nodes. A practice such as this will, however, have serious consequences for the inner coherence of the elements of news, and new principles for evaluating journalistic products will have to be developed.
Calvi, Licia and Bra, Paul De (1997): Improving the Usability of Hypertext Courseware through Adaptive Linking. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 224-225. Available online
Hypertext is being used more and more for on-line course texts. But the navigational freedom offered by a rich link structure is a burden for students who need guidance throughout the learning process. This paper presents a framework for adaptive link structures. By enabling links when a student is ready to read the pages these links lead to, and by disabling links to pages that are no longer needed, the student can be assured that links always lead to interesting new information she is ready to read. This framework is illustrated by means of courseware for an on-line course on "Hypermedia structures and systems", developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology, and currently offered at six different universities in the Netherlands and Belgium.
Goose, Stuart, Dale, Jonathan, Hall, Wendy and Roure, David C. De (1997): Microcosm TNG: A Distributed Architecture to Support Reflexive Hypermedia Applications. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 226-227. Available online
Microcosm: The Next Generation (TNG) is an open, distributed hypermedia system with a design that represents a significant departure from the Microcosm architecture . This system embodies an alternative model to facilitate the dynamic construction of hierarchies of distributed hypermedia applications. This paper will present the "reflexive model" and provide an appreciation of the Microcosm TNG framework through which this model is realised.
Bullock, J. C. and Goble, Carole (1997): TourisT -- Conceptual Hypermedia Tourist Information. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 228-229. Available online
The TourisT project is developing a prototype conceptual hypermedia tourism information system, using GRAIL, a terminological logic devised at the University of Manchester , to maintain the conceptual model. A primary concern of the work is to develop a system which assists the tourist seeking information. The project has thus used the results of ethnographic studies, carried out in tourist information centres, to inform the structure and content of the conceptual model, and to determine what styles of interaction should be supported.
Chuat, Corinne (1997): Using Hypertext for Textual Genetics, or, What is Suitable in a Hypertext System for an Information Gardening Application. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 230-231. Available online
This paper describes how the methodology of genetic criticism can interact with spatial hypertexts and information gardening techniques in the construction of a genetic hypertext that fits the needs of textual geneticists as well as it opens an interesting application domain to hypertexts.
Ip, Horace Ho-Shing and Chan, Siu-Lok (1997): Hypertext-Assisted Video Indexing and Content-Based Retrieval. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 232-233. Available online
An effective approach has been designed for the construction of on-line educational video systems. We have made use of the assistance of HTML text for accurate video parsing and complete content extraction. A video system with segmentation/indexing module and browsing/query modules are implemented to demonstrate the idea.
Fraisse, Sylvain (1997): A Task Driven Design Method and its Associated Tool for Automatically Generating Hypertexts. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 234-235. Available online
Navigation and interaction are the essence of hypertext. Navigation is not simply travelling freely along a messy set of links nor querying a database using dialog boxes, and buttons. Unfortunately, navigating into the WWW often looks so. Navigating efficiently in an information space supposes that a previous authoring effort has prepared a hypertext structure especially designed to make the information access scheme fit with the cognitive constraints of the various contexts of the reading task. Thus the navigation model cannot be a simple isomorphic copy of the data model of the presented information! It relies on the one side on the data model and on the other side on the task model. Designing a hypertext leads to define a mapping between these two models. This position paper briefly describes the design method we have developed and an automatic generation tool that we have implemented in JAVA as part of a working environment based on this method. The tool allows to map a hypertext structure specified by the designer as a generation model onto a set of source information described as a SGML file. The result of generation is a set of abstract description of page class instances. Another simple tool turns these descriptions into WWW pages and stores them into a database. The reader of this paper is supposed to be aware of hypertext design methods such as HDM , OOHDM  or RMM .
Increasingly, organizations have to rely on a common knowledge base which embodies all the information that is relevant for operating an organization. Radical changes in the workplace and the rise of new organizational forms, together with the availability of powerful new infrastructural technology (e.g., Internet, Intranet) require a new approach to the design and use of information systems in organizations. What kind of hypertext/media technology available and necessary should support organizational memory systems? Panelists will examine the extent to which hypertext/media are appropriate for this task. Targets for organizational memories are, for example, strategic planning, project proposals and management, patents, product design cycle documentation, marketing strategies and in each case the underlying design decision rationales. Although large quantities of information exist in corporate databases, they are not readily accessible, not in an adequate format, often not up-to-date, not well organized for reuse, and not well integrated in the overall work process. This becomes even more of a problem when individuals and teams of an organization are distributed in different locations, work in different time zones, and are often (re)assigned to different tasks in new projects.
Hypertexts and customizable, interactive media are playing a growing role in our technical and literary culture. Through interactive stories, novels, and narratives, readers are taking control of stories, ranging from Web drama to their daily news media. Active characters and computational agents, too, participate in shaping these New Narratives. Do hypermedia still need human authors? Narrative is an essential -- and complex -- component of a wide variety of writing, ranging from storytelling and journalism to historical accounts, clinical case studies, and technical protocol specifications. Current research in automatic generation of narrative from abstract knowledge representations may lead to autonomously generated narratives for technical documentation as well as for art. Hypertext systems that write (and rewrite) themselves present many fascinating questions. What will be the human author's role? Is this change an enrichment or a degeneration of authorship? Will these techniques cause the emergence of new forms of art? Will they open new ways of reading?
From its beginnings as a poster presentation in the Hypertext '91 conference, the World Wide Web has grown into an independent research field which far outstrips the hypertext field in the production of research and software. Hypertext research cannot afford to ignore the Web, but it does not seem to play a large part in Web research. "Hypertext" is a key word in both of the important Web acronyms, HTTP and HTML, yet hypertext research seems to be only a minor part of the whole of Web research. To many people these days, hypertext and the Web are synonymous. Does this mean that the Web research community now represents hypertext research? Is this the end of hypertext research as we know it? On the other hand, the Web has created a much wider interest in hypertext. Is the Web our opportunity to test and sell hypertext ideas? Commercial enterprises invest money into Web research on a scale far outstripping their investments in general hypertext research. Can we make use of some of those resources by placing hypertext research firmly in a Web context? What hypertext research needs to be implemented in the Web? If we can identify what needs to be done, are we doing it? Conversely, what issues has the Web raised which hypertext researchers need to address more closely? We hope to come away from this panel discussion with a better understanding of the part we, as hypertext researchers, have to play in the future of the Web.
Glazier, Loss Pequeno (1997): 'Our Words Were the Form We Entered': A Model of World Wide Web Hypertext. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 24-28. Available online
Smith, John B. (1997): The King is Dead; Long Live the King. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. p. 240. Available online
This tenth anniversary of Hypertext conferences finds the field at an important crossroads. In this talk, I will look back briefly at the first Hypertext conference (Hypertext'87) and at the ten years of research and experience with the technology that have followed. However, most of the talk will be concerned with issues raised by the World Wide Web for this community. Many members view the Web as an intrusive, unwelcome guest who insists on making his or her point of view prevail. Ignoring the hard-won knowledge of this community, the WWW has simplified the data model, ignored problems of large-scale navigation, and declared that link integrity is irrelevant. Consequently, many wish that it would go away so that they could continue their studies along familiar paths. Since it hasn't, they have begun to adapt their work to it, but often grudgingly and with the least accommodation possible. I will suggest a different perspective. The WWW, along with Java and the Internet, are not just new elements in the computing infrastructure. They are the infrastructure. Most computing and communication activities in the future will take place in this context. If the Hypertext community wants to continue and to create value for its knowledge, it must embrace the WWW, not just tolerate it. What an exciting challenge! Consider how much richer and better the Web (or its successor) would be if it could incorporate features found in smaller, experimental system (such as integrated authorship, global write access, and reliable hyperlinks). But to do so at the scale implied by the Web will require substantial new work. The Hypertext community is uniquely positioned to contribute to that work, if it elects to move in that direction. To encourage this, I will outline some of the opportunities as well as challenges posed by the Web, and suggest several issues that might be included in a future research agenda for the Hypertext community.
Marshall, Catherine C. (1997): Looking Forward: Five Practices for Safer Hypertext. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. p. 241. Available online
The approach of the millennium has provoked countless visions -- both rosy and glum -- about what the digital future holds in store for us. Needless to say, it is difficult and dangerous to predict what the future holds for Hypertext although it is the province of the closing keynote to do so. Since driving is an activity that requires one to look into the future (if only the most immediate future), I will apply the 5 principles of the Smith System of Defensive Driving to our field to chart a provident course for practising "safer hypertext." These principles, coupled with observations of our emerging practices and our current wave of technologies (especially, and in particular, the Web), are surprisingly generative. 1. Aim high to steer accurately and anticipate problems. We are beginning to have some experience with navigation on a large scale. Will increasingly sophisticated search engines, filters, and agents obviate the need for links (especially hand-constructed links)? I will explore the growing tension between the order created by links and the order implicit in nodes. 2. Keep your eyes moving -- avoid a fixed stare and stay alert. Is reading changing? As a field, we have grown increasingly sophisticated in our methods for designing hypertexts for comprehension, for accessibility, for "ease-of-use". By focusing on tools and methods for designers, we tend to overlook readers and what they are up to these days. What might a next generation of tools look like, given a reader-centric view of hypertext? 3. Get the big picture -- don't allow your eyes to be drawn to one area. Is the node-link traversal-based model still working for us? What assumptions about space, time, and atomicity are buried within? I will visit some contrarian models of hypertext. 4. Leave yourself an 'out' -- practice the "what if" game. When we enter the world of hypertext, we seem content to leave the corporeal world behind. Yet there is still life outside (and beside) our glowing CRTs. How can we expand open hypertext to reach beyond the limits of the virtual world? 5. Make sure the other drivers see you; make eye contact. The four other Smith System principles don't completely acknowledge the social nature of the world. Rule 5 brings other drivers into the picture. By contrast, we have long recognised co-operation as an important force in hypertext. What shape is this co-operation actually taking, given the Web and other communications technologies?
Kolb, David (1997): Scholarly Hypertext: Self-Represented Complexity. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 29-37. Available online
Scholarly hypertexts involve argument and explicit self-questioning, and can be distinguished from both informational and literary hypertexts. After making these distinctions the essay presents general principles about attention, some suggestions for self-representational multi-level structures that would enhance scholarly inquiry, and a wish list of software capabilities to support such structures. The essay concludes with a discussion of possible conflicts between scholarly inquiry and hypertext.
Different users of a hypermedia application may require different combinations of modes, i.e., different ways of perceiving the content or different ways of interaction. Multimodality -- intended as the coexistence of multiple combinations of modes in the same application -- can improve application richness and can accommodate the needs of different categories of users. On the other hand, multimodality increases complexity and may affect usability, since a variety of different interaction styles may be disorienting for the users. Designing an effective multimode hypermedia is a difficult problem. This paper discusses this issue, presenting a taxonomy of different kinds of modes in hypermedia applications and introducing the concept of modal hypermedia interaction. Modal interaction means that the semantics of normal application commands are dependent not only on the application state, as usual, but also on mode setting. We introduce a formal model for modal hypermedia interaction that helps us to analyse more precisely design alternatives and their impact on usability. We illustrate our approach by examples from a museum hypermedia called "Polyptych" that we actually built.
Petrie, Helen, Morley, Sarah, McNally, Peter, O'Neill, Anne-Marie and Majoe, Dennis (1997): Initial Design and Evaluation of an Interface to Hypermedia Systems for Blind Users. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 48-56. Available online
Access to information in electronic forms is currently difficult for blind people, but electronic information, particularly hypermedia, provide great potential to overcome the difficulties that blind people have in accessing information. The E.U. funded ACCESS Project is developing tools to facilitate user interfaces which will be adaptable to the needs of different user groups. One demonstrator developed with these tools is a hypermedia system for blind students. This paper presents the initial designs for the hypermedia system which has a non-visual interface named DAHNI (Demonstrator of the ACCESS Hypermedia Non-visual Interface). DAHNI can be used with a variety of assistive input/output systems for blind users. Output from the system includes synthetic and digitised speech, non-speech sounds and refreshable Braille; input to the system can be via a small or large touchtablet, joystick, and/or conventional keyboard. This paper presents an evaluation of DAHNI by seven blind and partially sighted students. Plans for further development and evaluation of the system are also discussed.
Rossi, Gustavo, Schwabe, Daniel and Garrido, Alejandra (1997): Design Reuse in Hypermedia Applications Development. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 57-66. Available online
In this paper we discuss the use of design patterns for the process of building hypermedia applications. The idea of design patterns has been recently developed, and rapidly spread outside the object-oriented community to a general audience of software developers. By using patterns it is not only possible to document design experience with a very simple and comprehensible format, but also reuse the same experience several times for different applications. We argue that the hypermedia community will take a vital step towards better designs of hypermedia applications and systems by developing a pattern language for that domain.
Golovchinsky, Gene (1997): What the Query Told the Link: The Integration of Hypertext and Information Retrieval. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 67-74. Available online
Traditionally hypertexts have been limited in size by the manual effort required to create hypertext links. In addition, large hyper-linked collections may overwhelm users with the range of possible links from any node, only a fraction of which may be appropriate for a given user at any time. This work explores automatic methods of link construction based on feedback from users collected during browsing. A fulltext search engine mediates the linking process. Query terms that distinguish well among documents in the database become candidate anchors; links are mediated by passage-based relevance feedback queries. The newspaper metaphor is used to organize the retrieval results. VOIR, a software prototype that implements these algorithms has been used to browse a 74,500 node (250MB) database of newspaper articles. An experiment has been conducted to test the relative effectiveness of dynamic links and user-specified queries. Experimental results suggest that link-mediated queries are more effective than user-specified queries in retrieving relevant information. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible extensions to the linking algorithms.
Hirata, Kyoji, Mukherjea, Sougata, Okamura, Yusaku, Li, Wen-Syan and Hara, Yoshinori (1997): Object-Based Navigation: An Intuitive Navigation Style for Content-Oriented Integration Environment. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 75-86. Available online
In this paper, we present the idea of object-based navigation. Object-based navigation is a navigation style based upon the characteristics at the object level, that is contents of the objects and the relationship among the objects. With object-based navigation, users can specify a set of objects and their relationship. The system creates queries from the users' input and determines links dynamically based on matching between this query and indices. Various kinds of attributes including conceptual and media-based characteristics are integrated at the object level. We introduced this navigation style into the content-oriented integration environment to manage a large quantity of multimedia data. COIR (Content Oriented Information Retrieval tool), an object-based navigation tool for content-oriented integrated hypermedia systems is introduced. We show how this tool works in indexing and navigating multimedia data. Using COIR, we have developed the directory service systems for the World-Wide Web and have evaluated the navigational capability and extensibility of our tools. Multimedia search engines including COIR, extract the characteristics from multimedia data at any web site automatically. Extracted characteristics are connected with each other semi-automatically and utilized in the navigational stage. With this system, users can execute the navigation based on the relationship between objects as well as the contents of the objects. In this paper, we present how the COIR tool increases the navigational capabilities for hypermedia systems.
Cunliffe, Daniel, Taylor, Carl and Tudhope, Douglas (1997): Query-Based Navigation in Semantically Indexed Hypermedia. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 87-95. Available online
This paper discusses an approach to navigation based on queries made possible by a semantic hypermedia architecture. Navigation via query offers an augmented browsing capacity based on measures of semantic closeness between terms in an index space that models the classification of artefacts within a museum collection management system. The paper discusses some of the possibilities that automatic traversal of relationships in the index space holds for hybrid query/navigation tools, such as navigation via similarity and query generalisation. The example scenario suggests that, although these tools are implemented by complex queries, they fit into a browsing, rather than an analytical style of access. Such hybrid navigation tools are capable of overcoming some of the limitations of manual browsing and contributing to a smooth transition between browsing and query. A prototype implementation of the architecture is described, along with details of a social history application with three dimensions of classification schema in the index space. The paper discusses how queries can be used as the basis for navigation, and argues that this is integral to current efforts to integrate hypermedia and information retrieval.
The hypermedia field has long realized the need for first-class structural abstractions. However, we have failed to generalize the concept of ubiquitous structure management to problem domains other than navigation of information spaces. In this paper, we argue for the recognition of such a generalization, called structural computing, in which we assert the primacy of structure over data. We provide examples of four problem domains that are more naturally modeled with structure than data. We argue that support for structural computing must come in the form of new models, operating systems, and programming languages. We also assert that the experience gained by hypermedia researchers over the last decade may be naturally extended to form the basis of the new field of structural computing, and furthermore, the broadening of the applicability of our work is necessary for the continued vitality of our research community.